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October 1981 

yolS.no 10 
1195 



I 



I 



I 



the # 1 magazine of computer applications and software 

Pilot to Basic 
Translator 



What is Logo? 

Motivation in CAI 

The Puzzle of the 
Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge Collapse 

Reviews: 

■ MuMath 

■ Spelling Bee 

■ Sterling Swift 
Math Series 

■ Mentor 

• TRS-80 Micro 

Pilot 
' Apple, Tl, TRS-BO, 

Atari Games 

Scores of New 
Products from 
NCCandCES 



90£08 



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Friendly Computer 
Languages 





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MICROBUFFER WILL 

SPEED UP ANY PROGRAM 

THAT REQUIRES PRINTING. 



MICROBUFFER ALLOWS YOU 

TO PRINT AND PROCESS 

SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

Now you don't have to wait for 
the printer to finish before you 
can use your computer again. 

YOU CAN DUMP 

PRINTING DATA DIRECTLY 

TO MICROBUFFER. 

Unlike your printer, Microbuffer 
accepts data as fast as your 
computer can send it. So there's 
never a bottleneck. 

Microbuffer first stores the 
data in its own memory buffer 
and then takes control of your 
printer. This frees the computer 
for more productive functions. 

Additional output may be 
dumped to the buffer at any 
time and it will be printed in 
turn. 

THERE IS A MICROBUFFER 

FOR ANY PRINTER/COMPUTER 

COMBINATION. 

Microbuffers are available in 
Centronics-compatible parallel 
or RS-232C serial versions. 

FOR APPLE II COMPUTERS. 
Microbuffer II features on-board 



firmware for text formatting and 
advanced graphics dump 
routines. Both serial and parallel 
versions have very low power 
consumption. Special functions 
include Basic listing formatter, 
self-test, buffer zap, and 
transparent and maintain modes. 
The 16K model is priced at $259 
and the 32K, at $299. 

FOR EPSON PRINTERS. Microbuffer 
is $159 in either an 8K serial or a 
16K parallel version. The serial 
buffer supports both hardware 
handshaking and XON-XOFF/ 
ETC-ACK software handshaking 
at baud rates up to 19,200. Both 
Epson interfaces are compatible 
with all Epson commands 
including GRAFTRAX-80 and 
GRAFTRAX-80 + . 

ALL OTHER PRINTER/COMPUTER 
COMBINATIONS are served by the 
in-line, stand-alone Microbuffers. 
Both serial and parallel versions 
are expandable up to 256K. The 
serial stand-alone will support 
different input and output baud 
rates and handshake protocol. 
The 32K model starts at $299. 
64K for $349. 64K add-ons for up 
to a total of 256K are just $179. 
When you think of how much 
time Microbuffer will save, 
can you afford to not have one? 



SIMPLE TO INSTALL. 

Microbuffer II is slot-independent. 
It will fit directly inside the Apple 
II in any slot except zero. 

Microbuffer for your Epson 
mounts easily in the existing 
auxiliary slot directly inside the 
printer. 

The stand-alone Microbuffer is 
installed in-line between virtually 
any printer and computer. 

MICROBUFFER FROM 
PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS. 

Practical Peripherals is dedicated 
to establishing new industry 
standards for product performance. 
The un-retouched photo at left 
has been enlarged to demostrate 
Microbuffer's exact workmanship 
and precise attention to detail. 
Specifications demand that each 
board undergo 36 seperate tests 
and inspections before it can 
leave the factory. 

Ask your dealer for a demostra- 
tion of the most practical, most 
successful new product of the 
year — Microbuffer. 

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31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE. CA 91362 
(213) 991-8200 

CIRCLE 242 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




:iRCLE 120 ON RE AOER SERVICE CAfeD \ \ \ \ 

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Outside L/SA (except Camada) please aUi 

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& Call on write for our complete catali 

•^•Audiovisual licensed from Atari. 



me on disk versions. 



in this issue 

evaluations & profiles 

3 Elementary Mathematics Fox 

1 4 Factoring Whole Numbers Coan 

lO Quiz Time In The Classroom Fox 

Spelling Bee and Math Competency 

26 MuMath Shochat 

34 TRS-80 Micro Pilot Hardy & Etfner 

33 Mentor Glenn 

Apple CAI authoring system 

EC Friendly Computer Languages Muller 

A look at several versions of Logo and Pilot 

35 Tl Munch Man Cashman 

66 Apple Arcade Games Ahl 

39 Dungeons and Asteroids Small 

Warlocks Revenge and Kayos 

92 TRS-80 Games Linzmayeri McCracken 

articles 

•4 qq Puzzle of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge Zollman & Fuller 
^^ An innovative approach to teaching physics 

111 Logo Ideas Lawler 

"I -| 2 Wnat '* L °o°? Watt 

A teacher offers some answers 
1 34 The Ro,e of Motivation in CAI .... Swenson & Anderson 

1 40 How To So,ve " Pie,e 

Problem solving contest results 

1 55 The Surnmer Show Circuit Ahl 

** Report on NCC and CES 

1 86 The Hand,ca PP to McConnell 

A low cost Braille printer 

1 90 Who Really < nv « nt *d' the Video Game? Anderson 

A Creative Computing exclusive 

1 98 Add a J °y* tick to Your TRS-80 Stanis & Ahl 

202 Joytricks Anderson 

Controller modifications for Atari computers and VCS 

210 ln,roduc,ion to Da,a Structures Mitchell 

Searching techniques 

296 Tn « B| Whoops Payack 

October 1982° Creative Computing 



applications & software 

226 Pllot-to-Basic Translator Smith 

238 Demonstrating The Gas Laws Holko 

A chemistry experiment 

242 Anlmatn Wright & Oilman 

Drill and practice with the Atari 

250 Mor,oa ° e Amortization Green 

How much will it cost? 

252 DouD, ° Cross Johnston 

™**» A Basic double-crosstic 

260 Valley Bomber Basham 

Destroy the valley, but not the mountains 

departments 

3 Input/Output Readers 

1 7 Notices Fee 

1 32 Dateline: Tomorrow Ahl 

9fi2 Tne Other Side Kewney 

Notes from the UK 

2fi4 Tne Graph Paper Lubar 

C'*^* Part four the end of the beginning 

270 IBM ,m " fl • , Fasf,e 

Graphics and speculation 

284 TRS * 80 S trln 0« Grav 

Graphics. DOSes. and help numbers 

298 Personal Electronic Transactions Yob 

Games. CP/M. and more 

OQ4 Book Reviews Gray, etal. 

,,v ^ Six books for home and classroom 

308 "••"" Roster 

31 2 Classified 

31 4 Index to Advertisers 



October, 1982 
Volume 8, Number 10 



V BPA ffl 



Creative Computing (ISSN 097-8140) is published monthly by Ahl Computing. 

Inc.. a subsidiary ol Ziff-Davis Publishing Company David Ahl. President; Elizabeth 

B. Staples. Vice President. Selwyn Taubman. Treasurer. Bertram A. Abrams. 

Secretary P.O. Box 789-M Mornstown. N.J 07960 Second Class postage paid at 

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Copynght©1982 by Ahl Computing Inc All rights reserved 

Editorial offices located at 39 East Hanover Ave . Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Phone 

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0445) to order a subscription 






starr 




Editor-in-Chief 



David H. Ah I 



Editor 

Managing Editor 
Technical Editor 
Associate Editor 
Contributing Editors 



Editorial Assistants 
Secretary 



Elizabeth B. Staples 

Peter Fee 

Michael Coffey 

John Anderson 

Dale Archibald 

Charles Carpenter 

Thomas W. Dwyer 

Will Fastle 

Stephen B. Gray 

Glenn Hart 

David Lubar 

Guy Kewney 

Stephen Klmmel 

Ted Nelson 

Harold Novick 

Peter Payack 

David Small 

Alvin Tottler 

i C Barry Townsend 

Gregory Yob 

Karl Zlnn 

Andrew Brill 
Karyn Hecht 

Elizabeth Magin 



Production Coordinator Christina L Erickson 



Art Director 
Assistant Art Director 
Artists 



Typesetters 



Susan Gendzwil 
Chris DeMilia 

Diana Negri Rudio 

Candace Figueroa 

Yukiko Sakai 

Eugene Bicknell 

Karen K.Brown 
Renea C. Cole 



Advertising Director 



Jeff Weiner 



Creative Computing Press Laura Conboy 
Claudette Moore 



Software Development 



Software Production 



Kerry Shetline 

Eric F. Wolcott 

Owen Linzmayer 

Neil Radick 

Chris Vogeli 

Bill Rogalsky 

Nick Ninni 

Mary Ellen Mendl 

Mark Levitt 



Operations Manager 
Comptroller 
Accounting 
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Fulfillment 



Shipping & Receiving 



William L. Baumann 

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Ethel Fisher 

Jennifer Burr 
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Rosemary Bender 

Linda Blank 

Pat Champion 

Susan DeMark 

Moira Fenton 

Elsie Graft 

Gall Harris 

Linda McCatharn 

Bridget Maher 

Joanne Sapio 

Carol Vita 

Barbara Werry 

Jim Zecchln 

Ronald Antonaccio 

Mark Archambault 

Bill Thomas 

Scott McLeod 

Mike Gribbon 



advertising sates 



Advertising Director 

Jeff Weiner 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Avenue 

New York. NY 10016 

(212)725-7957 

Advertising Coordinator 

Ruth Darling 
Creative Computing 
Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 
One Park Ave. 
New York. NY 10016 
(212)725-3446 

Northern California, Northwest 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 
1290 Howard Ave., Suite 303 
Burlingame, CA 94010 
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Southern California, Southwest 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

2560 Via Tejon 

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(617)848-9306 

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Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Ave. 

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(212)725-3452 

Southeast 

Browning Publications 
P.O. Box 81306 
Atlanta. GA 30366 
(404) 455-3430 

Canada 

The Pattis Group 
1623YongeSt. 
Toronto, Ontario M4T 241 
(416)482-6288 



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Creative Computing is available on per- 
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OH 44691 



where to send it 

All editorial material, including article 
submissions, press releases, and products 
for evaluation should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

39 E. Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Correspondence regarding other Creative 
Computing products and publications 
should also be sent to the Morris Plains 
address. 

Correspondence related to advertising, 
including ad copy, questions on billing, and 
requests for rates, should be sent to: 

Advertising Department 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 

One Park Ave. 

New York, NY 10016 

Correspondence regarding subscriptions, 
including orders, changes of address, and 
problems should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder. CO 80321 
Your help in choosing the correct address 
for your correspondence is appreciated. 
An incorrectly addressed letter or package 
can take as long as several weeks to reach 
its proper destination. 

subscriptions 

All subscriptions orders and other corre- 
spondence related to subscriptions 
should be addressed to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder, Colorado 80321. 
Foreign subscriptions must be accom- 
panied by payment in U.S. currency. 

Subscription prices: 

U.S. Canada Foreign 

1 year $24 97 1 year 2997 1 year 34 97 

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may send payment in sterling to: 

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27 Andrew Close 

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Nuneaton, CV1 3 6EL 

Please allow at least eight weeks for 
change of address. Include old address 
as well as new— enclosing if possible an 
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attention authors 

Creative Computing will not be responsible 
for the return of unsolicited manuscripts, cas- 
settes, floppy disks, program listings, etc not 
submitted with a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope 
s . J 

October 1982° Creative Computing 




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CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



stput . . . input /output . . . input 



Intelligential Intelligibility 



Dear Editor: 

I loved the program in the June 1982 Creative Computing 
"Machine Intelligence: A Function of Human Ingenuity" by 
C.J. Georgiou. There were, however, a couple of typograph- 
ical errors: 

960 IF(V >0) and V < =N) GOTO 980 
1140IFB=1 THEN 01=0 

For those of your readers who have personal computers 
with 80 characters (I have the Super Pet) I have made the 
following adjustments 
110DIMH(20.20). A(8). B(8) 

151 PRINT "BE PATIENT IT TAKES TIME!" 

152 PRINT 

153 PRINT "TO CHECK WEIGHTS IN PROGRESS 
PRESS < RUN/STOP > FOLLOWED BY GOTO 1600" 

IMPRINT 

160 INPUT "ENTER SIZE OF BOARD < UP TO 20 > " N 

780 PRINT " ": PRINT 

1635 IF N = 20 THEN 1650 

1640 PRINT delete second PRINT 

delete lines 1670 — 1720 Replace with 

1670 Sl$ = STR$(S1) 

1680 S2S = " " + SIS (4 spaces) 

1690 PRINT RIGHT$(52$,4); 

1805 PRINT 

1810 INPUT "TRY AGAIN";Q$ 

1820 IF "Y" = LEFTS(QS,1) THEN 160 

1830 END 

S.L. Tuohy 

748 Midland Rd. 

Oradell, NJ 07649 



Teed at Coffey 



Dear Editor: 

As an avid reader of Creative Computing, I find the 
software evaluations most informative. However, I feel I 
must comment on Michael Coffey's review of GraForth II, 
"A Graphic Language That's Downright Forthright," which 
appeared in the July issue. 

Mr. Coffey mentions the ability to add new words 
(commands) to GraForth as a method to personalize the 
language. This is belittling one of the most powerful capa- 
bilities of Forth-like languages. If this capability were 
available in Basic, it would be used for more than just giving 
PRINT the pseudonym of P. In Forth-like languages, one 
builds commands until the final command built is the finished 
program. The capabilities of this type of system is awesome. 

Another area where I must differ with Mr. Coffey is in the 
area of printer support and paddle support. In the documen- 
tation for GraForth supplied by Insoft there is a word 
(program) called PRINT.BUFFER which will print text for 

Another area where I must differ with Mr. Coffey is in the 
area of printer support and paddle support. In the documen- 
tation for GraForth supplied by Insoft there is a word 
(program) called PRINT.BUFFER which will print text for 
the user. I have used this word, which is only ten lines long. 



with great success. I have even added it to the basic list of 
words available in GraForth. (Additions to the language can 
be permanent). Paddle support is also provided by Insoft in 
the form of the word PADDLE, a three line program. 

Additional areas which should be mentioned are sound 
generation and documentation. GraForth has a quite good 
and easy to use sound generator. Seven different voices are 
available. 

The documentation which comes from Insoft is superb and 
will get a user up and running shortly after ripping open the 
package. The quality of the documentation should have 
received some comment for the review to be complete. 

I feel that omitting the areas mentioned above is slighting 
an excellent product unfairly. Having used GraForth for the 
last month and a half, I have found coding in the language a 
joy. 

John-Francis Mergen 

823 Quince Orchard Blvd. #34 

Gaithersburg, MD 20878 



Grafix 

Dear Editor: 

Please note this error in your July 1982 issue: 

In the "Graphics Package for the Apple II" by Christopher 
Hansen on p. 1 12, there is an error in line 10670. The variable 
in line 10670, which is shown as C, should be C$. 

Otherwise the program runs fine. 

Keep up the good work — love your magazine and my 
Apple II. 

Bob Baker 

2 High Grove Rd. 

S. Yarmouth, MA 02664 



Lets Get Normal 

Dear Editor: 

In the April 1982 Creative Computing page 176 Marvin 
Weingast suggests an interesting method for approximating a 
normal distribution. Unfortunately his program does not do 
what he describes. He says, for example, 12.35% of the time 
X=1.5*(A-)-B-l) where A and B are uniformly distributed 
random variables which vary from to 1 . But in the program 
line 50 he uses A to determine the times when this formula 
should be used. Thus to get to X=1.5*(A+B-1) A must be 
between .8765 and 1. B still varies between and 1. The 
resulting distribution is quite different from that intended. 

The variable used for the test must be independent of the 
values used in the functions. 

To correct the program: 

Inline30AddD=RND(l) 

Change Lines 40 and 50 to read 

40 IF D < .8765 THEN X=2»(A+B+C-1.5) 

50 IF D= >. 8765 THEN X=1.5*(A+B-1) 

J.K. Quermann 

1431 Plowman Ave. 

Dallas, TX 75203 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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The Next Step . . . 

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Now totaling over twenty-five separate 
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CIRCLE 287 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Elementary Mathematics 




More Than Drill and Practice 



Annie Fox 



creative compattRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Elementary Mathematics 

Classroom Learning System 
Set 1-Whole Numbers 

Type: CAI 

System: 4HK Apple, 3.3 DOS 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft Basic 

Summary: great 

Price: $495 

Manufacturer: 

Sterling Swift 
1600 Fort view Rd. 
Austin, TX 78704 



Boy, am I excited! After looking at 
"educational" software since 1977 I have 
finally seen a program for microcom- 
puters which is really worth something. 
I'm referring to Sterling Swift's Elemen- 
tary Mathematics Classroom Learning 
System. I was ecstatic to find that some- 
body is creating quality educational soft- 
ware. Although this review pertains to 
the English Language Version of Set 1 - 
Elementary Mathematics (Whole Num- 
bers), Sterling Swift also publishes another 
set dealing with fractions and decimals. 
Both sets are also available in Spanish. 

To begin with the documentation is an 
outstanding "user manual" which presup- 
poses no prior knowledge of computers. 
The binder which accompanies the set of 
six diskettes contains everything a teacher 
needs to know about using the package. 

Annie Fox. 35 Aries Lane. Novato. CA 94947. 



Specific hardware requirements are prom- 
inently displayed on page one of the 
manual (unlike some software products 
which print system requirements only on 
the diskette label). 

The manual is nicely printed (typeset) 
and extremely well organized. Clearly 
defined objectives as well as the step-by- 
step sequence of events for each lesson 
are provided. One particularly welcomed 
addition is the abundance of screen dis- 
play illustrations. 



Help comes in the form 
of a little droid-like 

character who 

skitters across the 

screen and gives the 

student just the 

right piece of 

information at the 

appropriate time. 



The package contains a management 
diskette which enables the teacher(s) to 
enter the names of a maximum of 200 
students who can be grouped in five 
different sections (the children would 
most probably be grouped by age, grade 
or achievement level). After each 
student's name and group name have 
been entered on the management disk. 



the simplest of instructions ("Now place 
the Addition disk in Drive PI and press 
RETURN") tells the teacher how to 
create a file for each student on each of 
the math disks. 

Once all of the students have been 
entered (new students can easily be added 
and old ones deleted) the student is 
ostensibly on his own. 

The student chooses a math operation 
(strand) on which to work, by selecting 
the Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication 
or Division diskette and placing it in drive 
ffl.il personally feel that students should 
be competent in operating computers and 
responsible for loading disks. However, 
since the disks from this package are not 
copyable and replacement disks are sold 
for $9.95 each after the 90 day warranty 
period expires, some schools might wish 
to prevent potential disasters by not 
allowing the students to handle the disks 
at all). 

Once the disk has been loaded, the 
student is asked to log in with his name, 
group name and secret password of his 
own creation. This procedure insures the 
authenticity of the student's work and the 
confidentiality of his records. 

The student takes a diagnostic test 
which enables the program to place him 
at the appropriate achievement level 
when he first enters the system. The first 
portion of the test is timed; the second is 
not. In neither case does the student 
receive any feedback for individual 
responses during the testing session. 

When the competency test is over, the 
student is informed of the number of 
correct responses he gave. The computer 
then indicates at which of the six lessons 
within the strand the student is to corn- 
October 1982 e Creative Computing 



i: jiwti :Miiwi ziM ?ui:x 



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The Starwriter F-10. In short lor more precisely, in a sleek 6" high. 30-pound unit), it gives you more 

of just about everything— except bulk and noise— than any other printer in its price range. It's a 40 cps letter-quality 

daisy-wheel with a bunch of built-in functions to simplify and speed up word processing. 

It plugs into almost any micro on the market, serial or parallel. 



Sm/VRJTWF^O 




THE MASTER. 

The Printmaster F-10. Does all the same good stuff as the Starwriter except, at 55 cps. the Master does it faster. 







CIRCLE 190 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



AIRS1M - 1 

Flight Simulator 

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Space War. 

mence his work the next time he signs on 
to the system, which could be immediate- 
ly or in two weeks time. 

Lessons 

The Lesson section, complete with a 
built-in tutorial is where this math pack- 
age really shines. It is the closest thing 
I've ever seen to having a good teacher 
standing right there beside the student, 
leading him through a math problem step 
by step. 

1 have test driven other programs which 
claimed to be "educational" and some 



The most salient 

feature of this 

package is its 

consistent quality. 



which even had the audacity to call 
themselves "instructional," but for the 
most part they were only effective in the 
area of drill and practice. This Elementary 
Mathematics Classroom Learning System 
actually does some teaching. Here the 
student who is having difficulty with the 
concept behind the math problem can 
receive some valuable help from the 
computer. 

The help comes in the form of a little 
droid-like character who skitters across 
the screen and gives the student just the 
right piece of information at the appro- 
priate time. For example, if the student is 
faced with a subtraction problem such 



% 
-9 

and he places an incorrect digit in the 
ones column, the computer will draw out 
the 96 so that it is re-written as nine tens 
and six ones. Then the little droid will 
walk across the top of the screen, and 
"borrow" one of the tens (changing the 9 
to an 8) and "carry" it over to the six in 

10 



Slam Dunk. 

the form of a little 1. placing it directly 
beside the six so it becomes sixteen. He 
will then point to a message which simply 
states "I traded a ten for 10 ones in the 
top number." 

Tutorials 

The tutorial sections of each of the 
four strands are equally well presented. 
For example, if the student is having 
trouble with 4x5, our droid friend obliges 
by transforming it to an addition problem 
complete with four groups of five squares 
which the student can physically touch 
and count if he likes. It would have been 
an absolute pleasure for a non-math 
person like myself to have learned it like 
this back in elementary school. Who 
knows what mathematical heights I might 
have reached? 

After the lesson has been completed, 
the student is given a report of his score 
and the option of repeating the drill cycle. 
If he chooses to end the lesson, a timed 
mastery check cycle begins. Each lesson 
objective has a "mastery criterion" ratio 
(correct responses/total problems) which 
must be achieved before he can advance 
to the next lesson. As always, the student 
is given a report of his performance and 
advised as to which lesson he will be 
working next time. 

Although the graphics in this package 
are not in color (which seems a shame 
since it was written for the Apple), they 
are excellent and the animation is really 
delightful. I happily noted the use of 
upper- and lowercase text as well as 
inverse video for a varied display. 

Also, for the sake of variety, the entire 
screen is used and you never know where 
the droid and the next problem will pop 
up next. Likewise, the acknowledgements 
and the accompanying animation which 
the student receives for correct responses 
are varied and randomized which adds a 
nice element of anticipation. 

Games 

Provided along with the Management 
disk and the four mathematics disks is a 
Games disk which contains two games, 
Slam Dunk and Space War. These games 
deserve special mention because as math 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 



games go they are really quite good. They 
are designed to provide further opportu- 
nity for mastery of math skills. 

Slam Dunk is a basketball-type one- 
person competition in which the player's 
ability to answer math problems (of the 
operation of his choice) determines the 
outcome of the shot to the basket. Get 
the answer right and the ball sails through, 
miss and it bounces off the backboard. 

Each game lasts for a 30 second period 
(which is an excellent feature in a class- 
room situation where without a time limit 
a student might not have the self-control 
to give his classmates a turn). Incorrect 
response causes the clock to stop and the 
correct answer to be displayed on the 
screen. 

When the clock starts again, the next 
problem the student must solve is the 
same as the one he just missed. The 
student's performance is rated on the 
number of correct responses given within 
the game period. 

The second game is called Space War. 
and is not nearly as trite as the title 
sounds. In this game, two players race to 
solve identical addition and subtraction 
problems by dialing and entering the 
correct digits with the Apple game pad- 
dles. Incorrect digits are not accepted. 

The first player to solve the problem 
correctly gets one point and the opportu- 



nity to deliver a phaser blast to his 
opponent's ship. Three points wins the 
game. It's a good test of math skills in 
addition to being great fun. 

Although Slam Dunk can be used by 
any student who first signs on to the 
system, because the problems in Space 
War are more difficult. Sterling Swift 
recommends that it be played only by 
students who have demonstrated mastery 
of a strand. 

How Many To Buy 

So if you are interested in this kind of 
set up for your school what do you need? 
Well, according to the table included in 
the documentation, if you have between 
one and four computers (and we'll assume 
you already have them), you can get by 
with one set of diskettes. 

If you have from five to eight com- 
puters you need two sets. And if you have 
nine to twelve computers you need three 
sets. 

The first set costs $495 and each 
additional set (of the same version and 
"purchased and billed to the same 
account") is $295. This package is not 
inexpensive. School budgets being what 
they are. it probably would represent a 
sizable investment for an individual school 
or district. To lessen the risk of purchas- 
ing the product and finding it isn't what 



you want, a demonstration disk of the 
package can be purchased for $6 which 
will be applied towards the purchase price 
of the package if you decide to buy it. But 
because of the comprehensive nature of 
the package it certainly seems that the 
students could greatly benefit by the 
inclusion of this kind of computer assisted 
instruction in a traditional math curricu- 
lum. The most salient feature of this 
package is its consistent quality— quality 
which could only have been achieved by 
fine educators who knew what they 
wanted, working in conjunction with 
gifted programmers who knew how to 
create it. □ 










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When upgrades are introduced you are 
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Contact your local Apple 1 "' dealer for a 
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Silicon Valley Systems 

CIRCLE 262 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Introducing Spinnaker. 
We make learning fun. 









e Spinnaker Software Corp . Cambridge. MA 1962 






At Spinnaker 5oftware, we make edu- 
cational games that are actually fun. 

Because they're fun, your children will 
use them. Instead of letting them collect 
dust in the basement 

And because your children use them, 
they'll be learning. And after all, isn't that 
what educational games are all about? 

Our games are educational, because 
you can't kid parents. 

As a parent you're probably very con- 
cerned with how much time your kids 
spend playing mindless video games. 

Sure, they're fun. But they don't do 
much more than develop reflexes and 
hand-eye coordination. Spinnaker 
games are different 

All our games have true 
educational value. They 
help develop a child's 
learning skills. And that's 
something your kids can 
take with them wherever 
they go. 

Our games are fun, 
because you can't kid kids 

Kids like Spinnaker games for the 
same reasons they like roller coasters, 
going to the beach and ice cream 
sundaes. 

They're fun. Lots of fun. So much fun 
your kids will probably forget they're 
learning. 

Our games make the computer 
screen come to life. With colorful graph 
ics, animation and sound. 

And they're easy to use. In fact a lot 
of our games are easy enough for kids 
who've never even used a computer 
before. 

How do we make our games both 
educational and fun? 

We're glad you asked. 

Educators and game programmers 
write our software. 

Educators, because they've been in 
the classroom and know how children 




learn. And what it takes to keep their 
interest 

Game programmers, because they 
know how to have fun with computers. 
These programmers give our games the 
high resolution graphics, animation and 
sound that make them so entertaining. 
And right now, we're introducing four 
new games that can be played on the 
most popular computers, Apple,® Atari,® 
and IBM.® 

Eirst there's FACEMAKER. It's for 
young computer users, kids ages 4-8. 
FACEMAKER helps children improve 
memory and concentration and provides 
familiarity with the computer. 

Another game for young 
users is STORY MACMIME. 
This game lets children 
ages 5-9 write their own 
stories and see them 
acted out on the screen. 
STORY MACfllME helps 
children learn to write 
correctly and acquaints 
them with the keyboard. 
Our 5MOOPER TROOPS" 
detective series gives your child mys- 
teries to solve. As a 5nooper Trooper, 
your child will have to do some daring 
detective work, including crawling 
through dark houses and talking to mys- 
terious agents. 

Designed for kids ages 10 and older, 
SNOOPER TROOP5 helps children learn 
to take notes, draw maps, classify infor- 
mation, and develops vocabulary and 
reasoning skills. 

All four games are available in stores 
today. 

With Spinnaker products, you can rest 
easy knowing your children are spend- 
ing their time wisely. 

So ask your retailer about the growing 
line of Spinnaker games. 

Because one of the smartest 
things parents can do is help their chil- 
dren learn. 



MWk 



We make learning fun. 
CIRCLE 273 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Appte. IBM and Atar. are regiMered trademark ol Apple Computer, mc . international OuvnewMachmes Corp and Atari, tk rev>ectivety 



Factoring Whole Numbers 




Math For Older Students 



James S. Coan 



creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Factoring Whole Numbers 
System: TRS-80 16K. 6 tapes 
TRS-80 Model I 32K. 

3 diskettes. 
TRS-80 Model III 32K, 

3 diskettes. 
Apple 3.2 32K. 
3 diskettes, 
Apple 3.3 Vers. 2.0 48K. 

3 diskettes 
Pet 16K. 6 tapes 
Pet 16K, 3 diskettes 
Summary: Twelve interactive lessons. 

games, and exercises 
Price: $90 

Manufacturer: 

Quality Educational Designs 
P.O. Box 12486 
Portland. OR 97212 

(503) 287-8137 



The promotional material for Factoring 
Whole Numbers states: "These are highly 
interactive programs that your students 
will enjoy. Each lasts about 20-30 minutes 
depending on student responses. Pacing 
to suit the individual 'talking' to the 
computer is built into the programs so 
that the student succeeds as learning 
occurs. The Series is appropriate as new 
material for students in the upper ele- 
mentary and junior high schools, and for 
review or remedial work at the secondary 
or junior college level." 

I have the Apple Version 2.0 programs 

James S. Coan. RD SI. Box 144. New Hope. PA 



for 16-sector 3.3 DOS. This comes on 
three diskettes, each of which contains 
four well designed factoring exercises. 

Documentation 

The software comes in a nice three 
ring notebook. The diskettes are in plastic- 
jackets at the back. You get a title page, 
a single CPU software license, and five 
pages devoted to the teaching material 
itself. Non-profit educational institutions 
may purchase permission to make copies 
for additional CPUs. None of this material 
is required for the student. It is intended 
for the teacher. 

However, there is no discussion of how 
to get the teaching material running on 

Figure 1. 



Diskette One 
Introduction 
1A Factor Pairs 

IB The Rectangle Game 
2A Pairs and Squares 
2B Guess and Test 

Diskette Two 
Introduction 
3A Primes and Composites 

3B The Sieve of Eratosthenes 
4A Exponents 
4B How Many Factors 

Diskette Three 
Introduction 
5A Highest Common Factor 

5B The Euclid Game 
6A Least Common Multiples 
6B Factoring Finale 



the computer, nor is there any mention of 
how to terminate a session. 

The Programs 

The user soon learns that the display 
screen is set up for upper and lower case 
letters using the Apple hi-res graphics 
screen. The menu offers to run any of the 
programs on the current disk, and makes 
instructions optional. Each program has 
a nice leading hi-res display screen. 
Responses are ended by pressing Return. 
For word responses it is sufficient to enter 
the first letter only. 

Figure 1 shows the contents of the three 
disks. Each A program introduces the 
topic and provides some practice. Each B 
program is designed to extend the concept 
and encourage the student to explore 
further. Most of the B programs finish up 
with a game or contest involving two or 
more students. 

To quote the author: "Some of the B 
programs go beyond the standard junior 
high curriculum. These are designed to 
preview, in an informal fashion, ideas 
which will be important in later mathe- 
matical work." The material seems to do 
this very well. 

Each lesson/exercise/game is designed 
to accommodate a wide range of skill 
levels within the topic being presented. 
Many of the instructions are optional. 
The display speed is user-controlled. 
Some of the games may involve up to six 
students. 

The package is definitely user-friendly. 
All responses which one might expect are 
well fielded by the programs. Wrong 
answers are handled very well. 

The analysis of responses is quite com- 
plete. It notices illegal decimal numbers. 



14 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



o 



corona 

announces 
new products and prices 

Starfire — the Winchester disk for Apple II 

5MB $2495 
10MB 82995 

(includes CP/M and Pascal extensions) 

The Personal Hard Disk— the Winchester 

disk for the IBM Personal Computer 

(fits inside the IBM PC) 

5 MB #1995 
10 MB $2495 



O corona 
data systems, inc. 

The Third Generation Microcomputer Company 

31324 Vb Colinas. Suite 110 

WesthkeVUbee, CA. 91361 

213706 isos 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Math For Older Students, continued. 

numbers too high, numbers too low. and 
illegal negative numbers, and requests, 
"Number please" when all else fails. It 
even handles responses such as 1.4E1 
when the correct response is 14. This is 
well done. 

There is never a sarcastic word in this 
package. Right answers are treated with 
enthusiasm, while wrong answers are 
handled in a supportive way. The whole 
idea is to promote successful progress 
through the programs. 

Often a program will offer to explain a 
concept. This provides the first time user 
a chance to get the maximum instruction, 
and allows the repeater to pass over 
unwanted detail. 

Some of the programs ask questions 
designed to assess just how appropriate 
this lesson is for the student at the time. If 
the user's responses are reasonable, the 
lesson proceeds. If his responses are 
clearly out of line, the program suggests 
another lesson to be studied and returns 
to the menu. 

All questions recognize Q as a request 
to select another program. Ctrl-C or Reset 
at any time also returns the user to the 
menu. 

Each diskette may be run indepen- 
dently by either turning the Apple on 
with it in the disk drive or by typing in #S 
(slot). One can easily move from one 



diskette to the next by placing the next 
one in the disk drive and issuing the Q 
request. There is no direct method 
offered for ending a session. The user is 
expected to turn the Apple off. 

The optional instructions are well 
paced. The screen is presented a few lines 
at a time. Each screen is frozen in place 
with "Press return to continue" displayed 
on the bottom line. 

I have selected a few sections to review 
here in detail. 

Diskette One 

Introduction: The introduction 
explains how to use the computer. The 
student is offered the option of all upper 
case or upper/lower case display. He can 
even control the time delay between 
sentences displayed on the screen. (It is 
assumed that the user has been able to 
put the disk in the drive and turn the 
machine on.) 

1A Factor Pairs: Factoring a whole 
number into a factor pair is presented as 
finding the possible lengths and widths of 
a rectangle with a given area. It is recom- 
mended that you obtain 100 square floor 
tiles. Clearly you should get the little 1 
inch by 1 inch ceramic ones. Alternatively 
you could cut cardboard squares. The 
student uses these squares to form rec- 
tangles and come up with areas and, later 
on, perimeters. 



Diskette Two 

3B The Sieve of Eratosthenes: mis is 
an excellent treatment of the topic. The 
sieve is beautifully illustrated on the 
screen by actually crossing out all multi- 
ples of the most recently discovered 
prime. The student is asked for the first 
number to cross out and the computer 
does the rest. It is fun to watch. 

In addition we learn when Eratosthenes 
lived and a little about Euclid as well. We 
learn about Twin Primes, Palindrome 
Primes, and even Goldbach's conjecture. 
(All even numbers can be written as the 
sum of two primes, one ( 1 ) may be used 
for this.) All in all, a math teacher's 
dream. 

4A Exponents: This one very nicely 
teaches why exponents are useful by 
demonstration. If you properly factor 128, 
the program next asks if you want to try 
16384. If you say "yes," the author is 
definitely up to the challenge. On the 
other hand, if the student repeatedly fails 
to get right answers, the program apolo- 
gizes and returns to the menu. Clearly 
not threatening or intimidating at any 
level. 

There is something in these programs 
for a wide range of students. Any teacher 
who has a computer which will support 
these programs and who teaches Fac- 
toring Whole Numbers will want to use 
them. □ 



►ystems 



The Grappler 

Apple Graphic* Interlace 



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Now they have a drive that makes 
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For example: 

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CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



(ices... notices... notic 



Correction 

Due to a printing error. Line 653 of 
"Zenos Space Ships" (August 1 982. page 
170) is incorrect. The line should read: 
653 PRINT "•• 

New Journal Calls 
for Papers 

A new quarterly. The Journal of Com- 
puters Reading <G Language Arts (CRLAi 
is ready to receive papers. The purpose 
of the journal is to support the rapidly 
growing interest in computers and their 
relationship to reading, language arts and 
related issues. 

The journal will be pragmatic in per- 



spective, and will emphasize papers which 
have clear classroom/teaching implica- 
tions. 

The journal will be interdisciplinary and 
directed toward an audience of reading- 
language arts teachers, educational 
specialists, classroom teachers, educators 
of teachers and educational researchers. 

Papers or requests for information 
should be sent to Gerald H. Block. CRLA. 
P.O. Box 13039. Oakland. CA 94661. 



Graduate Fellowship 



The Charles Babbage Institute for the 
History of Information Processing is 
accepting applications for a Graduate 



Fellowship to be awarded for the 1983- 
1984 academic year to a graduate student 
whose dissertation will be on some aspect 
of the history of computers and infor- 
mation processing. 

Residence can be at the home 
academic institute, other research facility 
where there are archival materials, the 
Babbage Institute, or some combination 
of these. There are no restrictions on the 
location of the academic institution which 
will be the venue for the Fellowship. The 
stipend will be $5000 plus an amount up 
to $2500 for tuition, fees, travel, and other 
research expenses. 

For more information, contact the 
Charles Babbage Institute. University of 
Minnesota. 104 Walter Library, 117 
Pleasant St. S.E.. Minneapolis. MN 55455. 
U.S.A. by January 15. 1983. 




More tips from the authors of Beneath Apple DOS 



Bag of ' Tricks 



TM 



QUTiLny 

SOFTWARE 

6660 Reseda Blvd Suite 105. Reseda. CA91335 




By Don Worth and Pieter Lechner 

Now there is more from the authors of the best selling book Beneath 
Apple DOS — four comprehensive utility programs on diskette and 
over 100 more pages of valuable information about the Apple Ms 
disk operating system. 

BAG OF TRICKS is useful to beginners and experienced programmers 
alike. It includes many "hand holding" tutorials that assist you in 
repairing damaged diskettes and allow you to change sector ordering, 
reconstruct blown catalogs, etc etc. etc. At the low price of $39 95. 
BAG OF TRICKS is one of the best software values ever 

The four programs and their functions are: 

1. TRAX dumps and examines a raw track, either 13-sector or 16- 
sector, displays the internal Apple diskette formatting 
information, and flags exceptions to standard formats. 

2. IMT will reformat one or more tracks, attempting to preserve 
the contents of undamaged sectors. It also allows you to change 
sector order. This can cut disk access times by 40% or more! 

3. ZAP is a sector editor like no other! More than 50 commands are 
available to assist you to locate, compare, change, or print the 
data on your diskettes. ZAP is even programmable! Using 
powerful macr6s. it is possible to transfer and compare DOS, 
CP/M, or PASCAL files 

4. FIXCAT automates the process of repairing a damaged diskette 
catalog. It operates with or without user intervention, locating 
"lost" files and rebuilding the catalog— from scratch if necessary! 
DOS removal and VTOC repair are also possible. 

Requires Apple II or Apple II Plus $39.95 

with 48K RAM and one disk drive 

CIRCLE 249 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



October 1982° Creative Computing 



17 



Spelling Bee and Math Competency 




Quiz Time in The Classroom 



Spelling Bee from Edu-Ware is a well 
organized spelling package for kindergar- 
ten through third grade students. It was 
thoughtfully designed by people who 
seem aware of the problems inherent in a 
computerized spelling tutorial for class- 
room use. 

I was particularly impressed with both 
the ease with which the teacher can 
become involved without any prior com- 
puter experience and the flexibility of the 
program in the area of setting parameters 
tailored to the individual student. 

Spelling Bee consists of several differ- 
ent "modes" plus eleven units of spelling 
words (each accompanied by a line draw- 
ing). Three of these spelling unit cate- 
gories are: "Simple 2 and 3 letter words," 
"Hard c's and silent e's," and "One syllable 
with Dipthongs" (which is really spelled 
"Diphthongs" and which just goes to show 
that even people who write spelling pro- 
grams never outgrow the need for good 
spelling skills). In the Demonstration 
Mode the teacher may choose one of the 
spelling units and preview it. 

The Learning Management Mode per- 
mits the teacher to enter the student's 
name, the spelling unit(s) on which he is 
to be tested, and the number of words to 
be chosen from each unit. This last 
feature is a very nice option in that it 
allows the teacher to take the child's 
attention span into consideration when 
setting up a test situation. 

The Tutorial Mode gives the student 
an opportunity to practice spelling each 
of the words in the unit (after having seen 
them flashed briefly one at a time) without 
having his errors accepted by the com- 
puter or displayed on the screen. 

Annie Fox, 35 Aries Lane. Novalo. CA 94947. 



Annie Fox 



Drill Mode 

The Drill Mode is the electronic equiv- 
alent to the old Friday morning "Class, 
are you ready for this week's spelling 
test?" With the parameters previously set 
in the Learning Management Mode the 
teacher has designed a test for a student 
based on his individual needs. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Spelling Bee 

Type: CAI 

System: 48K Apple II, DOS 3.3 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft Basic 

Summary: Cute 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Edu-ware 

28035 Dorothy Dr. #200 
P.O. Box 2222 
Agoura, CA 91301 



If Jennifer needs practice with her 
diphthongs (which are, by the way, com- 
plex vowel sounds made by gliding con- 
tinuously from the position for one vowel 
to that of another all within the same 
syllable, e.g., chain, boat, toy), that's just 
what she will get. 

After the Drill Mode is completed the 
student's score is recorded and reviewed 

18 



at the teacher's convenience. Since the 
computer keeps track of precisely which 
words were and were not spelled correctly 
the teacher is in a good position to 
pinpoint potential spelling problems and 
provide remediation. 

Positive reinforcement is certainly a 
necessary element of the learning process. 
In this program, the reinforcer for a 
correctly spelled word takes the form of a 
point placed underneath a smiling face 
and a few bars from a familiar children's 
song. Although this is a nice touch, the 
graphics could have been a bit more spec- 
tacular. 

As was mentioned before, in addition 
to the spelling words which are provided 
for the student. Spelling Bee also displays 
a drawing paired with each word. The 
pictures were included in adherence to 
the sound premise that learning takes 
place as the learner makes the transition 
through concrete concept (picture) to 
abstract, symbolic representation, 
(written word). Let's talk about these 
drawings for a moment. 

I am one educator who heartily 
approves of the introduction of fun into 
learning, and trying to identify computer 
drawn pictures is fun. Some of the pic- 
tures, however, are difficult to decipher. 

If the word to be spelled is determined 
by the student's ability to identify the 
corresponding picture, there could be 
problems. For example, the "oval" in the 
program could easily have been a drawing 
of an egg. (Which is what several of my 
young friends guessed it to be.) Likewise, 
one morbid individual thought the "swing" 
was a scaffold, and another was sure it 
was "two chicken feet." 

I mention this not to nit-pick but to 
point out that this kind of ambiguity 

October 1082 e Creative Computing 




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Quiz Time, continued. 



provides built-in frustration for the young 
child. After all, how can he spell a word 
correctly, if he doesn't know what word 
he is supposed to be spelling? 

Two of the spelling units in the Demon- 
stration Mode Menu were labeled "Multi- 
syllable words." I guess strictly speaking, 
"multi" means more than one. but of all 
the "Multisyllable" offerings only one 
(butterfly) had more than two syllables, 
and one of the words (stairs) had only 



€>«> 



■o R 



Spelling Bee. 

one. (I'm sorry, but no amount of facial 
contortions allows me to get more than 
one syllable out of that word without 



sounding like a throwback from the 
Beverly Hillbillies.) 

Also, for some reason "magnet" and 
"pliers" are found in the unit called 
"Simple multisyllable words." while 
"apple" and "table" are considered "Com- 
plex multisyllable words." These are 
minor points and in no way devalue the 
program as a whole. 

Documentation 

Although the documentation for Spell- 
ing Bee was complete, it was contradic- 
tory in places and rather confusing in the 
sections describing how to enter the 
Learning Management Mode. I talked to 
the people at Edu-Ware and was advised 
that all of their documentation "is being 
rewritten to be easier to understand for 
the customer." 

Spelling Bee is not a perfect product. If 
there were some way for the teacher to 
add words and pictures to the existing 
spelling lists in the program it would be 
improved markedly. It is, however, defi- 
nitely a good spelling package for the 
money and any school which is lucky 
enough to have a computer would do 
well to include this program in its educa- 
tional software library. 



Math Competency Series 



This program also goes a long way in 
permitting the teacher to vary the para- 
meters of each of the math games. Since 
students are people and people are indi- 
viduals it makes sense to be able to alter 
programs to fit the individual. Specifically 
the Zeitgeist package allows modification 
of Student's Required Response Time, 
Problem Type and Problem Difficulty. 
Duration of Game and Help Messages. 

To make the practice of mathematical 
skills more inviting, the Zeitgeist people 
have attempted to appeal to the game 
player who dwells within every student. 
(Certainly a good idea, and bound to be 
more entertaining than flash cards.) In 
keeping with "the spirit of the times" they 
chose to model their programs after the 
hottest computer game genre: Space 
Games. 

Before we delve into the specifics of 
these games, it should be noted that the 
descriptions given below do not match 
the visual display of the actual game, by 
any measure. Any child reading his stu- 
dent guide and preparing for a Star Wars- 
like space adventure is in for a cosmic 
disappointment. 

According to my dictionary Zeitgeist 
means "spirit of the age, trend of thought 
and feeling." Perhaps the company's 
founders felt that they would christen 
their enterprise with a name which would 
describe their reason for existence, which, 
according to the cover of their documen- 



tation involves "creating a better world in 
which to learn" (using computers, I 
assume). 

The four programs in the Zeitgeist 
Math Competency Series are designed 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Math Competency Series 
Type: CAI 

System: 48K Apple II, Applesoft in 

ROM, DOS 3.2 or 3.3 
Format: Disk 
Language: Applesoft Basic 

Summary: An average CAI math 
program 

Price: $174.50 for 4 diskettes 
49.50 single disk price 

Manufacturer: 

Zeitgeist 

5150 North 6th St. #179 

Fresno, C A 93710 



for "drill, practice and enrichment." The 
intended audience is elementary and 
junior high school students, although the 
programs could certainly be used suc- 
cessfully for high school students or adults 
in need of math remediation. 

These programs do not really teach 
mathematical concepts at all. and this 

20 



should be clearly understood by anyone 
who is contemplating using them for this 
purpose. A child who does not understand 
the concept of addition is not going to 
succeed in solving "12 + 12=?" despite 
the presence of colorful space maps. 

Math concepts are learned from dis- 
covery, manipulation of materials, visual 
demonstrations and determined teachers 
who are willing to try any and all combin- 
ations of the above until concepts become 
clear. Computer math programs are avail- 
able in that they serve the function of 
reinforcing concepts and skills which the 
student already possesses. 

Documentation 

The documentation for the series is 
beautifully printed, complete and well 
organized for easy reference. The tex- 
tured paper adds a touch of class. The 
student guide is excellent as it provides 
the learner with everything he needs to 
know about using the program (from 
turning on the TV to loading the diskette 
and rebooting if necessary). The inclusion 
of this kind of clearly written student 
instruction is rare among educational 
software packages, and yet what could be 
wiser? 

Educational computer programs are, 
for the most part, designed for indepen- 
dent student use. If students don't know 
how to operate computers, they miss the 
opportunity to work on their own and 
teachers become overburdened. The 
more self-sufficient the student at the 
computer can be, the easier the use of 
computer-based instruction in terms of 
classroom logistics. 

Another positive aspect of the Zeitgeist 
package is the Help Messages which 
accompany each of the games. These 
were written for the student to assist him 
in solving the type of problems with which 
he is currently working. They are com- 
posed of step-by-step procedures for the 
solution of certain math problems and 
the student must be able to generalize the 
rule to apply it to the specific problem 
with which he is having trouble. These 
Help Messages would serve well the 
student who simply needs to be reminded 
of a specific "how-to" portion of solving a 
problem. The student who is feeling 
confused and utterly lost probably needs 
more help than the Help Messages can 
offer. 

Invader Round Up 

The first game in this series is called 
Invader Round Up. Here the student must 
collect a certain number of invaders who 
have had the misfortune of wandering 
into a guarded quadrant. 

Problems involving addition and sub- 
traction of whole numbers must be solved 
before invaders can be located and cap- 
tured. The computer supplies problems 

October 19? 2 e Creative Computing 



VdltKJrt I H for Atari" 400 8( 
Professional Software for the Hobbyist 



VALPAR\ 

international^ 



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times faster than BASIC, and can make use of every capability for your computer And it s no longer the province ^ .^ . 

of the professional programmer 1 With valFORTH and the additional packages described below, you can ^KTm 

create programs in an afternoon that would previously have taken weeks of hard work 1 

WHAT? YOU DON'T ALREADY KNOW FORTH? 

Then take advantage of our special offer on Starting Forth by Leo Brodie Widely acclaimed as the best 

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exciting language quickly and easily When you order Starting Forth, you get a free copy of our Notes 

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These are the exact utilities developed by Valpar International s 

professional software specialists and used to create our commercial 

soft ware products 



NEW 1 By Popular Demand! 

valDOS Now you can use your valFORTH system to read and write 
normal Atari DOS Files created with valDOS or other sources Also in- 
cludes valDOS File Editor for creating and reading FORTH Source 
Code without "screens ." (Not a general file editor ) 
(Over 25 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH ) 



valFORTH 



Package contains: fig-FORTH kernel with mathematical and stack op- 
erations machine-coded for higher speed than normal fig-FORTH; line 
editor AND screen editor, debugger, sound and graphics commands, 
floating point, advanced 6502 assembler, diskcopiers. and much more 1 
(Over 110 pages of documentation) 




GENERAL 
UTILITIES AND 
UIDEQ EDITOR 



os: 4 array types, 4 case types, text on graphics 8, extensive string 
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manipulation, and much, much more 

Editor fast, powerful, complete valFORTH screen editor 1 1 A profes- 
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(Over 60 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH.) 



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Player-Missile Create, move, color, change images of and bound 
players and missiles with high level commands. Full support of 5th 
player, multicolor players, etc etc All critical sections in machine code 
Character Editor: Compose character sets with pystick. Simultaneous 
display of created characters Make images for players and missiles 
Sound Editor Simple independent control of all four voices (one joystick 
per voice) and audio-control register Create any single-setting sound 
with graphical and tabular readout 
(Over 35 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH ) 



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DISPLAY FORMATTER 

Fast, simple creation of all types ot display lists, with automatic 4K 
boundary jumping Automatic or user controlled memory allocation 
formatting for horizontal and vertical scrolling, and display list interrupts 
(Over 30 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH ) 



. L6 - 

A- 

gu i 



iphics modes supported — even GTIA and *7+*. Draw and fill 
commands faster and smarter than Basic "Turn-towai 
and vanishing point effects; point labeling, etc Also SIN, COS, A 
ATN2. etc added to floating point 
(Over 35 pages of documentation. Requires valFORTH ) 

Text Compression and Auto Text Formatting 

A unique, two-part utility 1 

• Text Compression allows the packing of text into much less space 
than normally required Useful for wordy Adventure games 
intelligence." al 

• Auto Text Formatting takes both normal and compressed text and 
routes it to the video screen "windows " 

(Over 20 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH ) 



valFORTH alone requires 24K 
valFORTH plus one or more packages requires 32K minim 
Memory requirements include 10-12K working space 
All products are now on non-protected dis^ 
Over 270 pages of detailed documentation 1 

valFORTH $45.00 

General Utilities and Video Editor 40.00 

Player Missile Graphics. Character Editor, and Sound Editor 40 00 

Display Formatter 35 00 

Turtle and valGraphics and Floating Point Routines 45 00 

Text Compression and Auto Text Formatting 35 00 

Starting Forth (published at $1 5 95) 1 4 00 

Heavy-Duty Professional Binder (provided tree when ordering 

3 or more packages) 1 3.00 

» Save $50 00 » 

With an order of all six packages above, you pay only $203 00 

valDOS and valDOS File Editor $40 00 

When ValForth and one or more additional pack nased and proof 

ot purchase ot APX Forth is furnished, a $15 00 credit will be given 

Plus Shipping and Handling 
VISA and MASTERCARD accepted 



CIRCLE 296 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Quiz Time, continued. 



and checks answers. The correct answer 
causes a laser beam to zap the invader off 
the screen (the instructions say he is being 
kept in a holding area for relocation!. 
Miss the problem and the invader escapes. 
When all of the invaders have been 
captured, the screen displays a space 
transport that zooms off into nothingness, 
presumably carrying all of the aliens to a 
distant galaxy. 

Space Scanner 

Next we have Space Scanner in which 
the student is a navigator during an 
impending alien attack. In order to deter- 
mine the correct intercept on a Battle 
Map the student must successfully multi- 
ply or divide whole numbers which are 
called warp and vector values. If the 
answer to the problem is correct, the 
enemy ship is destroyed. 

After five correct answers the enemy 
battle star is attacked and demolished. If 
the intercept is not correct, however, the 
enemy fighter will fire at the student's 
ship and inflict 20% damage to the shields. 
Five wrong answers and that's the end of 
that interstellar vessel. 

In the final two games of this package 
the student is rewarded with a game 



within a game. That is. when the math 
problems are successfully completed, he 
can use the computer keyboard to control 
objects on the screen in a similar manner 
to video arcade games. 

Invader Attack 

Game number three is Invader Attack 
in which the student commands a dam- 
aged star cruiser with an inoperative 
photon engine. The student must regulate 




Math Competency. 

the amount of fuel force by solving math 
problems which involve the addition or 



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subtraction of fractions. When a problem 
is solved correctly the cruiser advances 
toward the star base. When one is missed. 
an encroaching enemy ship menaces for- 
ward. 

The game is won by reaching the star 
base. If the student gets to the star base 
first, all is saved and a primitive video 
shoot-out commences. If the enemy 
arrives at the star base first it's all over for 
the good guys. 

Space Mouse 

The final game of the series is Space 
Mouse, the only one that di>es not involve 
defending oneself against attacking aliens. 
Instead, the student takes on the role of a 
space biologist trying to catch a rare space 
mouse, presumably for the purpose of 
observation and study. 

The mouse trap is baited with molten 
cheese when the student successfully 
solves multiplication and division of frac- 
tion problems. When the mouse is caught 
the student is rewarded with a chance to 
race him through a maze, which is nerve- 
wracking but fun. 

Playing space-oriented math games 
would probably serve as a high motivator 
only for a majority of male students. My 
four years of experience with thousands 
of students in free choice computer games 
situations leads me to the very definite 
conclusion that most girls do not care 
one ion about space games. So for girls 
(who might not be crazy about math to 
begin with), something needs to be 
created that would appeal to them as 
well. 

The choice of space games might be a 
poor one for another reason. If Fried 
Chicken Supreme serves undeniably the 
best chicken in the world do you sell 
chicken when you open your new spe- 
cialty restaurant next door? Only if you're 
incredibly naive (or maybe not too bright). 
Educational games manufacturers have 
some competition from video games that 
is tough to beat. If the competition is 
creating incomparable space games then 
the educational software people might be 
wise to create anything but space games. 

Let's face it. drill and practice of any 
skill can be pure drudgery. Spending time 
with the Zeitgeist Math Competency 
Series is much more fun then flipping 
through a stack of flash cards. On the 
other hand, there must be a more creative 
way to involve students in the practice of 
math skills than what 1 presented here. 

In spite of the superb documentation 
and clever game ideas, this package does 
not succeed because the execution of 
these ideas leaves much to be desired. If 
a programmer with superior skills in 
computer animation had tackled these 
games, the result would have been praise- 
worthy and price worthy. □ 



22 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



ALL THE EXCITEMENT . . . 
WITHOUT THE QUARTERS! 



• ■ «« » 



^<H 






i 



iftlMfrm 




^: 



t 



$1-*. 




Datasoft'- brings the thrills of a video arcade to your living room with four new programs 

for your 16K Atari- 400/800 Home Computer. In Canyon Climber you explore the beauty and 

meet the challenges of the Grand Canyon. Face angry goats, fierce Indians and overbearing 

birds. Next, step up and try your luck at Shooting Arcade. Take aim at stampeding elephants, 

waddling ducks and jumping bunnies. Then, join the tortoise and the hare as they race 

across Pacific Coast Highway. But watch out for rush hour traffic on the road and slippery 

boats in the water. And finally, run away to the circus in Clowns and Balloons. You're in 

the spotlight as you catapult to the very heights of the big top to bust the balloons. 

So go to the arcade tonight without leaving your house. Check with your local 

software dealer or send check or money order with $2.00 postage/handling. 

California residents, add 6% sales tax. 

Available on cassette or diskette. Suggested retail price $29.95 

Data 

19519 Business C 
Northridge. CA 91324 • (213) 701-5161 

CIRCLE 155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Atari is a registered trademark ol Atari Com; 



• 1982 Datasoft Inc .' 






■ 



The Software.- 



PROGRAMS 



MICROPRO 

WordStar® 

The number one selling microcomputer 
word processing package in the world 
6" CP/M" 

LISTPRICE 4 95 00 
MH PRICE: 2S9 00 

5'/4" APPLE* 

LISTPRICE 375 00 
MH PRICE 234.00 



MICROPRO 

MailMerge" 

A multipurpose text-data merging program. 
One ot its most popular uses is producing 
personalized form letters. Requires 
WORDSTAR" 

6" CP/M" 

LISTPRICE 15000 
MH PRICE: MOO 

5'/4" APPLE 91 

LISTPRICE 12500 
MH PRICE: S3 00 



MAILMERGE. DATASTAR. SPELLSTAR. CALCSTAR. 

and SUPERSORT are trademarks ol MicroPro 

International. San Rafael. California USA 

QUICKCOOE OUfCKSCREEN. anddUTIL are 

trademarks of Fox A Geier Associates 

VISITREND VISIPLOT. VISIFILE. VISISCHEOULE. 

VISIDEX VISITERM. and DESKTOP PLAN are 

trademarks of VisCorp 

dBASE H is a trademark of AshtonTate 

MATHST AR is a trademark of Force Two. LT0 

SUPERCALC is a trademark of Sorcm 

SPELLGUARO is a trademark ot Innovative Software 

Applications 

TIM is a trademark of Innovative Software Inc 

CROSSTALK is a trademark ol MicroStuf 

EASY WRITER and EASY SPELLER are trademarks 

of Information Unlimited Software 

PERFECT WRITER and PERFECT SPELLER are 

trademarks of Perfect Software. Inc 

WORDSTAR is a registered trademark ol MicroPro 

International San Rafael. CaMomia USA 

VISICALC is a registered trademark of VwCorp 

CP M is a registered trademark of Digital Research 

APPLE is a registered trademark of Apple Computers 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business 

Macrunes 



MICROPRO 

DataStar" 

The oftice-oriented system for data entry, 
retrieval, and updating DATASTAR 
allows you to create a form, be it a price 
list, catalog, or order form You can edit, 
update, or save this information in a file 
or simply print it out DATASTAR 
interfaces with MAILMERGE and 
SUPERSORT. 
8" CP/M 

LIST PRICE 350 00 
MH PRICE: 235 00 

5%" APPLE* 

LIST PRICE: 195 00 
MH PRICE: 1*9.00 



MICROPRO 

CalcStar™ 

Financial planning and business decision- 
making made simpler, faster, and more 
accurate. CALCSTAR calculates solutions 
to complex numerical problems in 
business and finance. CALCSTAR turns 
your microcomputers video screen into 
a window' on a gigantic electronic ledger 
sheet with up to 600 entries arranged 
the way you want 
8" CP/M* 

LIST PRICE 195 00 
MH PRICE: 199 00 

5%" APPLE 8 

LISTPRICE 195.00 
MH PRICE: 149 00 



FORCE TWO LTD 

MathStar" 

MATHSTAR is a combination adding 
machine calculator program, designed 
specifically for use with MicroPro's 
WORDSTAR" Provides basic math 
functions, formatted results, and 
accounting notation. 
8" CP/M" 

LISTPRICE: 125 00 
MH PRICE: 99.00 

5'/4" APPLE* 

Same as 8" CP/M' 



ASHTONTATE 

dBASE II™ 

THE database management system for 
the microcomputer 
8" CP/M* 

LISTPRICE TOO 00 
MH PRICE: 489.00 

5'/." APPLE" 

SwiMlt'CPM' 
FOX I (SELLER 

QuickCode" 

OUICKCODE allows dBASE II users to 
create the following programs, in a matter 
of seconds, without programming. 

Data entry programs 

Data retrieval programs 

Date edit/validation programs 

Menus 

dBASE II files 
PLUS: 4 New Data Types: 

Date 

Dollars 
G Telephone 

Social Security number 

OUICKCODE includes a powerful new 
version of QUICKSCREEN. the dBASE II 
screen builder 

8" CP/M* 

LIST PRICE 295 00 
MH PRICE: 249 00 

5'/i" APPLE* 



SameasS 'CPfM' 



FOX&GELLER 



dUTIL" 

dUTIL is the BASE II utility program which 

saves valuable computer time and work 

by: 

Increasing command file running time 
Creating standard text files to use 
within your word processor 
Automatically debugging dBASE II 
command files 

dUTIL does not require OUICKCODE or 

QUICKSCREEN 

8" CP/M* 

LISTPRICE: 99.00 
MH PRICE: 75.00 

5 V APPLE* 

Same as 8" CP/M- 



Call Toll-Free: 1-800-523-9511 In Pennsylvania-. 1- 215-868-8219 



The Software: 



PACKAGES 



CP/M" 



APPLE' 



MH-1 WORDSTAR' /MAILMERGE 

MH-2 WORDSTAR" /MAILMERGE/DATASTAR 

MH-3 WORDSTAR" /CALCSTAR 

MH-4 WORDSTAR" /MATHSTAR 

MH-5 dBASE ll/WORDSTAR' /MAILMERGE 

MH-6 dBASE ll/QUICKCODE/ 

WORDSTAR" /MAILMERGE 
MH-7 dBASE ll/QUICKCODE/dUTIL 



COMBINED 
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645.00 
995.00 
790.00 
620.00 
1345.00 

1640.00 
1070.00 



MICROHOUSE 
PRICE 

319.00 
519.00 
419.00 
369.00 
819.00 

999.00 
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COMBINED 
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500.00 
795.00 
570.00 
500.00 
1200.00 

1495.00 
1070.00 



MCROHOUSE 
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259.00 
399.00 
299.00 
319.00 
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899.00 
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Great Savings 
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Software and 
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Mtcrohouse 1 444 Unden Street PO Box 498 Bethlehem. Pennsylvania 18016 Prices and specifications subject to change without notice AH items subtect to availability 




: • 



The Microcomputer People. 



CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



muSimp/muMath-80 




A Symbolic Mathematics System 



David D. Shochat 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: muSimp/muMath-80 

Type: Symbolic mathematics 
programs 

System: CP/M, Apple, TRS-80 48K 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary :"Lisp-like" math language 

Price: $250 

Manufacturer: 

Microsoft 

10700 Northup Way 

Bellevue. WA 98004 



The following is u revision of a review of muSIMPI 
muMATH-79 which originally appeared in SIGPC Notes 

vol. 4, no. I j2. 



About 20 years ago. I had the opportunity to see a real 
computer, an IBM 709. When 1 asked whether it could do 
calculus. I was told that a digital computer could do numerical 
differentiation and integration, but that symbolic manipulation 
of the function definition was inherently outside the domain 
of the computer. 

The muMath software package, developed by Albert I). Rich 
and David Stoutemver ol the Soft Warehouse and available 
through Microsoft for 8080 Z-80 disk systems (and now 

David D. Shochat. Dcpt. of Mathematics. Santa Monica CoIIckc. 1910 
Dico Blvd.. Santa Monica. CA <X)40.S. 



Apple II as well), can do a surprising amount ol calculus 
symbolically, the way you learn to do it in a calculus class. For 
example. muMath can integrate 

(I ♦ X A 2) A (I 2) 

in about seven seconds (on my 2 Mil/ Z-80 CI' M system). 
muMath can also do exact rational arithmetic, with (up to) 
254-byte integers in any number base to .16. a great deal of 
algebra, some symbolic trig and even matrix algebra: muMath 
will find the inverse of 



{[12], 
[3. 4] ) 



or of 



|[a.b]. 
[c.dj| 



Getting all of this to work on a microcomputer with only 64K 
(or less) is impressive, to say the least. I he secret is modular 
construction. You load only part of muMath at a time. It is 
unlikely, lor example, that you will need to do matrix inversion 
and integration at the same time. I he precious memory 
resources must be used as efficiently as possible, a fact which 
reflected in the ritual of building and saving the system. 

lo get started, execute MUSIMP.COM. Trie muSimp 
interpreter is loaded in. a sign on message is printed, and the 
muSIMP •".'" prompt appears. 

muSimp is the lisp Surface language" in which muMath is 
written. You may respond to the prompt in several ways. 

1. You ma> make an assignment: 
S: 13; (cr) 

muSimp\ response here would be: 
@: 13 

■> 

2. You mav use an existing function: 
I): S * 4 : (cr) 

@: 52 



26 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 





M ii^ ■ 



Programmed by Gore 
by I 



Shippv 



SOFTWARE INC. 




vftee. a tour-de-force of hi-res animation and graphics, 
is a desperate mission— to find and recover the power 
jewels hidden in the maze before your fuel runs out. 

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muMath, continued... 

3. You may define a new function. (Every line of user input is 
terminated with a carriage return): 

FUNCTION COMBS (N, K). 

WHEN K = 0. I EXIT. 

N • COMBS (N-i. K-l) K. 
ENDFUN $ 
? COMBS (D. 5); 
@: 2598960 
? 

The definition of COMBS, which computes the number of 
combinations of N things K at a time, shows that recursion is 
allowed. 

LISTEXAMPLE: ((I ONE) (2 TWO) 

(3 THREE)) & 
@: ((I ONE) (2 TWO) (3 THREE)) 
? FIRST (LISTEXAMPLE) & 
@:(l ONE) 

? REST (LISTEXAMPLE) & 
@: ((2 TWO) (3 THREE)) 
? REST (FIRST (LISTEXAMPLE)) & 
@: (ONE) 

? REST (REST (FIRST (LISTEXAMPLE))) & 
@: FALSE 
(the name FALSE is equivalent to the empty list) 
? FUNCTION MAPFIRST (LIS). 

WHEN EMPTY (LIS). FALSE EXIT. 

ADJOIN (FIRST (FIRST (LIS)). 
MAPFIRST (REST (LIS))) 

ENDFUN $ 

? MAPFIRST (LISTEXAMPLE) & 

@:(l 2 3) 

The use of the "&" as a termination symbol instead of ";" 
indicates to the DRIVER function, which contains the main 
interaction loop, that the result of the computation should be 
printed as a list, rather than as a mathematical expression in 
standard mathematical notation. A "S" means the result should 
not be printed at all. 

EXPRESSION: X + Y $ 

? EXPRESSION ; 

@: X ♦ Y 

? EXPRESSION & 

<§>: (♦ X Y) 

Internally, only the latter (list) form really exists. But this is 
almost totally transparent to the user. The DRIVER function 
mentioned above gets its input through a function called 
PARSE, which normally expects all of its input to be in non-list 
notation. It is this PARSE function that really defines the 
difference between muSimp and normal Lisp. 

For example, if PARSE sees FUNCTION in the input 
stream, it translates everything from there to the next occur- 
rence of ENDFUN into a list, which is essentially the Lisp 
equivalent of that function definition. 

In Lisp, everything is a list, including function definitions. 



In muSimp, PARSE translates both standard mathematical 
notation, and MuSimp syntax itself into list/ Lisp form. So the 
difference between muSimp and normal Lisp exists only "at the 
surface." 

When PARSE sees a single quotation mark, two things 
happen. First, it reads what follows in normal list notation. 
Second, it adds the QUOTE function name onto the expression, 
which causes the expression to be "taken literally." rather than 
being evaluated. Thus in the definition of LISTEXAMPLE 
above, even if we had previously made an assignment 

ONE: UNOS , 

LISTEXAMPLE would still contain only ONE. rather UNO. 

Once a function definition has been made, it becomes a part 
of the system, which can then be called upon by other function 
definitions. And that's how you bring muMalhinlolhe picture, 
because new function definitions (and other kinds of valid 
muSimp input), can be read in from disk as well as from the key- 
board. For example, if you type: 

RDS(ARITH. MUS); 

with the source file A RITH. MUS on the disk in drive A, all the 
muSimp source code constituting ARITH.MUS will be read in 
and madea part of the systemjust as COMBS and MAPFIRST 
were. Now you can do: 

1/2+ 1/3 ; 

@: 5 / 6 

muMaih is a collection of I S muSimp source files, all but one 
of which depend on certain other source files being "in" at the 
same time. To do definite integrals, for example, you must load 
in five of these source files. 

Any time you want you can save the state of the system on 
disk including (in internal form) all the muSimp code read in 
so far. just by typing 

SAVE «name» $ 

(with a disk with enough free space in drive A), where <name> 
can be any available primary file name for your DOS. muSimp 
will create a special memory image file with primary name 
<name>and secondary name SYS. Then you can come back any 
time and just by typing (while in muSimp): 

LOAD «name» $ . 

you will be right back where you were just before the SAVE. 
Or, another way to do it is to type: 

MUSIMP<name> 

as a DOS command, in which case muSimp will LOAD 
<name>.SYS for you before entering the DRIVER loop. 

The package comes with ten other source files which are 90% 
comments. These are the lesson files, which are so well-written 
they make the process of learning to use the system a great deal 
of fun. The lesson files are read in like any muSimp source file, 
but they are echoed at the console and consist mostly of com- 
ments, delimited by matching percent signs. Every once in a 
while, the lesson gives you an exercise to do, ends the comment 
with a "%". and then makes the assignment: 

RDS: FALSE $ 

That stops the input from the disk and gives you control of 
the system to do your exercise. When youYe done, you type: 

RDS: TRUE S 

and the lesson takes over again. The lesson may also stop being 
a comment long enough to do an example, providing actual 
muSimp source to the system. This example may, in turn, de- 
pend upon function definitions which you added to the system 
while doing a previous exercise. 



28 



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muMath, contin 



It all works beautifully as long as you don't try to stop in the 
middle of a lesson and save what you have done so far. It is 
possible, but tricky: you must refer to the printed copy of the 
lesson to see what "finishing up" operations it would have done, 
do them through the keyboard, and finally SAVE a memory 
image as usual. When you come back, you will still have to run 
through the lesson file from the beginning, but now you can skip 
the exercises you have already done. 

Five of the lessons teach the use of those features intro- 
duced to the system by the ARITH and ALGEBRA files of 
muMath. After completing them, you can use the other 
muMath files without much difficulty, with the aid of the 
printed documentation. 

The remaining five lessons teach the muSimp language — 
to a point. The trouble is. they arc so beautifully written, you 
will feel somewhat lost when, after the fifth lesson, you must 
Mart learning from the printed documentation, which is much 
more terse than the lessons. The lessons really "take you by the 
hand": the printed material works in a way which is actually 
similar to the way the system is structured internally: defining 
itself in terms of itself. 

It was a frightening experience at first, trying to learn from 
the printed discussion of muSimp. but 1 finally got used to it. 
After a year and a half. I think I can appreciate the concise style. 
The documentation has been improved considerably, since 
the original muSimp-79 version, but there is still room for 
improvement. The function READ is not documented at all 
(probably an oversight). 

Considerable information is included about the various 
property lists used by PARSE, but the definition of PARSE 
itselt is missing I had to dig out the internal (Lisp) form to see 
how it works. And it is only by seeing how PARSE works, that 
some of the documentation which is included becomes intel- 
ligible. 

muAtath can handle a wide variety of symbolic math 
problems, so whenever it fails to come up with an expected solu- 
tion or simplification, it leaves you wondering why. The only 
way to find out why is to delve into the source files themselves 
and uncover the methods used by muMaih. I've also found 
this to be one of the best ways to learn about important tech- 
niques which arc not discussed in the lessons or in the printed 
documentation (such as storing function definitions on 
property lists). 

Another interesting approach is simply to experiment with 
nm Math. In the examples which follow, the symbol " -•" will 
mean "simplifies lo." 

8 A (I 2) — 2 A (3 2). 

but 

343 A ( I 2) doesnY simplify. 

this is because ARITH works with a very short list of primes: 
(2 3 5). If you reassign: 

PRIMES: '(2 3 5 7)$ 
then. 

343*(l 2) - 7*(3 2). 
Some complex arithmetic is possible (» I is i): 

(I + #I) A 2 — 2*#l. 
but 

(2*#I) A (I 2) 
appears to be too much to ask. even with both trig files loaded. 

With the LOG file loaded. 

LOG (2 A X. 2) — X. 
(the second argument is the base), and 

30 October 1 982 * Creative Computing 



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LOG (8, 2) — 3 

(an improvement in the latest version). 

nniMaih forces the user to do a certain amount of crucial 
decision-making by setting what are called control variables. 
For example, if the control variable NUMNUM has the value 2. 

2 * (X + I) — 2 + 2»X. 
and if NUMNUM is 2. 

2+ 2*X — 2 * (I + X). 
If NUMNUM is 30. 

(X + 2) • (X ♦ 3) — 6 + 5*X + X A 2. 

but. and this is perhaps the biggest weakness ol muMalhi it 
cannot factor even asimplcquadraticsuchasthconeabove. And 
yet, with the equation-solving files loaded. 

SOLVE (X A 2 ♦ 5*X + 6 = = 0. X) — 

{X= = 2. 

X== 3} . 

even though the former task is easily reducible to the latter. The 
manufacturer says (in one of the lessons) that they are working 
on it for future releases. 
You would expect: 

X/(X*Y) — l/Y. 

but one day I couldn't seem to make it happen. I finally reali/ed 
that the problem lay with the control variable EXBAS which 
needs must be a positive multiple of 2 in order for the cancel- 
lation to work. Now EXPBAS being a positive multiple of 2 
is supposed to allow such things as: 

(X*Y) A 2 — X A 2 • Y*2. 

In order to make sense out of all this you must realize that in- 
ternally, a fraction A B is equivalent to A * B* I (actually the 
list: (* A ( A B I)) ). so the X*Y in the denominator of the can- 
cellation example is really a factor of the form: (X*Y) A I, which 
explains why the state of EXPBAS is so crucial, in a problem 
which seems to have nothing to do with exponents. 

The control variable DENNUM must be a negative multiple 
of IS in order to get: 

I/X+ l/(X+ I) — 

(1 + 2*X)/ (X *(l ♦ X)). 
but then DEN DEN must be a positive multiple of 3 if you want 
the denominator multiplied out, and so it goes. 

Guiding muMaih through a tricky problem of adding 
rational expressions sometimes seems to take as much skill as 
doing the problem yourself. Of course. muMaih is especially 
impressive with a really tedious problem such as (I + X) A 20 
(PWREXPD must be 2). 

I have found the trig and calculus capabilities ol mu Math to 
be surprisingly good: muMaih will differentiate just about any 
function you give it. since it knows all the standard rules. 
Integration is. of course, the real test. 

INT(l/(X A 2 + 5»X + 6). X) — 

LN (( 4 2*X)/(6 ♦ 2*X)). 

which can be further simplified only by a subsequent re- 
evaluation of the answer, with NUMNUM and DENDEN set 
to 2. A careful study of the two integration source files reveals 
that the above problem is done by completing the square. Since 
nit Math can't factor quadratics, there is no way it could do the 
problem by partial fractions. But it is clear, even without 
examining the source files, that muMaih really doesn't know 
anything about partial fractions, since it can't integrate 

I / (X A 3 + I), 

October 1 982 ° Creative Computing 31 



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muMath, continui 

even it you do the factoring for it. muMaih appears to be able to 
do integration by parts, successfully integrating such things as 

V2 • #E*X 

(~l is e), hut it you look at the source code, what you lind is that 
muMath knows man) ol the special reduction formulas, which 
one normally derives using parts. Surprisingly. muMath can*t 
integrate 

X * (I + X) A (I 2). 

which is easy using parts. 

I he latest version ol muMath (MuSimp muMath-80) in- 
cludes three source files which were not in the pre\ ious version: 
TAVI OR 1)11 . I IM.DIF, and SIGMA.ALG. 

The file TAYLOR.DIF, which consists of a single function 
definition, generates lay lor polynomials. For example. 

TAYLOR (TAN (X). X. 0. 5) • 

X + X*3/3 ♦ 2*X A 5 15 . 

Expansions about points other than arc "multiplied out" 
whether you like it or not. This turns out to be inherent in the 
algorithm used, but one can easily define: 

FUNC1ION IAYI OR I (IX. VAR. POINT. 

ORDER) . 

EVSUB (TAYLOR (EVSUB (EX. VAR. 

VAR+POINT). VAR. 0. ORDER). VAR. 

VAR-POINT) 

ENDFUN $ 

Now. 

TAYLORI (IN l\>. X. I. 5) • 

I + X ( l+X) A 2 2 ♦ ( l+X) A 3 3 

( | + X)*4 4 + ( l + X) A 5 5. 

LIM.DIF. as its name suggests, calculates limits, using the 
differentiation machinery ol muMath. lor example: 

I 1M ((X SIN (X)) X*3. X. 0) — 

1/6. 

1.IM ((I ♦ 2*X) A <3 X). X. 0)~ 

#E A 6 . 

L1M (LN (X) X. X. P1NF) • 

IVI-'RO . 

In the first two examples, the limit is understood to be from 
the right (otherwise an additional argument to I.IM must be 
used). I he last example shows the use ol PINF, to denote 
positi\e infinity, and PZERO. to indicate that the limit of is 
approached through positive values. II weask mu Mai h lo do a 
more general example, e.g. 

I 1M ((I + A*X) A (B/X). X. 0): 

a curious thing happens: muMath starts asking for additional 
information. 

@: 

777 \ 777 

ENTER SIGN (0 + ).' 

A single character response of "+" is accepted and the 
computation immediately resumes, finally producing the ex- 
pected answer. 

+E A (A*B) . 



\s you would guess, the file SIGMA. ALG does summations 
(and products too). For example: 

SIGMA <K A 2. K. I. 100) - 338350 

SIGMA (I K"2. K. I. 20) • 

1 729997573 1 54264 1 10838475198270720 

In some cases, it can even handle a sum with a variable number 
ol terms: 

SIGMA <K A 2. K. I. N) • 

(l + N 3*(I + N) A 2+2*(I + N) A 3) 6 

SIGMA (I 2 A K. K.,0, N-l) - 

( 2+2 A (DN)) 2 A N 

Incidentally, if you want the result in another form, you must 
re-evaluate the answer with appropriate flag settings For 
example, the above result was obtained even with 1)1 N'NUM 
- 3. But then. 

1 VAI.(@) — 2 2 A (I N) 

(The atom @ is always bound to the result of the previous 
computation. ) If LIM.DIF is loaded along with SIGMA Al G. 
the prospect of infinite series arises. As far as I can tell, this is 
limited to geometric and telescoping series (we can*t expect 
miracles). Also, its best not to have LIM.DIF loaded unless you 
need it. as it interferes in an odd way with the finite sum activity 
of SIGMA, e.g. asking (twice!) tor the sign of LN(2) during 
the evaluation of a finite geometric series with common 
ratio I 2. 

When I first started in with muMath. it was the symbolic 
math which fascinated me most. And it is indeed an ama/ing 
accomplishment, especially considering the limited memory 
space. Also. I understand that thereare problems in physics and 
engineering which can be rendered tractiblc only by using a 
combination of numerical and symbolic methods 

I really don't know how uselul nut Math would be to a person 
who doesn't already know the relevant mathematics. I would 
love to see what would happen with muMath in the hands of 
my beginning algebra students, but I haven't yet had the 
opportunity. I really believe a person could learn some math- 
ematics just by learning to use nut Math, but this is only specu- 
lation. 

What excites me most now is the muSimp language itself 
Programming in muSimp involves using, in a very concre'e 
way, the same techniques of inductive definition, building com- 
plex structures from simple ones, and then analy/ing and 
operating on those structures inductively, that are fundamental 
to theoretical work in set theory and logic. It also turns out to 
be much more useful as a general purpose language than I 
originally suspected, particularly now that you can easily link 
muSimp to your own machine language routines. 

muSimp is also an excellent bridge between "traditional" 
programming languages and Lisp. Based on my own ex- 
perience. I think it would be very easy and natural for anyone 
accustomed to Pascal or PL I to start right in with muSimp. 
but then when he subsequently (I would say inevitably) dis- 
covers Lisp, it will seem natural too. I feel, however, that any 
further discussion of the muSimp language should be con- 
ducted in the context of Lisp itself and Lisp surface languages 
generally. 

The mti Math package is certainly an impressive piece of 
work. Although I am particularly interested in its potential asa 
teaching tool, it will undoubtedly find uses in other areas as 
well. But at any rate, the time I have spent with muMath and 
muSimp has been challenging and a great deal of fun. D 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



33 



1S-80 MicroPilot 




Writing Courseware on the TRS-80 



ft Reed Hardy and Eliot S. Elfner 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: TRS-80 MicroPilot 
Type: Programming Language 
System: TRS-80 Model I. III. 32K 
Formal: Disk 
Language: Machine 

Summary: Easy and direct route to 
custom C.A.I, software 
Price: $79.95 
Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

1800 One Tandy Center 

Ft. Worth. TX 76102 



After using Radio Shack's MicroPilot 
(formerly known as Pilot Plus) to write 
about 5000 lines of tutorial software, we 
feel qualified to praise and criticize this 
version of Pilot. 

Pilot has become the generic name for 
a programming language that is especially 
well suited for authoring and executing 
CAI educational programming. There are 
now several versions of Pilot in fairly 



Dr. R. Reed Hardy. Associate Professor ot 
Pyachology, St. Norhen College. De Perc. Wl 
54115. 

Dr. Khot S. I Ifner. AaUCilM Professor of Dusiness 
Administration. St. Norbert College, De Pere W| 
541 1. S. 



common use. each of which has its own 
strengths and weaknesses. 

This review is not intended to be a 
complete comparison of MicroPilot with 
other versions of Pilot. It is simply a 
description of the authors* experience 
with MicroPilot. 

Let me begin by praising Radio Shack 
for their initiative in developing Micro- 
Pilot and thanking them for allowing us 
to use a pre-publication version so that 
we could begin authoring programs at 
least six months earlier than would other- 
wise have been possible. 

Strengths 

The strengths of MicroPilot lie in its 
efficiency for educational/interactive 
programming. With MicroPilot you can 
ask a question, get an answer, evaluate 
the answer and appropriate feedback with 
three or four simple commands. You can 
keep track of a student's progress so that 
you can automatically start him where he 
left off when he logs onto the system. All 
of these characteristics are common to 
most forms of Pilot. 

The features that make MicroPilot 
shine are its edit/run capability, its graph- 
ics, its sound generation capability, and 
its record keeping commands. 

There is also a graphics screen genera- 
tion utility (Graphics/QLT) that allows 
the user to "draw" a screen and store it 
on disk for use in programs. These screens 
are developed during both programming 
and execution, much more quickly than 
screens developed using graphics com- 
mands in most cases. (Note: this utility 

34 



will not run on machines without lower 
case capability.) This screen generation 
utility can also be used to allow the 
student to "draw" a screen which can 
then be saved for later evaluation or 
simply dumped. 

Another MicroPilot strength is the 
editor that is included with the software. 
The editor is essentially the same as that 
used for Level II Basic which makes it 
very convenient for those who are accus- 
tomed to using Radio Shack Basic. 

During program authoring. MicroPilot 
allows the author to run a program start- 
ing with any specified line number, exe- 
cute any valid MicroPilot command di- 
rectly, break into a program and then re- 
enter the program where it was interrupt- 
ed by typing "continue." Lines and char- 
acters can be edited with ease. 

There are other strengths that those 
who aren't familiar with other versions of 
Pilot may not appreciate. For example, 
there are commands to clear the screen 
and home the cursor (N:), delay program 
execution for any specified number of 
seconds (D.N), pause until a key is pressed 
(W:). and print text on the printer instead 
of the screen (P:). 

These are functions that can be accom- 
plished with other versions of Pilot by 
using ASCII codes or other roundabout 
methods, but MicroPilot makes their use 
a breeze. Another advantage relative to 
other versions of Pilot is that the author 
can run a program without loading special 
execution software. This makes editing 
and general debugging much faster. 

Given all of the above praises, you may 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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A case in point CVTRON MASTERS' 
In the far-flung future, small armies of CVTRONS — 
Cybernetic Electronic Devices — have replaced large- 
scale warfare by sentient beings as the instrument for 
settling planetary disputes. Each army consists of shooter 
units wielding laser cannons, kamikaze-like mine cytrons, 
and devastating missiles. Bunker cytrons and anti-missiles 
serve to shield against enemy assaults 





To command these deadly but mindless machines is a 

military genius, who after long and rigorous training, has 

earned the revered title of. . CVTRON MASTER! 

Such is the power of the Cytron Master that the fate of 

an entire world hinges on his finely-honed skills. 

Here, then, is your challenge — to become one of the 

Cytron Masters. The path may not be easy, but it 

sure is a lot of fun! 

To get started today, simply travel to the nearest 

computer or game store on your planet 

$39.95. On mini floppy disc for your 48K Apple'll with Applesoft 
ROM card or Apple III ATARI* version comins this fall! 

Also available now: GALACTIC GLADIATORS; 
another RapidFire game! 





Apple is a registered trader 







VISA arid M/C holders can order by calling 800-227-1617, ext 335 (toll free). 
In California, call 800-772-3545, exr. 335. To order by mail, send your che 
Strategic Simulations Inc, 465 Fairchild Drive, Suite 108, \Mountain View, CA 9.4043. 
( California residents, add 6 5% sales tax.) 






Writing Courseware, continued. 



be beginning to think that MicroPUot is 
nearly perfect. Well, don't run out anil 
buy it without finishing this article. Along 
with its strenths. MicroPUot has several 
significant weaknesses. 

Weakness 

Probably the single most damaging 
weakness in MicroPUot is the fact that 
the student user has very easy access to 
the program. Any student with elemen- 
tary programming ability can list a pro- 
gram, change it. and lave it with little 
difficulty. 

These operations can be done only 
while the user is in "command" mode, 
and when a MicroPUot program is run- 
ning, the student would not normally be 
able to do any of the above dastardly 
deeds. However, there are several ways a 
student can find himself in command 
mode. The following is a list of some of 
these: 

1) Since the Model I version of Micro- 
Pilot does not come with an Initial Pro- 
gram Load utility ll.P.L. utilities automat- 
ically begin the execution of a specified 
program when the computer is turned 
on), the student must either be supervised 
during initial program load or he must 
load and run his own program from the 
command mode. 

2) Since MicroPUot has no ON ERROR 
GO TO command or its equivalent, any 
error (e.g.. the student enters an O when 
the program expects 0. or makes an error 
in giving his log-on file code) will cause 
the program to crash and come down in 
command mode. 

?>) In addition to the above problems, 
there is no easy way to disable the Break 
key which halts execution and puts the 
user in command mode. 

Before MicroPUot can be considered a 
serious educational tool, this easy access 
to command mode must be corrected. In 
other versions of Pilot, this has been done 
by separating the program execution 
software from the authoring software. 
This effectively prevents the listing or 
modification of programs by the student. 
If a program crashes under such circum- 
stances, the student user can usually do 
only one of two things; 1 1 seek help from 
an assistant, or 2) type run and start again. 
This is as it should be. 

As things stand with MicroPUot. a 
reasonably competent programmer could 
list test items and. by interpreting the 
program, get the correct answers before 
taking the lest. An even more insidious 
possibility is that the student could dir- 
ectly modify his disk file indicating perfect 
performance on all unit quizzes without 
ever going through the course. This 
characteristic of MicroPUot makes it 
unsuited to some CAI applications. 

While the easy access to command 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



mode is the major problem with this 
version of TRS-MO MicroPUot. there are a 
few other software characteristics that 
make for programming difficulties: 

The programmer cannot POKE a value 
into a memory location in MicroPilot. 
nor can he call and execute a machine 
language program. 

There is no way to check the DOS 
Directory from MicroPUot. or to specify 
the drive number when loading and saving 
programs and/or student records. 

The documentation of the record keep- 
ing command is so unclear and incom- 



The genera/ 

documentation that is 

sold with MicroPilot 

assumes no former 

programming on the 

part of the user. 



plete that the programmer literally has to 
find out for himself by trial and error how 
the commands work and what they do. 
(Note: Always be sure you close a file 
immediately after reading or writing, or 
you could clobber the directory on your 
disk and lose access to all the programs 
on that disk.) 

The general documentation (hat is sold 
with MicroPUot assumes no prior pro- 
gramming experience on the part of the 
user. Thus, it is very awkward and ineffi- 
cient for the user who already has a 
programming background. 



A disadvantage of MicroPilot relative 
to Basic is that it is limited to 32K. disk 
configurations of the TRS-MO Model I. or 
Model III. Thus, those with IbK. level II 
machines cannot use courseware devel- 
oped in MicroPilot. However, courseware 
programmed in Level II Basic could be 
used in such configurations. 

MicroPilot vs. Basic 

Some comments are appropriate on the 
relative merits of MicroPilot and Basic as 
CAI courseware authoring languages. 
Basic is a full-fledged, flexible, program- 
ming language, capable of a wide variety 
of programming applications, including 
the development of CAI courseware. 
However, mastering Basic requires a great 
deal of programming skill, anil expertise. 

MicroPilot. on the other hand, can be 
implemented in simple applications quite 
easily. Almost anyone wishing simply to 
present some material, and check for 
understanding, could pick up the Micro- 
Pilot syntax quickly. However, taking 
advantage of the complete range of 
MicroPUot commands, and linking con- 
tingent feedback and progress skillfully, 
as required in good CAI courseware. 
demands the same level of ability and 
skill required of a Basic programmer. It 
seems that intricate CAI courseware 
would be equally difficult to program with 
either MicroPilot or Basic. 

So if you are already a hot-shot Basic 
programmer you can probably get along 
without MicroPUot. but if you are 
expecting to limit your programming to 
educational and especially tutorial pro- 
gramming, you will probably find Radio 
Shack TRS-80 MicroPilot the easiest and 
most direct route to writing excellent 
software. □ 



MADAME 
0LG/\ 

KNOWS ALL. 




"JuM hann on. I'm runninu ■ Karen!" 



37 



Mentor Master and The Game Show 




It's Academic 



Patricia D. Glenn 



Did you buy an Apple II because "The 
kids can learn with it?" Or do you have an 
Apple or two in your classroom for 
Computer Assisted Instruction? Have you 
discovered that existing CAI courseware 
is either too expensive or not available 
for the courses you want to teach? Are 
your programming skills too limited to 
allow you to write your own lessons? 

If you answered yes to most of these 
questions, then DataTech has a partial 
solution for you. This company has cre- 
ated an authoring system for courseware 
development to be used by the parent or 
teacher with limited computer 
experience. The program is called 
Mentor. Mentor should not be confused 
with Pilot. Logo or Ticcit as it is not a 
CAI authoring language. It is. instead, a 
programmed template that allows an 
educator to prepare instructional units 
composed of text, questions and 
graphics. 

Structure 

The Mentor user needs to know only 
how to insert a disk in the drive, turn on 
the Apple and type. The program is self- 
instructing. However, because the pro- 
gram uses a unique DOS. it is necessary 
to insert the disk before turning on the 
computer. This is clearly indicated on the 
first page of the documentation. 



Patricia D. Glenn. 1599 Mrlrnse Ave. Columbus. 
OH 4.1224. 



creative computing 



SOFTWARE PROFILE 



N 



Mentor Master and The 
Game Show 

Type: CAI Authoring and playback 
system 

System: Apple II + .48K 

Format: Disk (Apple DOS 33) 

Language: Applesoft 

Summary: Of its type, good for the 
price 

Price: 



Mentor Master diskette and 


manual $39.50 




Mentor Master and The Game- 


Show diskette and 




manual $62.00 




Picture File Diskettes: 




Geology 


$31.00 


Oceanography 


23.50 


Space Science 


29.50 


Meteorology 


29.50 


Human Anatomy 


25.00 


Plant Anatomy 


20.50 


Cells/Genetics 


25.00 



Manufacturer: 

DataTech Software Systems 
19312 East Eldorado Dr. 
Aurora. CO 80013 



The copy-protected program disk is 
called the Mentor Master and is used to 
create student diskettes. When the 
Mentor Master disk is booted, you are 
greeted by several text pages describing 
what you are about to do. This is followed 
by the Mentor Master Index consisting of 
nine options numbered to 8 (see Figure 
1). 



Figure 1. 



Mentor Master Index 

- Run the Demonstration Mentor 
Program 

1 - How to Construct a Complete Student 
Diskette 

2 - Copy the Mentor Program onto a 
Blank Diskette 

3 - Write a New Instructional Unit to be 
Added to a Student Diskette 

4 - Read. Edit or Add to an Existing 
Instructional Unit 

5 - Copy a Picture From One Diskette 
Onto Another 

6 - Create. Change or Verify Table of 
Contents 

7 - Read the Catalog of a Diskette 

8 - The Game Show Index (only on disk 
containing The Game Show) 



38 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Finally 
i can afford 



you can; 

to satisfy 

your lust for 

power. 




ZX8I 



Ha fin ffa ml Qa Q3 mtlrl 

^^^^^ unplot rem run rand return f pc • PRINT 

fflffiffl EB IS EH M Mllfl 

TAN 

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j| 3 m^^Ttg m v* amttg ■mrn ■KZ3 ■ ^* hvm ««m m;my ;% 

on hp ran fan Pfi rti ■ m niii 

SOR ,.\i LEN P 

COPY CLEAR CONT . SCROLL Nr ■ ' PAUSE 

sail EB IS IS Ml - 



SP*CE 



IN KEY$ NOT 



For $ 99.95 you can have a 
foil powered personal computer. 



The ZX81 is also very convenient to 
use. It hooks up to any television set to 
produce a clear 32-column by 24-line 
display. And you can use a regular cas- 
sette recorder to store and 
recall programs by name. 
What you get. When 
you order your ZX81 , you 
get everything you need to 
start programming. 
It comes with connectors 
for your TV and cassette 
recorder, an AC adaptor, and 
i free programming guide and 
operating manual that com- 
Sinclair programs are available . pletely documents the capabil- 




Most people know by now that the 
ZX81 from Sinclair Research is the 
lowest priced personal computer in 
the world. 

But serious program- 
mers are looking for more 
than a low price. They're 
looking for true computer 
power. And that's where 
the ZX81 surprises a lot 
of people. 

Just look at the key 
board and you'll get 
some idea of the 
ZX81 's power. It 
has more than 60 
BASIC commands 
20 graphic symbols, and complete 
mathematical functions. And there's 
even more power that you can't see. 
A breakthrough in personal 
computers. The ZX81 offers features 
found only on computers costing two 
or three times as much. 

Just look at what you get: 

• Continuous display, including mov- 
ing graphics 

• Multi-dimensional string and nu- 
merical arrays 

• Mathematical and scienti 
fie functions accurate 
to 8 decimal places 

• Unique one-touch 
entry of key words 
like PRINT, RUN 
and LIST 

• Automatic syntax er- 
ror detection and easy 
editing 

• Randomize function useful for both 
games and serious applications 

• Built-in interface for ZX Printer 

• IK of memory expandable to 16K 

• A comprehensive programming 
guide and operating manual 



itiesoftheZX81 
Options and add-ons. Like any 
full-powered computer, the ZX81 can 
be expanded and upgraded. 

Its IK memory can be expanded 
to over 16K just by plugging the 
Sinclair Memory Module onto 
the back of the unit. The cost 
is only $49.95. 

Sinclair has also published 
pre-recorded programs on cas 



charge. Even after that, you can take 
advantage of our national service-by- 
mail facilities for a minimum fee. 
Order now and try it out for 10 
days. Simply send the coupon along 
with a check or money order. For 
faster delivery, call our toll-free num- 
ber and use your MasterCard or VISA. 

You have 10 days to try out the 
ZX81. If it isn't all we say it is, just 
send it back and well refund your 
money. 

Why wait any longer? With the Sin- 
clair ZX81, you can finally afford to 
have the computer power you've al- 
ways wanted. 

Call toll free 800-543-3000. Ask 
operator #509. In Ohio call: 
800-582-1364; in Canada 
call: 513-7294300. Ask 
for operator #509. 
Phones open 24 hours 
a day, 7 days a week. 
Have your MasterCard 
or VISA ready. 
These numbers are for 
orders only. If you just want 




settes for your ZX81 . We're con- Free guide to programming information, please 




stantly coming out with new pro- 
grams, so well send you our latest 
software catalog when you order 
your computer. 

How did we do it? The 
question most often asked 
about the ZX81 is, "How 
can so much computer 
power cost so little money?" 
16K Memory Module The answer is that Sinclair 
Research simply took a different 
approach. Our only goal was to make 
programming power as affordable as 
possible. So we developed a radical 
new design that cuts costs dramati- 
cally without cutting computer power. 
For example, our unique Master Chip 
replaces as many as 18 chips used in 
other personal computers. 

The success of the ZX81 speaks for 
itself. It is now the fastest-selling per- 
sonal computer in the world. And we 
stand behind our product. If anything 
goes wrong in the first 90 days, well 
repair or replace your unit free of 



write: Sinclair Research Ltd., 
2 Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061. 

To order call toll free: 800-543-3000. 



«™-o 1 MAIL TO: Sinclair Research Ltd.. 

| One Sinclair Plaza. Nashua. Ml 03061. i 




noes* qty. amount! 


ZX81 


$99.95 






1 KiK Memory 
| Module 


$49.95 






1 Shipping and 
, Handling 


$4.95 




$4.95 1 


[ 'U.S. dollars 


TOTAL 










i 1 


1 


1 Cuv Stale Zip 



Sinclair ti I imcX'SincIair 

computers und< i irch Ltd. 



Mentor Master, continued. 



Lesson Development 

The Index suggests "If this is your first 
time, select #0 then #1." Selecting Option 
#0 provides you with a rather uninspiring 
demonstration program. Next, you select 
Option ffl: "How to Construct a Com- 
plete Student Diskette." This option is 
four pages of text referring to four other 
options, giving some cautions and event- 
ually referring you to Option #2: "Copy 
the Mentor program onto a blank 
diskette." 

If you are still undaunted, you select 
Option m when you are returned to the 
Index. There, you are presented with two 
more pages of explanatory text and a list 
of directions to follow. If you follow the 
directions faithfully, you will have a 
student diskette at the end of the process. 

Returning to the Index, you decide to 
try Option #3: "Write a New Instructional 
Unit." A word of caution: plan your lesson 
on paper first. Mentor lessons are tutorials 
and have the following form: 

1. Information. 

2. Question. 

3. Student Response. 

4. Feedback. 

5. Explanatory text for the next ques- 
tion. 

If the teacher has not structured the 
lessons adequately, the result will be 
worse than useless. Tutorial lessons of 
the type produced by Mentor will only be 
as interesting as the thought put into their 
preparation make them. Creativity of 
presentation lies with the teacher, not the 
program. This process is time-consuming, 
but ultimately worthwhile. 

Finally, in Option #3, you begin writing 
your instructional unit. First, you will be 
asked the title of your unit. As instructed, 
write down the exact title of your instruc- 



tional unit, as you will need it later when 
preparing the table of contents. Each 
student diskette can contain up to eight 
instructional units, depending on the 
number of pictures used and the length of 
the question. 

Next, you are asked to type in the name 
of the picture to be used with the unit. 
Inserting the picture itself is a separate 
operation under Option #5. Units may be 
prepared without pictures, and there can 
be only one picture per unit. 

Following the picture name, you are 
instructed to write an introduction to the 
unit. This introduction can be review, 
discussion or any text that will fit into the 
eight text "pages" of up to seven lines 
provided for by the program. 

Following the introduction, there is 
room for up to 97 true/false, multiple 
choice or fill-in (one word only, exactly 
as spelled by the teacher) questions which 
can refer to the picture for the unit. Only 
those questions coded for a picture will 
offer it and students can toggle back and 
forth between the picture and the text. 

After each question, there is a provision 
for eight to twelve further lines of text. 
This text can be an explanation of the 
question, discussion, new material or 
whatever you wish. Normally, the test is 
immediately followed by a question about 
the material. After the unit is completed 
and the picture added, the table of con- 
tents is created and the unit is complete. 
Not bad for $39.95. But there's more.... 

Editing Completed Units 

As the teacher is entering the questions 
and text when preparing an instructional 
unit, there is no need to worry about 
hyphenation or truncation of words as 
text arrangement is taken care of by a 



word processing sub-routine within the 
program. This allows text to be entered 
without concern for margins, which is a 
nice touch. 

If. in spite of the self-instructing fea- 
tures of Mentor, you make a mistake in 
your instructional unit, you can correct it 
with the editor (see Figure 2). which 
allows you to make changes in questions 
or text, add questions, or delete entire 
instructional units. 



Figure 2. 



Editor Menu 

1 - Transfer Existing Unit From Diskette 
Into the Computer's Memory 

2 - Add More Questions to the Unit Now 
in the Computer's Memory 

3 - Scan Entire Unit Now in Computer's 
Memory 

4 - Edit Unit Now in Computer's Memory 

5 - Change in Use/Standby Status of 
Questions in Computer's Memory 

6 - Transfer Unit to Permanent Storage 
on Diskette 

7 - Return to Mentor Master Index 

8 - Delete a Picture or Instructional Unit 



The Game Show 

What about The Game show? The 
$62.00 version of the Mentor disk includes 
a program called The Game Show. This 
is an animated hi-res graphic shoot-'em- 
up loosely based on video games of the 
same type. It is intended for two players 
or two groups of players and shows an 



Bit Pit 



Chas Andres 



aetz WHILE XOU'KE \ 

/m rH£/te, cam yoo J 

XtMOVt ny DISK Jf~ 
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42 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Explore the excellence of your ZX81 with a 







nCnOPBK 64k memory extension for $179.95 
Give your diminishing memory more byte. 



MEMOPAK 64K RAM $179.95 

The Sinclair ZX81 has revolutionized 
home computing. The MEMOPAK 64K 
RAM extends the memory of ZX81 by a 
further 56K to a full 64K. It is neither 
switched nor paged and is Directly 
Addressable. The unit is user trans- 
parent and accepts such basic com- 
mands as 10 DIM A (9000) It plugs 
directly into the back of ZX81 and does 
not inhibit the use of the printer or other 
add-on units. There is no need for an 
additional power supply or leads. 

Description of memory 

0-8K . . Sinclair ROM 
8-16K . . . This section of memory 
switches in or out in 4K blocks to leave 
space for memory mapping, holds its 
contents during cassette loads, allows 
communication between programs, and 
can be used to run assembly language 
routines. 

16-32K . . . This area can be used for 
basic programs and assembly lanquage 
routines. 

32-64K 32K of RAM memory for 

basic variables and large arrays. With 
the MEMOPAK 64K extension the ZX81 
is transformed into a powerful com- 
puter, suitable for business, leisure and 
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of comparable systems. 

ncnoTEcn 

Memory Extention Specialists 

Memotech Corporation 

7550 West Yale Ave . Suite 200 

Denver. Colorado 80227 

Ph.(303)986-1516 



MEMOPAK 16K RAM $59.95 

With the addition of MEMOPAK 16K. 
your ZX81 will have a full 16K of Di- 
rectly Addressable RAM. It is neither 
switched nor paged and enables you to 
execute longer and more sophisticated 
programs and to hold an extended data 
base. 

The 16K and 64K Memopaks come in 
attractive, custom-designed and engi- 
neered cases which fit snugly on to the 
back of the ZX81 giving a firm connec- 
tion. 

Free service on your MEMOPAK 

Within the first six months, should any- 
thing go wrong with your MEMOPAK. 
return it to us and we will repair or 
replace it free of charge. 



Try MEMOPAK with no obligation 

You can use our MEMOPAK in your 
home without obligation. After 10 days 
if you are not completely satisfied, 
simply return it for a full refund. 



ZX81 plug-in 



IMp 



Memotech Corp. 



7550 W. Yale Ave. 



Coming soon . 
A complete range of 
peripherals: 

MEMOTECH Hi-Res Graphics 
MEMOTECH Digitising Tablets 
RS232 Interface 
Centronic Interface and 
Software Drivers 

All these products are designed to fit 
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and use the ZX81 power supply. 

Further information forthcoming. 

Suite 220 Denver, Colo. 80227 



Yes 1 I would like to try the Memopak I understand that if I'm not complete satisfied. 
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Memopak 64k RAM 



Memopak 16k RAM 



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S 179.95 



S 59.95 



4 95 



Exp. 



Total 



S 4.95 



t U.S. Dollars 



Street 



City. 



State 



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CC-10 | 



CIRCLE 200 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Mentor Master, continued... 



alien starship shooting missiles at the 
players' shuttle craft. It is operated 
entirely from the keyboard, using the tt\ 
key and the #0 key to fire at the missiles. 

Each player tries to shoot down the 
alien missile on the opposite side of the 
screen. The first player to hit an alien 
missile gets four points for a direct hit. or 
two points for a disabling hit. In order to 
keep the points gained, the player must 
immediately give the correct answer to a 
question. The questions are the true/false 
and multiple choice questions from the 
instructional units, and include the pic- 
tures used in the units. 

Different units may be combined to 
make up the question set for The Game 
Show although there can still be only one 
picture per unit. The instructional units 
are easily converted for use in The Game 
Show through the options included in the 
Game Show Index. 

Educational Value 

How you feel about the educational 
value of the Mentor progam will depend 
to a great extent on your philosophy of 
the proper uses of CAI. If you feel that 
CAI should deal exclusively with "micro- 
worlds." extensive hypothesis testing, 
variable manipulations and education- 
oriented languages such as Logo, thou 
Mentor is clearly destined to be a dis- 
appointment. Frankly. Menfor-authored 
tutorials are of the "electronic page 
turner" variety. 

However, for $39.95 it is probably 
unreasonable to expect much more than 
that from the program. But what it does, 
it does very well. It allows a teacher to 
present specific information to the 
student, and to be reasonably certain that 
the student understands it. 

Currently, and in the forseeable future, 
there is a place for such a program within 
the educational establishment. If tutorials 
and drill and practice programs are a 
means for increasing the acceptance of 
computers in the schools, then they 
should be used. 



The Mentor program 
tries very hard to be 

user-friendly to 
the inexperienced 

computer user. 



Program Design 

The Mentor program tries very hard to 
be user-friendly to the inexperienced 



computer user. In fact, it tries so hard 
that it is decidedly unfriendly to anyone 
with even basic computer skills. For 
example, in trying to meet the needs of a 
user with only one disk drive, the program 
makes no provision for using two drives. 
Considering the amount of disk swapping 
that is necessary simply to prepare a 
student diskette, it would be desirable to 
have the capacity to use two drives if 
they were available. 

The disk is copy-protected and unlist- 
able. so it is impossible to modify the 
program. This copy protection is probably 
responsible for most of the program 
design problems I have found. 

The program has two responses to the 
student's input: "You're right," and 
"Sorry, try again." This. I think, ignores 
one of the strengths of CAI — the use of 
varied motivational techniques— and 
there is no way for the teacher to change 
these responses. 

When I prepared my first instructional 
unit. I didn't know the program would 
accept only one-word fill-in answers. My 
question required two words, When the 
student diskette was run, the program 
crashed when it came to the fill-in and 
refused to go any further. No matter what 
I entered, it endlessly repeated "Sorry, 
try again." The only escape was the 
RESET key. 

Beginning to study a Mentor unit is a 
lot like going down the first hill on a 
roller coaster. The only way to get off is 
to ride it to the end. Once a student has 
begun a unit, the only exits are completing 
the unit or hitting the RESET key. If you 
must stop, you will have to begin the unit 
again. 

Students are given three opportunities 
to answer, and are then given the correct 
answer, which must be entered before 
the program will proceed. The learning 
process could probably have been better 
served by having the program branch to 
an explanation of the troublesome mater- 
ial after two or three incorrect answers. If 
this is too complex, perhaps it could at 
least return to the explanatory material 
presented earlier. 

Mentor makes no provision for class 
management. The teacher has no way of 
knowing who has used the unit, what units 
they studied, how well they did. or what 
their problem areas were. This kind of 
feedback is essential. It is through a 
knowledge of how course material is 
being used that a teacher is able to refine 
the presentation. I suspect this lack is 
caused by the author's determination to 
get the entire program and all the instruc- 
tions on one disk. I would rather have 
had a management system with the in- 
structions in the printed documentation. 
Still, for the price. I am probably asking 



for too much. Mentor is not a bad pro- 
gram although it could be less ■author- 
friendly" and more "student-friendly." 

The Picture Disks 

DataTech has prepared a series of 
seven Picture File Diskettes, all in the 
natural sciences (see Figure 3). These 
disks contain generally good, clear hi-res 
graphics of common textbook diagrams 
(see Figure 4). Each diagram has the 
important points marked by either a letter 
or a number for ease of reference. Occa- 
sionally, it is difficult to determine what a 
letter is referring to. unless the student is 
familiar with a line drawing of the object 
(see Figure 5). 



The Picture Files 

would be useful from 

middle school through 

introductory 

college courses. 



The Picture Files would be useful from 
middle school through introductory 
college courses. The graphics are in full 
color, but are understandable in black 
and white. If you are teaching a course 
for which Picture Disks are available, and 
do not have the capability to do your own 
graphics, the DataTech disks will do 
much to enhance your Mentor presen- 
tation, and at a reasonable price. They 
are one of the best features of the 
program. 

If you can do your own graphics. 
Mentor has made provision for you to use 
them in the instructional units. You draw 
your graphic on hi-res page 1 . save it. and 
then use the saved picture as you would a 
graphic from a picture file diskette. 

Ease Of Use 

As I pointed out earlier. Mentor is an 
extremely user-friendly program. The 
author. Peter E. Holden, has tried to 
anticipate every mistake an inexperienced 
user might make (except for two word 
fill-in questions). Invalid input is either 
not accepted, or causes an error message 
to be displayed telling you what may be 
wrong. All instructions are displayed on 
the screen so there is very little need to 
refer to the printed documentation. The 
lone exception to this is The Game Show 
program. There was not enough room on 



44 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



/ 




We don't give them the answer. 
We show them how to get it. 



New Milton Bradley 
Educational Software. 

At last: programs that really 
make your kids think. 

Most software only offers your stu- 
dents drill and practice. That's why 
it fails your class. 

But with new Milton Bradley pro- 
grams, they don't just stumble into 
the answer . . . they understand how 
they got it. 

Clean, clear graphics make the 
lessons easy to follow, and engaging 
special effects make the learning fun. 

Easy to use for both you and 
your students. 

Just slip in the diskette. Students 
follow simple instructions; they 
don't need tutoring to operate the 
program. 

Programs progress through a range 
of skill levels. Each unit is organized 
by specific topics, to adapt easily to 
your lesson plans. 

Track their progress in seconds. 

Our streamlined management sys- 



tem shows you with a glance which 
skills each student has mastered and 
which areas need more work. Just fol- 
low the easy steps in our accompany- 
ing Teacher's Guide. 

In addition, we've created repro- 
ducible activity sheets keyed to each 
skill. Now you can give more individ- 
ual help to each student — on or off 
the computer. 




MR Mkarai 



1 



ChoaK trom wvcn units: Division Skills; Mixed 
Numbers; Decimal Skills; Vocabulary Skills: 
Prefixes. Suffixes, Root Word*; Vocabulary 
Skills: Contest l Htm; Punctuation Skills: Com- 
mas; Punctuation Skills: landmarks. Semicolon. 
Colon. 

New. Coming January, 1983: 

Ratio and Proportion 

Percent 

Building Better Sentences 

Reading Comprehension 



Only $44.95. For your Apple II 
computer. 

Each unit, sold separately, costs 
only $44.95. It's designed for Apple 
II microcomputers in 6th, 7th, and 
8th grade classrooms (required 
48KRAM, in Applesoft® BASIC). 

With Milton Bradley, your best 
students will be challenged. Your un- 
derachievers will get the help they 
need. And you'll have more time to 
do what you do best: teach. 

For more information . . . 
Phone: 413-525-641 1, ext. 2618, 
or write: Milton Bradley, 443 
Shaker Rd., East Longmeadow, 
MA 01028. We'll send you our free 
brochure. Or contact your local mi- 
crocomputer software dealer for a 
demonstration. Take advantage of 
learning tools that get honors in all 
subjects. 

Milton Bradley 

Educational 

Software. 

It's First Class. 

CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




£^0. 







THE COMMODORE 6k. ONLY $595. 

What nobody else can give you at twice the pi 



"THE COMMODORE 6 
COULD BE THE 
MICROCOMPUTER INDUSTRY'S 
OUTSTANDING NEW PRODUCT 

INTRODUCTION SINCE 
THE BIRTH OF THIS INDUSTRY." 



-SHEARSON/AMERICAN EXPRESS 



They're speaking to a group as interested 
as anyone else in the future of computers: the 
people who buy stock in the companies that 
make computers. 

If, on the other hand, you're a person 
whose livelihood depends on a personal com- 
puter—or whose leisure time revolves around 
one— what follows should impress you even 
more than it impresses investors. 

MIGHT MAKES RIGHT. 

The value of a computer is determined by 
what it can do. What it can do is largely deter- 
mined by its memory. 

The Commodore 64's basic RAM is 64K. 
This amount of power is unusual enough in a 
micro at any price. 

At $595, it is astonishing. 

Compared with the Apple II+", for in- 
stance.the Commodore 64 offers 33% more 
power at considerably less than 50% of the cost. 

Compared with anything else, it's even 
more impressive. 

PILE ON THE PERIPHERALS. 

Because the basic cost of the 64 is so low, 
you can afford to buy more peripherals for it. 
Like disk drives, printers, and a telephone modem 
that's priced at around $100. 

This means you can own the 64, disk 
drive, printer and modem for a little more than 
an Apple II + computer alone. 

HARD FACTS ABOUT SOFTWARE. 

The Commodore 64 will have a broad 
range of custom software packages including 
an electronic spreadsheet; business graphics 
(including printout); a user-definable diary/ 
calendar; word processing; mailing lists, 
and more. 

With BASIC as its primary language, it is 
also PET BASIC compatible. 

The Commodore 64 will also be program- 
mable in USCD PASCAL, PILOT and LOGO. 

And, with the added CP/M" option, you 



will have access to hundreds of exciting soft- 
ware packages. 

THE FUN SIDE OF POWER. 

The Commodore 64 can become very 
playful at a moment's notice. 

You can use Commodore's plug-in game 
cartridges or invent your own diversions. All 
will be enhanced by brilliant video quality 
(320 x 200 pixels, 16 available colors, 3D 
Sprite graphics), plus outstanding sound. 

The 64's built-in music synthesizer has 
a programmable ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, 
release) envelope, 3 voices (each with a 9-octave 
range) and 4 waveforms. All of which you can 
hear through your audio system and see in full 
color as you compose or play back. 
NOWS YOUR CHANCE. 

If you've been waiting for the "computer 
revolution," consider it as having arrived. 

Through its 25 years of existence. 
Commodore has been committed to delivering 
better products at lower prices. 

Today, the company's vertical integration 
has resulted in the Commodore 64's price per- 
formance breakthrough heralded by Shearson/ 
American Express. 

Visit a Commodore Computer dealer and 
discover the 64 soon. 

It will expand your mind without deflating 
your wallet. 



[Commodore Business Machines/Personal Systems Division 
P.O. Box 500 Conshohocken. Pennsylvania 19428 

Please send me more information on the Commodore 64. 

Name 

Address 

City 

Phone- 



State 



Zip 



Cz commodore 

. .COMPUTER.. 

CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Mentor Master, continued. 



Figure 3. Subject Content of Picture I He Diskettes. 



Geology 


Oceanography 


Ear 


Glaciers 


Winds and Currents 


Respiratory System 


River Maturation 


Surface Currents 


Kidney 


Rock Cycle 


Echo Sounding 


Endocrine System 


Water Cycle 


Ocean Floor Features 


Neuron 


Earth's Cross- Section 


Salinity Changes 


Circulatory System Schematic 


Volcanoes 


Density Currents (Mediterranean) 


Digestive System 


Earthquakes 


Deep Bottom Currents 




Tectonic Plates 


Waves 


Plant Anatomy 


Tectonic Plate Cross-Section 


Breakers 


Roots (microsection) 


Island Chain Cross-Section 




Stem Cross-Section 


Mountain Types 


Meteorology 


Leaf Cross-Section 


Relative Age 


Humidity Graph 


Photosynthesis 


Igneous Intrusions 


Temperature Layer Graph 


Flowers 


Types of Wells 


Cloud Formation Over Mountains 


Seeds 




Weather Map 


Germination 


Space Science 


Isobar Map 




Refracting/Reflecting Telescopes 


Air Mass Source Regions 


Cells/Genetics 


Electromagnetic Spectrum 


Fronts 


Animal Cell 


Stellar Evolution 


Low Pressure Air Mass Development 


Plant Cell 


H-R Diagram 


Change of State 


Mitosis 


Solar System 


Radiation Balance 


Meiosis 


Distance by Parallax 


Convection Winds 


Punnett Square 


Tides 


Convection Cells 


Sex Linked Traits 


Comets 


Global Wind Belts 


DNA 


Phases of the Moon 




Protozoa 


Eclipses 


Human Anatomy 


Energy Reactions 


Rotation (time of day) 


Heart 


Pedigree 


Earth Orbit (angle of axis, seasons) 


Brain 




Angle of Incidence 


Eye 





Figure 4. 



o HUM 


hN HEART 


JB[ A / 


®^^% 


h ^Sb^^9bh^ 


G J 


■3 ° 


J^^lUE SHOWS 
^^ CUTAWAY 



the single disk for The Game Show 
instructions, so they are on a separate 
printed sheet. Mr. Holden has thought- 
fully provided extra copies of these in- 
structions. However, this illustrates my 
point about student-friendliness versus 
teacher-friendliness. 



Documentation 

Mentor needs little documentation. 
However, it is there. The teacher's manual 
begins with the assumption that the teach- 
er knows little more than how to turn 
the computer on. In a conversational 
tone, it explains the basics of the program 
and leads the reader through the creation 
of a sample instructional unit. It does not 
repeat the instructions found on the disk, 
but rather expands and explains them. 

Included as part of the documentation 
is a print-out of the instruction sets found 
on the disk. This is convenient, as it is 
sometimes possible to forget where you 
are. and then discover that the instruc- 
tions have disappeared from the screen. 
It is also a good way to get an overview of 
the way in which the program parts mesh. 

Summary 

In all. Mentor is a good program, and a 
good dollar value. It is not a perfect 
program, but few are. Mr. Holden is to be 
thanked for providing a program that 
recognizes current thinking of the edu- 



Figure 5. 



WATER „ 
CYCLE f 




cational community, and one which at- 
tempts to ease the passage of computers 
into the classroom. This is a good pro- 
gram. With just a few minor changes, it 
would be an excellent one. □ 



48 



CIRCLE 253 ON READER SERVICE CARD- 



"The question facing schools today is not 

whether they can afford to implement 

computers into the instructional program, but 

rather whether they can afford not to! 9 



Dr. John L. Bristol, Superintendent 
Lyons Township School System 
La Grange, Illinois 








How Your School System 

Can Meet the Future 

With Radio Shack TKS-KO Computers 




LA GRANGE, 111. — The man behind one of the most 
successful computer-education programs in the nation has 
said flatly that schools must face the growing need for both 
computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer literacy 
as an educational fundamental. 

Speaking before a meeting of the Midwest Suburban 
Superintendents Association, Dr. John 
L. Bristol, Superintendent of the Lyons — ^~^— 

Township School System in La Grange, 
also said, "Computers so pervade our 
society — they're in homes, cars, indus- 
try — that knowing how to use them is as 
important as knowing how to read and 
write." 

Indeed, such important groups as the 
President's Science Advisory Committee 

have urged that all high school students 

be taught about computers. 

But the question that most people — educators and tax- 
payers alike — wonder about is how can a district reach a 
computer-education goal without breaking an already 
overstrained budget. 

If you ask Dr. Bristol, he will describe how the Lyons 
District has achieved 100 per cent computer literacy in its 
faculty and high school student body in the course of just 
two years with an investment, on a per student basis, of 
less than the average textbook. 

How did they do it? 

"We committed ourselves," Dr. Bristol explains, "first 
to defining the role of computers in the education of all stu- 
dents and then to developing and implementing a plan in 
a rapid systematic manner." 



"All" is the key word here. 

According to Dr. Bristol, the first two principles that 
their plan was to be based on were that all 3900 La Grange 
highschool students — not just gifted or math-oriented ones 
— were to learn to use computers, and that all teachers 
would, too. 



"We committed ourselves . . . to defining the 

role of computers in the education of all 

students and then to developing and 

implementing a plan . . ." 





"Teachers are the implementors of curriculum 
changes," he says, "but how could they design ways to 
use computers in their courses, and regularly give stu- 
dents 'hands-on* experience in 'course-specific' com- 
puter drills and programming, when they themselves 
were educated in a non-computerized era?" 

However, once the faculty had attained a basic famil- 
iarity with computers. Dr. Bristol says, they were ready 
to begin making specific suggestions for how the com- 
puters could be used in courses they were familiar with. 

From the expected math programs and spelling drills 
to the unexpected courses like health, music and home 
economics. La Grange teachers proposed ways they saw 
for the computers to help their students learn. 

A home economics proposal described how students 
could use the computers to help pick the proper textiles 
for clothing projects. 



"We had those who would 

implement the programs working 

on them, giving them a sense of 

both participation and control." 



In a health course, a student would be able to find out 
the effect of alcohol abuse on various parts of the body 
— or how many calories are allowed to maintain an 
ideal weight. 

Music teachers worked up an idea whereby com- 
puters could help teach basic chords and fingerings for 
a beginning guitar course. 

All these, and many others, have since been put in the 
curriculum, balanced out among the various depart- 
ments so that at least SO per cent of the students at the 
two high schools will be taking computer-assisted 
courses at any time. 

Lyons accomplished this by setting up teams to eval- 
uate the proposals and then to work with college student 
programmers and "teacher coordinators" from within 
the faculty in developing them. 

In using programmers to write the software, but not 
to run the system. Dr. Bristol says, the district accom- 
plished two things. 

"We got programs that were designed specifically to 
meet the needs of our students and curriculum. And we 
had those who would implement the programs working 
on them, giving them a sense of both participation and 
control." 



"The first priority is computer literacy on the part of all students. 

That requires that they all be taking courses that involve computers. 

They shouldn't be forced to make a choice between physics 

and computers . 



t> 



Dr. Bristol sees several advantages to following 
a pattern like that used in La Grange. 

"The first priority is computer literacy on the 
part of all students. That requires that they all be 
taking courses that involve computers. They 
shouldn't be forced to make a choice between 
Physics 1 and Computers 1 in order to gain a basic 
knowledge of computers." 

"But it also requires that there be situations 
where there is one computer for each student in a 
laboratory taught by someone who is already com- 
puter literate." 

"What is more logical than having teachers 
bring their classes to the lab periodically and teach 
them using the computers? The computer is then 
an integral part of all existing programs 
... not something for others or to be 
done by others." 



"The cost per student 

was well below that of 

the average textbook ..." 



"The students gain two ways: they 
learn about the subject and they learn 
about computers." 

"And we gain as well. We do a bet- 
ter job preparing them for the comput- 
erized future. And we improve our 
teaching by making use of an aid that 
students always find interesting." 

Nevertheless, the cost of setting up 
a program like that found in La Grange 
was surprisingly low when viewed on 
a cost-per-student basis. 

As Dr. Bristol says, the Lyons dis- 
trict instituted computer-assisted 
instruction in a big way — it is currently 
using over 250 TRS-80 computers. 
This insured not only that all La Grange 
students both can and will take 



"The students gain two ways: 
they learn about the subject and 

they learn about computers. 

And we do a better job preparing 

them for the. . .future." 



advantage of the computers, but that the district 
can show an excellent cost-per-pupil ratio. 

Assuming a cost extension of five years and use 
by approximately 8,000 students per year, the cost 
per student is $4.78 for the hardware and $2.25 for 
the programs, or a total of a little more than $7.00. 

As Dr. Bristol notes, this figure is "well below 
that of the average textbook or library book." Yet 
not a single extra staff person was added to imple- 
ment the program. 

"The cost is a pretty small portion of the aver- 
age district's $1600 annual per pupil expendi- 
tures," Dr. Bristol concludes. "Yet it may yield 
more in . . . preparing youth for tomorrow than 10 
other ways those dollars might be spent." 






College 
Programmers 




Teacher 
Coordinators 














1 1 


Science 
Teachers 


History 
Teachers 


Mathematics 
Teachers 


English 
Teachers 



At La Grange, it was the teachers themselves who decided 
what courseware was needed. Their requirements were then 
translated by teacher coordinators to programming students 
of a nearby college. 



Having established these principles. Dr. Bristol says, 
the district proceeded to implement its plan: select hard- 
ware, give all the faculty literacy instruction, let the 
staff determine appropriate applications for instruction, 
and develop programs to meet those applications. 

To make the hardware selection, they first established 
their selection criteria, then invited suppliers to make 
presentations. 

The criteria were "sophistication, easy repair, ability 
to upgrade, dependability, networking capability and 
flexibility in use." 

After surveying the available offerings, the district 
picked the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model III in two forms, 
2-disk 48K "teacher's computers" and 16K "student 
computers," connected by a Radio Shack network 
system. 





"Teachers are the implementors of curriculum changes, but how 

could they design ways to use computers in their courses . . . when they 

themselves were educated in a noncomputerized era?" 



One teacher's computer and 26 student computers, 
plus a printer, were purchased for each of eight high 
school computer labs. 

The next stage was to gain computer literacy, the abil- 
ity to use computers with pre-developed programs, 
among the faculty. In La Grange, eight teachers, who 
had previously been instructed by outside experts, 
taught the rest of the district faculty during special sum- 
mer training sessions. 





The Lyons district felt that 100 per cent literacy 
among teachers was essential for proper use of the com- 
puters, and Dr. Bristol feels this conclusion has been 
proved correct. 



Radio Shack's State-of-the-Art Classroom Computer Networks 
Mean Greater Instructional Usefulness at a Lower Cost to You 



Id lmttt*£k 







The New Network 3 

Controller and Operating 

Software Allows 

Low-Cost TRS-80 Model III 

Microcomputers 

To Access Programs 

Simultaneously! 



FORT WORTH. Tex. — Radio Shack's versatile, 
yet easy-to-use Network 3 Controller System is 
quickly becoming one of the most popular systems 
in educational computing because it allows up to 
sixteen non-disk Model III student stations to access 
a single teacher's "host" station. 

Each student can thus choose from lessons that 
are stored on disk in the host, freeing teachers from 
the burden of loading one lesson after another into 
individual stations, and giving them more time to 
spend with students who need extra help. 

As lessons with student record keeping are com- 
pleted, scores are automatically stored on the host 
disk for later review. 

Students also like the Network 3 because it 



allows them to send work off to be printed without 
waiting, and to continue with new projects 
immediately. 

Computer science classes find it especially help- 
ful since they can access most of the features of 
Disk BASIC using non-disk student stations. 

Administrators and school boards love the Net- 
work 3 because it's so cost-effective. Just one disk- 
based Model III is needed for every 16 non-disk 
units. It's like having a disk-based computer at 
every desk. 

As school districts like La Grange, Illinois, Rose- 
mount, Minnesota, and hundreds of others across 
the country have discovered, a TRS-80 Model III 
Network makes sense — and saves dollars. 



TRS-80 Courseware Can Help You "Computerize" Your School System 



FORT WORTH, Tex. — In addition to providing 
the most cost-effective equipment available, Radio 
Shack smooths the transition to CAI (computer- 
assisted instruction) by providing a large selection 
of instructional!}' sound and properly validated 
educational materials. 

Relying on outstanding teachers, administrators 
and curriculum specialists for expert advice. Radio 
Shack has designed and field-tested courseware 
packages on mathematics, programming, reading, 
history — plus aids for teacher-designed courses. 

For more information, and the name of the full- 
time Educational Coordinator in your area, call 
Radio Shack's Education Division at 800-433-5682 
toll free. In Texas, call 800-772-8538. 




Radio /hack 

1 he biggest name in little computers 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



The Friendly 
Computer Languages 



Jim Muller 




They"re everywhere these days: in 
homes, offices, laboratories, cars, indus- 
trial controls, kitchen appliances, radios 
and TV sets, security systems, and chil- 
dren's toys. "They" are. of course, the 
ubiquitous microcomputer, the millions 
of single chip devices controlling a host 
of consumer products, the board-level 
systems controlling industrial processes, 
and. of course, the desktop computer 
through which a rapidly increasing num- 
ber of laypeople are becoming involved 
in the microcomputer revolution. 

To some, this proliferation of computer 
technology heralds an exciting new revo- 
lution. To others, it is simply revolting. 

Recently, however, that negative 
opinion has begun to change, as new user- 
friendly languages arc introduced for 
personal computers. No longer does the 
newcomer to the world of computers have 
to cope with such alien words as INIT, 
CHR$. GOSUB. STRS. REM, and DIM. 
A rapidly growing number of young 
people and the young-at-heart are enter- 
ing the world of microcomputers riding 
on the back of a turtle. 

Not long ago. the turtle was an electro- 
mechanical pet that roamed the floor, 
controlled by a sizable computer and a 
simple child-oriented keyboard. Young- 
sters could manipulate the turtle through 
the keyboard to make it draw pictures on 
large sheets of paper. The turtle had a 
unique pen that it could raise or lower to 
draw figures. 

In drawing pictures of houses, animals, 
or just geometric shapes, youngsters 
gained valuable experience in logical 
thought and problem-solving. Each task 
had to be broken down into the simplest 
steps, and then assembled in a structured 
procedure to accomplish that task. If the 
drawing was not correct, they went back 
and refined the procedure until it was 
drawn the way they wanted. 



Jim Muller. President. Ytiunii Peoples" LOGO 
Association, Rithardson. TX 7S0HI. 



Now the turtle resides on the computer 
display screen in the shape of a small 
triangle. But it will still draw pictures, 
responding to simple commands to go 
FORWARD. BACK. LEFT, or RIGHT. 
These turtle graphics commands were 
first introduced to microcomputers 
through the Logo language, but are now 
being incorporated into an increasing 
number of languages and personal 
computers. 



Just as you select a 

car to suit your own 

personal tastes, 

so you should select a 

turtle graphics 

language. 



Last summer, while watching a group 
of youngsters manipulate the cybernetic 
turtle around the screen to create some 
dazzling graphics, it struck me that these 
young people needed a place in which 
they could fully explore the world of 
microcomputers and microelectronic 
technology. They needed their own orga- 



nization through which they could come 
to know what different computers could 
do, what languages such as Logo. Pilot. 
Basic and Pascal were all about. They not 
only needed the chance to explore the 
computer, they needed the challenge to 
excel. From this, the Young Peoples" Logo 
Association has evolved with a member- 
ship of Turtles that span all 50 states, and 
a growing number of foreign countries. 

At first the choices were easy. Through- 
out 1981, Logo was available only on the 
TI 99/4 computer. And, through turtle 
graphics and the sprite mode our young 
Turtles were soon developing procedures 
to accomplish all sorts of colorful things. 
We occasionally used Big Trak, the 
programmable truck from Milton Bradley, 
to help demonstrate the Turtle commands 
of FORWARD. RIGHT. LEFT, and 
REPEAT to show how a picture had to 
be broken down into each step the turtle 
was to take. 

By programming Big Trak to go around 
the Ping Pong table and under the bench, 
and to fire its phaser at the dog. for 
example, youngsters were able to visualize 
the steps needed to guide the Turtles 
around the screen to accomplish complex 
geometric tasks. 

Atari Pilot 

Then came Atari Pilot with turtle 
graphics, followed quickly by two versions 



T: "Please enter a 


distance." 


T(ype): "Please enter a distance." 




A: #A 




A(ccept): #A (#A is a variable) 




GR: *HERE 




GR(aphics): *HERE (Sets up the Label, 
"HERE." 




GR: PEN RED 




Tells the pen to draw in red "ink." 




GR: 4 (DRAW *A; TURN 


90) 


GR(aphics): 4(DRAW #A; TURN 90) Repeat 
the operations within the brackets four 
times/- -."the turtle will draw a red 
line #A units long and then turn right 
900, putting a red box on the screen. 
C(ompute): The value of #A = The value 




C: #A - #A + 2 










of #A plus 2. 




J: *HERE 




J(ump to): *HERE, or to the Label, " 
HERE," and repeat the process. 




Figure 1. 









■ CIRCLE 253 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



55 



Friendly Computer, continued.. 

of MIT Logo for the Apple II. and then 
Apple Logo. Turtle graphics is also avail- 
able through other languages and systems 
in one form or another. Of course. Big 
Trak has been available for a few years. 
offering a rudimentary introduction to 
turtle graphics. This makes it increasingly 
difficult to recommend what parents and 
teachers should buy for their own 
Turtles. 

Just as you select a car to suit your own 
personal tastes, so you should select a 
turtle graphics language. For example, 
for the novice driver. the simpler, 
economy model may be the best vehicle. 
For under $5(X). an Atari 4<K) computer 
and a colorful, easy-to-use language. Atari 
Pilot with turtle graphics, is made readily 
available to youngsters from primary 
grades up. 

In addition to offering enjoyable turtle 
graphics features and advantages. Atari 
Pilot offers the unique feature of an easy 
transition to Basic and other common 
microcomputer languages. For example, 
it shares some common format and 
editing features with Basic. 

Pilot, for Programmed Inquiry. Learn- 
ing. Or Teaching, is a very conversational 
language which uses simple line abbrevia- 
tions to prescribe the function of that 
line. It was developed initially as an easy- 
to-use authoring system for educators, 
and Atari has added turtle graphics fea- 
tures to the language to make it more 
user-friendly. (See Figure 1.) 

If I choose to retain this short program 
for drawing a box. I can do so by simply 
entering the command AUTO followed 
by the label *BOX and the program. To 
mark the end of the program, enter E: 
When listed, the program would look like 
this: 



10 


*B0X 




20 


T: 


PLEASE ENTER 


DISTANCE. 


30 


A: 


#A 




40 


*HERE 




50 


GR 


PEN RED 




60 


GR 


4(DRAW #A; 


TURN 90) 


70 


C: 


#A = »A ♦ 2 




80 


,): 


•HERE 




90 


E: 







The program is run by first clearing the 
screen to set up the graphics mode with 
GR:CLEAR. Then the Use command is 
entered "U: 'BOX. An endless series of 
red boxes will be drawn on the screen. 
However, that can be limited by simply 
changing line HO to read: 

J(*A45>: 'HERE 
Now. boxes will be drawn until the 
dimension of a side equals 5. 

Boxes and other figures can be placed 
at any coordinates on the screen. The 
turtle can draw in yellow and blue, as 
well as red. There is also a command to 



FILL a box or a house, so you can make a 
city of little boxes or colorful 
skyscrapers. 

The language offers sound effects and 
assembly language access to add some 
truly spectacular effects. It is also recur- 
sive in that commands such as 'BOX can 
be used in other procedures. It also offers 
some very interesting text manipulation 
capabilities for easy lesson programming, 
as well for developing word games. 

The greatest asset of the language is 
spectacular documentation that is heavily 
illustrated, thorough, and very easy to 
understand. Also included are two well- 
done demonstration tapes that orient the 
user to the capabilities of the language. 

However. Atari Pilot has some distinct 
limitations when compared to the various 
implementations of Logo. The language 
is much smaller in size and in scope. But. 
when it comes to the practical real-world 
situation of economically providing 
youngsters with the opportunity to 
explore the fun and excitement of per- 
sonal computing. Atari Pilot is an excel- 
lent choice and an excellent introduction 
to the Atari computers. The books that 



The sprite mode is 

especially useful 

for elementary grade 

youngsters. 



accompany the language do as much to 
make the computer user-friendly as does 
the language itself. 

Three Versions 

There are currently three versions of 
Logo available through four companies: 
TI Logo from Texas Instruments. MIT 
Logo for the Apple computer from Ter- 
rapin. Inc. and Krell Software Inc.. and 
Apple Logo developed by Logo Computer 
Systems. Inc. of Canada, and distributed 
by Apple Computer Inc. 

TI Logo requires the basic Tl 99/4 A 
console plus Extended Memory and (he 
TI Logo command module. The sug- 
gested retail price for the minimum sys- 
tem is just under $1000. The versions of 
Logo for the Apple II computer require 
at least one disk drive, extension of the 
basic memory to 64K. and the language, 
bringing the suggested retail price for the 
complete system to around $2400. The 
language alone is available from Terrapin. 
Inc. at $149.95 and from Krell Software 
for $179.95. The Krell version includes 
an extra demonstration disk called "Alice 
in Logoland." which takes the user 



through examples of virtually all of the 
capabilities of the language. Apple Logo 
is available for SI 75 and comes with two 
excellent, heavily-illustrated books. In 
terms of documentation. Apple Logo and 
Atari Pilot are the two very clear-cut 
standouts. 

All of the versions of Logo offer a turtle 
graphics mode which moves (he turtle 
around the screen to draw geometric 
shapes and patterns. The Apple versions 
each offer five pen and background colors 
whereas TI Logo offers sixteen colors. In 
the MIT versions of Logo, the shape of 
the turtle may be redefined and moved 
around the screen to create animated 
procedures. TI Logo, however, offers 32 
Sprites which may carry or look like 27 
shapes. These shapes may be any of five 
predefined shapes in the language, or they 
may be defined by the user. The shapes 
will not. however, draw lines. 

Sprites 

The sprite mode is especially useful for 
elementary grade youngsters in that it 
provides a very colorful means for them 
to become actively involved with the 
computer right away. It also provides the 
means for demonstrating wha( migh( 
otherwise be incomprehensible math- 
ematical concepts. 

For example, it is extremely difficult to 
explain the numerical concept of "zero" 
to young children. They have no knowl- 
edge of what "nothing" is. However, this 
abstraction becomes very real when they 
TELL :ALL (of the sprites to) CARRY O. 
Those sprites that are on the screen will 
then disappear. 

There is. however, an inconsistency in 
TI Logo that can be quite confusing to 
young programmers. In the Turtle Mode, 
it is possible to SETCOLOR |f» I5| and 
have the Turtle draw a red line on a white 
background. However, in the Sprite 
Mode, the computer will not accept this 
as an input. Only the pencolor can be 
specified with the SETCOLOR 
command. 

A graphics board that provides ani- 
mation capabilities for Apple Logo was 
demonstrated at the West Coast Com- 
puter Faire in March. This board allows 
32 turtles to assume shapes designed into 
the language or by the user, allows for the 
use of 16 colors, and sets the turtles in 
motion with or without the pen drawing a 
line. 

A valuable feature of the versions of 
Logo for the Apple Computer is the 
ability to select full screen or partial 
screen graphics. This can be done even 
while a procedure is in process. In the 
Turtle Mode, TI Logo reserves the bot- 
tom portion of the screen for text. In the 
Sprite Mode, the full screen is used with 
text written from the top of the screen. 



56 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



oV T\ MUSEs 

INTRODUCING 



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KNOW YOUR APPLE 




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Friendly Computer, continued.. 



Apple Logo allows the user to select 
the option of having the Turtle "wrap" or 
not. Simple commands direct the turtle 
to reverse direction when it comes to the 
edge of the screen, or simply to disappear 
off the screen. In Tl Logo, the turtle and 
the sprite always wrap around. 

Logo for the Apple offers considerably 
more flexibility in both graphic anil arith- 
metic operations through the use of 
floating point math. This allows for trigo- 
nometric, logical, square roots, and other 
math functions not possible through the 
TI integer-only system. In addition to the 
numerical flexibility, the Apple versions 
of Logo offer more graphic flexibility. 

For example, consider the following 
simple procedure: 




TO SPIRAL DISTANCE 


: ANGLE 


FORWARD 


DISTANCE 




RIGHT: 


WGLE 




MAKE "D 


:D + 1 




SPIRAL 


DISTANCE : ANGLE 


END 







Running this simple procedure on the 
Apple computer will result in the drawing 
of an ever-increasing spiral. By entering 
SPIRAL 1 144. a star will be drawn that 
will increase in size each time it is drawn. 
The screen will eventually become totally 
white with only the turtle visible as it 
continues to draw. In TI Logo, however, 
the computer will signal OUT OF INK 
after about 25 repetitions of the 
procedure. 

Apple versions of Logo provide inter- 
facing to printers and other peripherals 
through assembly language access. The 
MIT versions of Logo for the Apple offer 
SAVEPICT and READPICT commands 
for saving and reading the contents of the 
screen into and from memory. The screen 
can also be printed out. a feature that is 
especially useful for showing screen 
graphics. Apple Logo does not offer these 
commands but they can be programmed. 
TI Logo offers no interfacing capability. 
Procedures can be printed on the TI 
Thermal Printer, and programs can be 
stored on tape or disk. 

Logo and the Handicapped 

Imagine the use of Logo by the physi- 
cally handicapped wherein they have 
access to single-key commands that print 
out phrases and sentences. People with 
severe arthritis or other problems that 
limit their ability to type could still use 
the computer to communicate by entering 
a single key command. 
For example: 



TO G 
CLEARSCREEN 

PRINTER 
PRINT [YOUNG PEOPLES' LOGO ASSOCIATION] 
PRINT [1208 HILLSDALE DRIVE] 
PRINT [RICHARDSON, TEXAS 75081] 
PRINT [ ] 

PRINT [DEAR YPLA:] 
END: 



By simply typing the letter (i and enter, 
the address of the YPLA and opening of 
the letter would be printed out on the 
printer. With a menu of useful phrases 
and sentences, the handicapped have a 
new means of communication readily 
available to them. And this list can be 
altered very easily to serve new 
requirements. 

Another benefit of assembly language 
access through Apple versions of Logo is 
the ability to create new features in the 
language, such as music and sound 
effects. This also gives the user access to 



The real power of Logo 

for the Apple 

computer becomes 

evident with the 

list processing 

capabilities offered 

by each. 



16-color low-resolution graphics and the 
chance to alter the character set. Tl Logo 
allows direct access to the character set 
by which youngsters have created their 
own alphabets and codes. There is no 
access to music or sound capability in 
this version, however. 

The value of TI Logo is in its graphic 
capabilities and its user-friendliness lor 
very young children. When the idea- for 
the YPLA was being formulated last 
summer, junior high students and first 
graders used to get together around a few 
computers on a Ping-Pong table with the 
intent of duplicating their favorite arcade 
games through the computer or simply 
drawing colorful flowers. Not only did 
they all find the TI 99/4 exceptionally 
easy to use. they found that TI Logo 
offers very easy access to some exciting 
graphic and game programming 
capabilities. 

We have had a variety of games 
developed including versions of lunar 
lander, flight control, crossing the asteroid 
belt, and similar exercises. Primary grade 



youngsters have developed some very 
interesting pictures, not to mention our 
first computerized Christmas card. The 
"human factors" designed into the lan- 
guage make it an excellent choice for 
elementary and innior high schools, and 
for those age groups at home. Unfortun- 
ately, the documentation that accom- 
panies the language leaves a lot to be 
desired. 

For example, a variety of undocument- 
ed commands have been found in Tl 
Logo. FPUT. LPLIT. THING. 
NUMBER?. WORD?. THING? are 
among these. The manual accompanying 
Tl Logo was supposedly written for mid- 
dle school age children, which makes it 
difficult to understand why the joystick 
commands. JOY1 and JOY2. were 
omitted. 

Not only do these commands make the 
language competitive with several other 
child-oriented software packages, they 
offer some very interesting opportunities 
for using TI Logo with the handicapped. 
Each position of the joystick represents a 
different numerical input, and a simple 
rewiring or rebuilding of the joystick 
would offer the physically handicapped 
access to the computer. 

Documentation 

The documentation problems with Tl 
Logo are reportedly being corrected, and 
a Tl Logo Curriculum Guide is being 
published. In addition, several authors are 
preparing books on Tl Logo for various 
age groups. Thus, this problem should 
disappear, hopefully as this article is being 
published. 

The real power of Logo for the Apple 
computer becomes evident with the list 
processing capabilities offered by each. 
These capabilities tend to make these 
versions more complete computer Ian- 
gauges. However, there are some differ- 
ences worth noting. The MIT versions 
offer some editing and debugging com- 
mands which have to be programmed into 
Apple Logo. On the other hand, error 
handling in Apple Logo is generally more 
efficient in that error handling commands 
can be defined by the user. 

The MIT versions of Logo for the 
Apple and the TI 99/4 were experimental 
developments. It would appear that Logo 
Computer Systems. Inc. learned from 
these experiments and has come up with 
a more complete language. Of course, it 
is reasonable to assume that all of the 
Logo developers are Kx>king at improve- 
ments in the language. Thus, it will take 
more time to determine which version is 
going to become the "standard." 

For the parent and teacher, there are. 
indeed, some tough choices. For the 
economy-minded. Atari Pilot is an excel- 
lent choice, the subcompact model that 



October 1 982 e Creative Computing 



59 



t> 



MERRY BEE 




ABC 


Ages 5-6 


$29.95 


Word Games 


8 to Adult 


$24.95 


Early Words 


Ages 5-7 


$19.95 


Notes 


Music Drill 


$19.95 


Each disk includes 5-12 


separate programs. 





Tor fun and educational too. 
Full use of graphics and sound. 
Apple 11+ 48K. Specify 3.2 or 3.3. 
Add $2.00 shipping per order. 



MERRY BEE 
COMMUNICATIONS 

815 CREST DRIVE 

OMAMA. NE 68046 

(402) 592-3479 



Specializing in Apple software. 
Consultants in interactive video. 



Apple is a trademark ol Apple Computer Co. 



CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Kits Now 
Available 



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Friendly Computer, continued... 

offers excellent economy combined with 
efficient performance. This is not only 
because of the user-friendly benefits but 
because of its similarities to other more 
readily available programming languages. 
TI Logo is an expensive version of Logo, 
the intermediate model offering some 
unique benefits that will undoubtedly be 
improved and expanded in time. The Tl 
computer is gaining rapidly in popularity 
and is being more actively supported by 
third parties, a good indication of the 
viability of the product. 

The top-of-the-line resides within the 
Apple computer. To carry the analogy a 
step further, consider the version of Logo 
offered by Terrapin. Inc. as the solid, 
comfortable, efficient, four-door sedan. 
It is an excellent, long term investment 
backed by an experienced company. But 
would you teach a first time driver in a 
Mercedes or Cadillac El Dorado? 

The Krell Software version appears to 
have more of a "luxury sports car" 
approach. It is a lean, dramatic package 
that offers comprehensive and colorful 
demonstration prtxedures. But in total, it 
is the model that requires some prior 
experience to use most efficiently. 

Apple Logo is the Grand Touring 
model — solid, comfortable, dramatic, 
luxurious, well-documented, with out- 
standing performance. It stands out 
because of its thorough attention to 
detail. 

In our Turtle Learning Centers in Irving 
and Richardson. TX. we use them all. 
Each has its own followers and supporters. 
Each language has its own advantages. 
But. most important, there is something 
for everyone. 

Many computer owners may find it 
hard to relate to that statement. This is 
why the analogy of languages to auto- 
mobiles goes far beyond selection in a 
showroom. A few years ago. I was actively 
involved in promoting an employer's 
products to the road racing field. Race 
drivers, the hobbyists of the auto industry, 
were no more fiercely loyal to their 
favorite manufacturers than are computer 
owners. 

It is from the development work of the 
hobbyists that many consumer products 
have evolved— cars, radios, TV. hi-fi, 
stereo, and now the computer. Hopefully, 
the new friendly languages will be the 
development to make consumer products 
out of computers. □ 



MicRo Information System* 
a division of M-R Intormalion Systems. Inc. 

Presents Educational Software 
desi g ned to motivate the student. 

Ipragraim available for Ihe TRS-80 
Mod III* and VIC") 

Write lor romplete catalog, to 
M-R Information Systems. In< . 
P.O. Box #71, Wayne, N.| .07470 
" fM Tandy. •" TM Commodore 



CIRCLE 220 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Turn your Apple* IE into an 

Orchard 




With software from Quark™ Engineering 



Quark Engineering brings you software specially 
designed for your Apple III. Easy-to-use products 
that dramatically increase your system's capabilities. 
And your productivity. 

You start with Word juggler™, the most easy-to-use 
word processor available for the Apple III. Word 
Juggler is written in assembly language. And comes 
with special keyboard templates to label important 
functions. 

Word |uggler retails for $295. Form letter and simple 
mailing list capabilities are included free. If you want 
even more capacity, you can interface with Apple's 
Mail List Manager for an additional $35. 

Need to check your spelling? Add Lexicheck ™. A 
high-performance spelling checker with a 
25,000-word dictionary. You can add your own 
words. And get more accurate documents, without a 
lot of proofreading. The price? Less than a penny a 
word. Only $195. 



You can even send text from Word juggler to 
computerized typesetting equipment. All you need 
is Ty peFace ™. Interface software which cuts your 
typesetting costs and eliminates re-keying errors. 
$175. 

Finally, there's Transcribe ™. A spooler designed 
especially for hard disk drives. Transcribe lets you 
use other computer functions while you're printing. 
And it's compatible with most Apple III software. 
$125. 

There's much more to tell you about Word )uggler, 
Lexicheck, TypeFace and Transcribe. See them 
at your local dealer. Or contact us 
today. We'll help you turn your 
Apple III into an orchard. And from 
then on, you'll find easy picking. 

Quark Engineering 
1433 Williams. Suite I 102 
Denver. CO 80218 
(303) 399-1096 



'Apple is a registered trademark 
o* Apple Computer. Inc. 



Quark 

See us at Applefest/San Francisco. Booth 529 
CIRCLE 250 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




e could tell you we make 
We don't have to. 




You keep Broderbund at the top of the best seller 
lists, so you must know what it takes to make a 
great game. We think our APPLE and ATARI 
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graphics second to none. But you keep ask- 
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plain fun. 



All for the 

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on diskette. 



Enjoy the magic of our growing collection. Lead 
a daring rescue mission in CHOPLIFTER. Or sur- 
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Broderbund 



Broderbund products are available at your retailer or by writing to: 
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Apple II Is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 



the finest computer games, 
You keep telling us. 




SEAFOX 

Sub against the convoy 
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Hi-res adventure 
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The arcade classic 
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PUT US OUT OF BUSINESS! THE ARCADE MACHINE lets you 
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CIRCLE 122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






w TBHome Computer* 
This is the onef 



A lot of computers i rfier a k >t . Oily one 
in its price range oflfers the most. The Tl 
Home Computet 

Better to begin with. Anyone can start 
right away with our Solid State Software"' 
Command Cartridges. I \>zens of programs 
are available in home management, educa- 
tk>n and entertainment. 

Easy to expand. Our Peripheral Expan- 
sion System gives you plug-in cards for 
memory expansion, P-Code capabilities, a 
disk drive controller and the RS2 32 Inter- 
face. You can also add a modem, speech 



synthesizer, disk drive and 80 column dot 
matrix printer 

Programming flexibility. TI BASIC is 
built into the Home Qmiputer. But it can 
also handle TI Extended BASIC, UCSD 
Pascal* Version IV.O.TI LOGO II, TMS 
9900 Assembly Language and TI PILOT. 
Programs can be stored in the optional 
Mini Memory Command Cartridge. 

High-Tech specs. 16-bit microprocessor, 
16K bytes RAM (expandable to 52K). 
26K bytes internal ROM, up t> 1 30K bytes 
external ROM. 3 simultaneous tones from 



1 10 HZ to 40,000 HZ. High resolution video. 
U. &. I.e. Single line overlay for 2nd functkm. 
Control &. function keys. 16 color graphics 
with 4 modes &. sprites. 

Sound impressive? Compare a TI Home 
Computer with the competition and really 
be impressed. You won't even 
need a computer to tell you this 
is the one. ^—^ 

Texas 
Instruments 




C 1982 Tex a* Instrument* 



I ilitorm.1 

CIRCLE 291 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Munch Man 




A Maze Muncher for Tl 



Robert W. Cashman 



creative compafciRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Munch Man 

Type: Arcade game 

System: TI-99/4 or TI-99/4A 

Formal: Command Module 

Summary: Excellent 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Texas Instruments Inc. 
P.O. Box 53 
Lubbock. TX 79408 



Texas Instruments has developed a 
series of games for the 99/4 and 99/4A 
that rival those found in arcade centers. 
Their latest. Munch Man. is a perfect 
example. It is very similar although not 
identical, to Pac-Man. and the level of 
competition that Munch Man offers will 
give the seasoned player all he can 
handle. 

The object of the game is to connect 
the passages of a maze with the contin- 
uous chain that your Munch Man leaves 
behind as a trail. For every link of the 
chain that is joined together, the player 
receives 10 points. 

While you are trying to connect your 
chain together, however, four creatures 
called "Hoonos" are pursuing you. They 
are bent on gobbling you up before you 
can complete your mission. Each one has 
a different level of intelligence so you 
must be careful in out-maneuvering 
them. 



Rt4x.'rt W. Quitman. II Hallenan Ave.. Lawrence. 
MA 01841. 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



What can you do to combat this on- 
slaught of creatures? You can locate and 
eat one of four energizers situated in the 
corners of the maze. You can't miss these. 
They look just like the state of Texas. 
The energizers give you the strength to 
capture the Hoonos and imprison them in 
the center of the maze. 

You receive 70 points for eating an 
energizer and 100 for the first Hoono that 
you catch. Every subsequent Hoono cap- 
tured doubles the number of points 
received from the previous capture. 

How long can you remain energized? 
Not long. After a short period of time, the 
maze begins to flash from blue to red 
while the captured Hoonos escape. This 
indicates that your strength is returning 
to normal. 

A player starts each game with three 
Munch Men. and the game ends, of 
course, when all of them are eaten. 
Should a player complete the chain while 
he still has Munch Men left, the game 
continues with an empty maze, four more 
energizers and four different Hoonos. 

Munch Man can be played from the 
keyboard or with joysticks. Use the joy- 
sticks. They respond faster, and you will 
obtain much higher scores. 

As is always the case with TI"s Solid 
State Software Command Modules, a well 
written instruction manual is included. 

As far as the quality of the game is 
concerned, the layout of the maze is 
terrific. It is three-dimensional and well 
thought out. Excellent graphics and some 
really imaginative sounds will keep you 
going for hours at a time. 

I have two daughters and three neph- 
ews who are video addicts and range in 
age from six to fourteen; a better cross 
section of critics would be hard to find. 
These kids have played about 100 games 
on my 99/4 and no other has held their 
attention as long as this one. D 

65 



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CIRCLE 288 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Eleven 

for the Apple 

in One Basket 



Kamikaze 

Mention Hayden Software and what 
does it bring to mind? Probably Sargon or 
a bunch of boring business packages. 
Well, along with a change in location 
from Rochelle Park, NJ to Lowell. MA. 
Hayden Software is making a change in 
product direction. Kamikaze is the first 
in a series of arcade games planned for 
release over the next six months. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Kamikaze 
Type: Arcade game 

System: 48K Apple, Disk Drive. 

Paddles 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 

Summary: Tough challenge against 

a relentless enemy. 
Price: $.14.95 

Manufacturer: 

Hayden Software 

50 Essex St. 

Rochelle Park. NJ 07662 



The theme is simple. You. the player, 
control a ship on patrol, presumably in 
the South China Sea. Paddle controls 
the position of the ship from left to right 
on the screen. Your enemy takes the form 
of two torpedo planes flying overhead, 
one from left to right and the other from 
right to left at two different altitudes. 
They constantly drop torpedoes (or 
bombs) on your patrol boat. At your 
disposal you have a missile launcher 
(controlled by the paddle button I with 
which you can launch high speed surface- 
to-air missiles against your relentless 
enemy. But don't take time to congratu- 
late yourself for shooting down a plane 
because a new one takes its place virtually 
immediately. 

Shooting the high flying plane is worth 
50 points whereas the lower flying plane 
is worth 25 points. You have five ships to 
start. For each 1000 points accumulated, 
you earn an extra ship. However, earning 
1000 points also brings you face to face 
with the fearless (and foolish) Kamikaze 
pilots. Rather than fly from side to side, 
these insane pilots swoop down from the 
top of the screen, changing course as you 
do, ever heading toward your vulnerable 
patrol boat. Your missiles are effective 
against the Kamikaze planes, but in order 
to use them you must get under the plane 
first. It's not easy! Indeed, it's nearly 

66 




Kamikaze. 

impossible. Not that you will have to 
worry about it very often! Reaching 1000 
points is anything but easy. 

We found one possible strategy was to 
linger near the right side of the screen, 
get into sort of a rhythm to hit the lower 
flying green plane on each pass from the 
left side. On the other hand, this yields 
only 25 points per hit so it takes far longer 
to amass 1000 points. Another successful 
strategy employed by one of the members 
of our playing panel was to maneuver 
toward the center of the screen which 
subjects you to more enemy fire but also 
affords you the opportunity of hitting one 
or both planes. 

Although Kamikaze has only one cen- 
tral theme with no variations that we were 
able to discern, our panelists found it 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Step right upl It's new, 

it's tun, it's aMAZing! 

Its WAYOUT, a game 

so exciting it can 

make a blind man 

talk, a deal man seel 

Step right up and 

put on these wayout 

protective goggles. 

Goodt Now take 

this compass and 

mapmaker and step 

inside this hallway 

Excellent! OK now, I'm 

gonna lock you inside 

and see if you can 

find your WAYOUT! 

See those fireflies? 
They'll show ya which 
way the wind is comin' 
from — if you don't 
get blown over first. 
Oh, and beware the 
Cleptangle. He loves 
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Pretty WAYOUT. eh? 

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game of its kind with 

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Computer with 48K 

and one Apple disk 

drive and is playable 

with keyboard, 

Apple-compatible 

paddles or Joystick or 

with an Atari-type 

joystick attached to a 

Sirius Joyport. 



Warout. < 1982 Slllus 

Software, lnc Sirius and 

Joyport are trademarks ol 

Sirius Software lnc Apple Is a 

trademark ol Apple Computer 

Inc. Atari is a trademark of 

Atari lnc Sirius Is not 

affiliated with Atari lnc 



Sirius 1 * 
Sacramento. California 




CIRCLE 263 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





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CIRCLE 241 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple Games, continued. 

quite challenging, some to the point of 
frustration. Nevertheless, we applaud 
Hayden for entering the exciting field of 
arcade games. 



Rear Guard 

Rear Guard is loosely based on the 
arcade game. Defender. In it. you are 
flying a spaceship from left to right across 
the screen (actually the ground and other 
objects are scrolling from right to left 
giving the illusion of flight). In the game, 
it's you against an armada of alien ships 
of different types. Five ships come at you 
from the right and are worth between 25 
and 2(H) points. A freighter flies in the 
same direction as you (left to right I and is 
worth 300 points. In addition, a satellite 
identified by an F on its side that later 
changes to an S flies by. Hitting the 
satellite while it displays an F gives you a 
fuel recharge, while hitting it with an S 
gives you a shield recharge. The level of 
your fuel and shields is shown at the top 
of the screen along with the score and the 
number of LGG's remaining. 

LGG's? Yep. The object of the game is 
to survive by preventing the ground-based 
LGG's (Little Green Guys) from col- 
lecting the orange energy pods that are 
dropped by destroyed alien fighters. 
These pods are vital because they can be 
traded in at the end of each game level 
for fuel, shields and/or bonus points. If 
you are like me, and constantly run out of 
fuel, you will want to trade your pods for 
additional fuel. The players on our panel 
tried different strategies, but whatever 
strategy you employ, the important thing 
is to eliminate the LGG's. This is done by 
swooping down close to the surface of 
the planet and shooting them as they 
speed by from left to right. The danger, 
of course, is swooping too low and hitting 
the surface of the planet, and missing out 



creative contfjiifctng 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Rear Guard 

Type: Arcade game 

Author: John Anderson 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive. 
Joystick 

Format: Disk 

language: Machine language 

Summary: Fast-paced and tough 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Adventure International 
P.O. Box 3435 
Long wood. FL 32750 




Rear Guard. 



on a passing fuel or shield satellite. 

Although it is theoretically possible to 
play the game with the keyboard or 
paddles, we felt that to maintain your 
sanity, a joystick was necessary. In sum- 
mary. Rear Guard is a fast-moving, color- 
ful game that brings Defender home to 
the Apple. The game saves the top ten 
scores and player names, a thoughtful 
touch that we applaud. Also thoughtful is 
the policy of Adventure International to 
furnish a backup disk at the cost of $3.99. 



Fly Wars 

Looking at the Fly Wars package, one 
can't help but be taken by the marvelous 
3-D graphic effect. The software jacket is 
printed on a plastic card with narrow 
vertical stripes in which you see a differ- 
ent picture depending upon the angle of 
viewing. In this case, the title. Fly Wars. 
flits around like a pesky fly. You can 
almost hear the buzzing. 

Our temptation is to relate new Apple 
arcade-type games to their coin-op count- 
erpart in the arcades. Okay, so this relates 
to Qix and Amidar. but that is being 
unfair! Fly Wars is different and quite 
original. 

In the game, you are a spider. You are 



creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Fly Wars 
Type: Arcade game 
Author: Duane Later 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive. 

Sirius Joyport recommended 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Trap bugs with 
etch-a-sketch 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Sirius Software 

10364 Rockingham Dr. 

Sacramento. CA 95827 



able to leave an etch-a-sketch type of 
(rail on the screen: up. down, right, and 
left are the directions you may move and 
leave your trail. The flies flit about the 
screen from left to right and right to left. 
Your object is to trap these flies in an 
enclosed space which can "loosely" be 
thought of as your web. Each fly you trap 
is worth 20 points. 

Trap a fly. gobble him up and. lo-and- 
behold. a caterpillar appears. Devour this 
little creature and he leaves a colorful 
cocoon at the bottom of the screen. Head 
down quickly, and push the cocoon from 
the bottom of your web to the top and 
you get a 200-point bonus. 

At the beginning skill level. 2(X) points 
is enough to advance you to Level 2. 
Level 3 begins at 800 points and the next 
five levels begin at WX) point increments. 
But beware, it's not easy to reach them. 
Increasingly, you'll find showers of bug 
spray coming after you. Unlike nasty 
aliens, in shoot-'em-up games, (he bug 
spray can't he eliminated; your only 
defense is to avoid it. 




Fly Wars. 

As you enlarge your web. the screen 
becomes crowded and empty space for 
trapping new insects is scarce. When this 
happens, you can "turn off" the web with 
your joystick button or the "P" key and 
simply crawl off the right or left edge of 
the screen to a new play area. 

Fly Wars can be played with an Atari- 
type joystick connected to a Sirius Joy- 
port. If you have five fingers which 
reliably do what your brain asks them to 
do. you can play Fly Wars from the key- 
board. 

If you want an exercise in unbelievable 
frustration, try playing Fly Wars with a 
paddle. Different points in the rotation 
correspond to different directions of 
spider movement. Sirius Software claims 
that some people like this method of 
control. We haven't found any (although. 
1 confess. I have not visited Greystone 
Park, our local psychiatric hospital 
recently). 

Seriously folks. Fly Wars is wonderful 
fun. but if you really want to be serious 
about it. you ought to have a Sirius 
Joyport to use as your electronic fly- 
swatter. 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



69 



Apple Games, continued... 

Procyon Warrior 

This disk contains two games, the first 
of which is Procyon Worrier. The sce- 
nario makes you the commander of a 
space station which is under attack from 
planet earth. You have two weapons with 
which to defend your space station: small 
plasma bombs (useful against drones) and 
a remote controlled neutrino missile that 
is effective against the modest ship. The 
instructions tell us that "You will have 
only one neutrino missile available for 
use against each attacking fleet, so make 
it count." 

Sound different? It is and it isn't. It's 
different in that you have two weapons 
on the screen at once, one controlled by 
paddle 0, and the other by paddle 1. From 
there on. the differences end. Each ship 
can move from side to side across the 
bottom of the screen. The smaller weapon 
can fire repeatedly although only two 
bombs may be on the screen at one time. 
As the instructions say, the larger missile 
must be saved for the attacking mother 
ship and must be aimed with care. In the 
first wave of attackers, there are three 
drone ships before the mother ship 
appears. On higher waves, there are more 
drone ships before the mother ship makes 
her appearance. 

If you can anchor your paddles to the 
table top, you may be able to play this 
game single-handedly. Frankly, our 
playing panel found the only reasonable 
way to play was in teams of two, with one 
player firing the small plasma bombs and 
the other keeping the neutrino missile 
out of the way until the mother ship 
appeared. Even with this strategy, how- 
ever, we found that the somewhat erratic 
motion of the drone ships made high 
scores as much a matter of chance as 
skill. Indeed, one team of players after 
scores of games, did not achieve as high a 
score as they did on their second game 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Procyon Warrior 

Type: Arcade game 

System: 48K Apple, Disk Drive, 

Paddles and Joysticks 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine language 

Summary: Nice graphics, frustratingly 
tough 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Synergistic Software 
5221 120th Ave., S.E. 
Bellevue, WA 98006 
(206) 226-3216 




Procyon Warrior. 

when they were simply "feeling their way 
around the controls." 

In the second game on the disk. 
Appointment at Aldebran. you must navi- 
gate through a field of asteroids and space 
pirates toward your home planet. You 
have a shield which affords you some 
measure of protection from collisions with 
asteroids and blasts from the space 
pirates, however, you'll have better luck 
if you attempt to avoid such collisions. In 
addition, you have 15 missiles which may 
be fired at the space pirates. 

We found a joystick necessary to play 
this game. With it, it was a relatively 
simple matter to navigate through the 
asteroid field, though getting the space 
pirates was something else entirely! Two 
or three was usually the best we could do. 

If shooting the space pirates was diffi- 
cult, landing on the planet was nearly 
impossible. If you approach at too steep 
an angle you burn up in the atmosphere, 
whereas a shallow approach causes your 
ship to skip off into deep space and 
become lost. As the instructions say, "you 
must follow the fine line just short of 
overheating." Unfortunately, we never 
found it. 



Jellyfish 



The instructions tell us that, "your 
submarine, Dogstar, is on a dangerous 
mission to recover several discarded 
nuclear waste capsules from the ocean 
floor. The Dogstar has been equipped 
with a special mechanical arm for this 
purpose. It has also been outfitted with 
plenty of torpedoes used to blast belliger- 
ent Jellyfish, octopuses, and squid that 
seem intent on cutting your mission short. 
While torpedoing the sea creatures will 
rack up points, it also causes these under- 
water wonders to break up into smaller 
units that keep coming at you." 

Jellyfish may be played with either the 
keyboard, Apple paddles (or joystick), or 
Atari-type joystick through a Sirius Joy- 
port. We found these three modes of play 
quite different. The keyboard mode uses 
four keys that are adjacent to one another 
for up, down, left, and right movement as 
70 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Jellyfish 

Type: Arcade game 

System: 48K Apple, Disk Drive, 

Sirius Joyport recommended 
Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 
Summary: Your own submarine; 

best for two players 
Price: $29.95 
Manufacturer: 

Sirius Software 

10364 Rockingham Drive 

Sacramento. CA 95827 



well as for lowering the mechanical arm 
and firing. Since Jellyfish can be played 
by either one or two players there is one 
cluster of five control keys on the left and 
another on the right side of the keyboard, 
one for each player. While this particular 
method of controlling the submarines was 
relatively straightforward, most of our 
players were not particularly keen about 
it. 

But if they were less than enthusiastic 
about keyboard control, they were down- 
right hostile about Apple paddles or 
joystick control. The method of control 
is most unusual: rotating the paddle or 
pushing the joystick a different distance 
will move the submarine up, down, right, 
and left in a clockwise or counter-clock- 
wise direction. This was a totally alien 
feeling and none of our players ever got 
the hang of it. 

On the other hand, everyone agreed 
that an Atari-type joystick used with the 
Sirius Joyport provided natural movement 
and control, i.e., when you move the 
joystick left, the submarine moves left 
and so on. We don't see why a similar 
pattern of control could not be provided 
for a standard Apple joystick. However, 
as we have commented once before, that 
does not sell Joyports. Lest we be accused 
of cynicism, on with the evaluation. 

All of our players agreed that the game 
was great fun when played with Atari- 
type joysticks through Sirius Joyport. 
Furthermore, most of them agreed that 
the two-player version was more fun than 
playing the game solo. 

With two players, many offensive and 
defensive strategies can be employed. For 
example, when a player's torpedo destroys 
a jellyfish or other sea creature, it splits 
into many fragments which float up 
toward the surface of the water. These 
fragments are lethal to a submarine. 
Hence, after your torpedo hits a sea 
creature it is vital to get out of the way 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple Games, continued... 




Jellyfish. 

quickly. On the other hand, if you can hit 
a sea creature which is immediately under 
your opponent, it is generally a sure-fire 
method of destroying him. 

Since the sea creatures attempt to 
follow a submarine around, another pop- 
ular strategy is to lure some sea creatures 
in the direction of your opponent while 
he is attempting to collect the discarded 
nuclear waste capsules from the ocean 
floor. During the collection process, 
submarines are particularly vulnerable as 
they cannot shoot and they move at a 
less-than-normal speed. Attacking your 
opponent in this way is also likely to cause 
him to be careless in picking up the 
capsule which can be disastrous. In par- 
ticular, if you fail to line up the mechan- 
ical pick-up arm correctly, your ship will 
break open the capsule and you will be 
destroyed by the deadly nuclear waste. 

Jellyfish provides three levels of respon- 
siveness of the submarines and eight skill 
levels, more than enough for the most 
fanatic and dedicated players. 

The game is great fun and a marvelous 
diversion from the more-or-less standard 
space ship shoot-*em-ups and Pac-Man 
offspring. 

In short order. Jellyfish became one of 
the all-time favorites of our playing 
panel. 



We read in (he instructions that "Oil 
Rifi combines the strategy requirements 
of a board game with the fast action of an 
arcade game. Your strategy is to gain 
enough money through the oil products 
market to be able to afford the costs of 
prospecting, oil rigs, and drilling rigs. You 
also need enough cash to carry you 
through should you not hit oil." 

The display on the screen at all times 
shows six oil products and eight pieces of 
equipment along with the quantity that 
you own. the current value lor price) and 
your total investment in that particular 
item. Prices of all of these items change 
month by month along with your cash, 
income, and net worth. Initially when you 
fire up the game, you will be alarmed by 
the speed of the price changes. The cursor 
relentlessly plows from the top to the 
bottom of the screen changing each of 
the fourteen prices in turn. As soon as 
one month is completed, the process 
starts over. 

Price changes are affected by three 



creative* computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Oil Rig 

Type: Rigged simulation game 

Author: Kevin Bagley 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive. 
Paddles 

Format: Disk 

language: Compiled Basic 
Summary: Make business decisions 
quickly 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Computer Programs Unlimited 
9710 Twenty-fourth Ave. S.E. 
Everett. WA 98204 



(^wpWA. 




separate variables: 

1) Market factors. These are genera 
trends in the market that affect items on 
the master board. For example, an OPEC 
price increase would force oil market 
prices up while off-season travel would 
cause a general decrease in prices. 

2 1 Individual traits. Each item on the 
board has a growth rate unique to that 
item. This may be in the same direction 
or counter to the overall market. 

,1| Inflation-deflation. A general trend 
either up or down is quite distinct from 
either of the other factors. 

At the beginning of the game you select 
how many years you wish to play from 10 
to 40: the longer the game the easier it is. 
You also select the level of difficulty from 
1 (novice) through 9 iprot. 

After bootup. the game immediately 
starts and you must be ready to make 
some quick decisions. Since you start with 
just $1(XX) of cash and no equipment or 
prtxluct (gasoline, crude oil. etc.) these 
decisions are relatively simple. In partic- 
ular you must buy some prtxluct so that 
you can sell it later on. 




"Hello, I'm a space invader... a real space invader. 
October 1982 c Creative Computing 73 



Oil Rig. 

Since you must scan 14 items rather 
hurriedly. I initially adopted a rather 
simple playing convention, which was to 
buy products when their value was a 
single digit and to buy equipment when 
its value was under S.VX). assuming 1 had 
enough money. In general, this got me 
going (although not always!). Then I 
could start keeping an eye on whether 
prices were going up or down. 

I also found it easier to buy in multiples 
of 10 or 100. By so doing I could check 
my total value to the left against the 
individual value of items in the center 
column and, at a glance, tell if I could 
easily make money by selling or if I was 
behind. Multiples other than 1. 10. or 1(X) 
I found nearly impossible to check fas( 
enough in my head to make intelligent 
sell decisions. 

Be sure to read the instructions under 
the heading "Prospecting" carefully. The 
instructions admonish you to remember 
the location from which your core sample 
was taken (such as 18-12). The first few 
times I went prospecting. I was so excited 
that I forgot to remember from where my 
sample was taken and. when I returned to 
drill later on. I sunk a dry hole. Also. 



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Apple Games, continued... 

beware of drilling too soon! You'll need a 
reserve of at least $8-10.000 for sinking a 
hole. 

As you get deeper into the game, you'll 
find you are spending more and more 
money. Be sure to heed the instruction 
that advises keeping at least $20,000 but 
not more than $100,000 cash on hand (to 
avoid being taxed to death). 

Don't be discouraged if the first half 
dozen or even dozen times that you play 
you quickly go bankrupt. I did. But 
eventually I got the hang of it. Then I 
convinced myself that 1 was playing with 
someone else's money and really got into 
the swing of things. No. I'm not ready to 
take on Exxon or even Brock Petroleum, 
but I sure had a good time trying to get 
into C.P.U. Software's Tycoon Club in 
which they will refund the cost of the disk 
if you hit a gusher on your final score. I 
never did. but I had fun trying. 



Star Base Gunner 

The instructions tell us that Star Base 
Gunner "is a 3-D type game where you 
will be shooting into the screen at enemy 
ships located mathematically a great 
distance behind the screen." In other 
words, ships that are further away appear 
to be smaller and appear to move more 
slowly. In the lower levels of play (there 
are ten levels), you have a range finder. 
Using the joystick, all you have to do is 
line up the target ship between two 
horizontal marks on the side of the screen 
and below an arrow on the top. When the 
target is lined up. you may use one of 
three weapons: a laser beam (fired by 
button II, a photon torpedo (fired by 
button 0), or a neutrino pulsar (fired by 
the Escape key). This third weapon may 
not be fired until you have achieved a 
score of over 2000. On the lower levels, 
the rangcfindor will automatically shunt 
your weapon the correct distance. 



creative, computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Star Base Gunner 

Type: Arcade game 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive. 
Joystick 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Easy to play, nice 3-D 
graphics effects 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: Apple-Jack Software 
P.O. Box 269 
Aubum, MA 01501 



Your goal is to keep your three solar 
arrays two energy storage units behind 
each array intact. They are the source of 
your power, so should they suffer damage, 
you will run out of power and the game is 
over. You are protected as long as your 
shield power is above 200. 

As the game progresses you may find it 
necessary to put energy in the shields 
from your weapons system. This is done 
with the right arrow key. You may also 
get energy from the shields with the left 
arrow key. 

While the instructions tell us that it is 
possible to play with paddle controls, we 
found that a non-centering joystick was 
vastly preferable. 

The instructions spend many para- 
graphs talking about depth and percep- 
tion relating it to the size of the target 
and the angular position of the gun site. 
While this was all very interesting, we 
found there was nothing like three or 
four rounds of play to get a good feel for 
the game. Once we did, we had no trouble 
progressing up through the lower levels. 
But eventually, kaboom! we got wiped 
out. 




Star Base Gunner. 

We found it curious that once we had 
aimed and fired our weapon the target 
obligingly stood still waiting for either a 
hit or miss. In most games, you have to 
anticipate where a target is going to be 
when your weapon hits and fire at that 
spot. However, in Star Base Gunner you 
simply have to get the target between 
your gun sights, fire and. if you were 
accurate in your sighting, you will get a 
hit. (This is reminiscent of the Star Wars 
game written by Bob Bishop, oh. so many 
years ago and now available on Apple 
Games Pak from Creative Computing 
Software. We can't help but feel that if 
joysticks were widely available three or 
four years ago, that Star Wars would have 
been one of the most popular arcade 
games of all time. As it was, perhaps it 
was too much and too soont. 

Although Star Base Gunner was an 
interesting game, we think that it is 
probably a far better demonstration of 
the excellent Designer Graphics System 
by Apple Jack Software than it is a game 
in its own right. On the other hand, if you 
are looking for an up-to-date version of 
76 



Star Wars with color and sound, perhaps 
this is your cup of tea. 



Neptune 

In Neptune, you are the Commander- 
in-Chief of the naval vessel. Neptune. 
Your mission is to seek and destroy 
enemy robot amphibians that have inhab- 
ited neutral waters. 

Although you are commanding a sub- 
marine and the theme is nautical. 
Neptune, in reality, is another version of 
the arcade game. Defenders. 

Your submarine is traveling from left 
to right (actually the underwater terrain 
is scrolling by from right to left). As you 
travel along, small purple robots bounce 
from the top to the bottom of the screen 
and back again. In addition, cute little 
white faces with large red bow-ties bob 
about on the ocean floor. 

Purple robots may be shot with your 
laser beam while the bobbing creatures 
must be trapped with depth charges 
dropped on top of them. After going 
through a group of these nasties, you 
come upon some "flying" saucer type of 
underwater vessels moving rapidly from 
right to left. These can be either avoided 
or shot (for 80 points each). 

You then encounter a large cave (no 
nasty creatures). Unfortuntely there is 
only one way through the cave and you 
must choose it long before you can see 
whether it is the right one. A little ESP. 
or just plain guess work is helpful here. 

Following this, you enter a narrow cave 
containing vessels that cannot be shot. 
Here, you need quick reflexes and peri- 
pheral vision to see what's coming on the 
screen from the right both in terrain and 
enemy vessels as you stay toward the left 
center of the screen. 

Get through the cave, and you can 
finally dt>ck at your fuel station. Whew! 
Move your ship downward and to the 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Neptune 
Type: Arcade game 
Author: Nasir 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive, 
Joystick 

Format: Disk 

language: Machine language 

Summary: Challenge, excellent 
graphics 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Gebelli Software Inc. 
1771 Tribute Rd.. Suite A 
Sacramento. C A 95816 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



it's Here! The computer Strategy 
Came with Bounce! 




For: 

Apple 
Atari 

TRS-80 



Have you ever seen a fast action 
game combined with the intense 
strategy of chess, backgammon or 
Othello? Ricochet... the first abstract 
strategy game designed exclusively 
for the computer owner... is both. 
And loads of fun! 

You and your opponent each have 
six opposing blocks to maneuver and 
two launchers to fire. Your shots rico- 
chet off the blocks, changing their 
position with every hit, while earning 
you points on the way to their targets. 
The longer your shot ricochets, the 
more points you get. 

You don't have to play alone, either. 
Play against any of four different com- 
puter opponents, (each a different 
personality), or another human. Five 
game variants to choose from— each 
requires a different strategy. 

Ricochet is truly competitive... if you 
want it to be. A "smart clock" lets you 



put more pressure on your opponent 
by forcing him to play faster than 
you. But you've got to win two out of 
three (or three out of five) games to 
claim victory. 

Your computer rates you after each 
match, so you can compare your mas- 
tery of the game with that of other 
players, in the long run, you're trying 
to rack up points for your personal 
Ricochet Rating. 

Get Ricochet now at your local 
dealer for your Atari, Apple or TRS-80. 
Suggested retail price: $19.95. 




Another Mind Toy 

vrommyx 

M W COMPUTl 

m m rwNKer*s 



COMPUTCR GAMeS 
~ PLAY 




•apple, atari and TRS-80 are trademarks of Apple 
Computer, inc , Atari, mc and Tandy Corp.. respectively 



© 1981, AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS, INC. 

P.O. Box 4247, Mountain View, CA 94040. 



CIRCLE 1 16 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THE BEST DEAL 
IN TOWN! 



THE FRANKLIN 



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You just can't beat an ACE. Especially the Franklin ACE 1000. 
It's the professional personal computer with all the trump cards 
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a numeric pad and VisiCalc keys, all features not found on 
the Apple II. 

Peripherals that work with the Apple II will work with the Franklin 
ACE 1000. Programs that run on the Apple will run on the ACE. 
Totally Apple compatible . . . yet. so much more! 

The Franklin Ace 1000— price, power, quality, reliability — the 
best deal in town. Call or write today for the name of your local 
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Franklin ACE is a trademark of Franklin Computer Corporation 
Apple is a registered trademark ol Apple Computer Inc. 
VisiCalc is a registered trademark ot Visi Corp 

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A A 



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The ADVENTURE SERIES 

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Tens of thousands of adults and 
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Apple Games, continued. 




Neptune. 

right, and you're on way to a higher level, 
which is characterized by less maneuver- 
ability, changes in the underwater envi- 
ronment and aquatic life, and a faster 
pace. 

The high score after each bt>ot-up is 
saved, but high scores are not saved to 
the disk. All the members of our playing 
panel strongly preferred the joystick 
option. Incidentally, you will need a 
joystick with two quick fire buttons; the 
Apple Peripherals division (formerly the 
Keyboard Company* joystick just won't 
do for this game. 

In summary. Neptune employs the 
spectacular graphics and excellence of 
execution that we've come to expect from 
Nasir in his years of producing games for 
Sinus Software. There's no question, that 
Neptune has all the makings of another 
big winner! 



Bandits 

Although nestled in a corner booth at 
the West Coast Computer Faire. Sirius 
Software was drawing huge crowds of 
people to watch the play of a new arcade- 
game. They had a full-sized video arcade 
game, the interior of which had been 
gutted and replaced with an Apple com- 
puter and color monitor. In addition, the 
game play was being shown on a large- 
screen projection TV set. The game they 
picked to show — Bandits. The effort was 

creative GompatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Bandits 

Type: Arcade 

System: 48K Apple. Disk Drive. 
Joystick recommended 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Price: $34.95 

Manufacturer: 

Sirius Software. Inc. 
10364 Rockingham Drive 
Sacramento, CA 95827 



worth it: the game created quite a sensa- 
tion! 

Now. away from the hoopla.our playing 
panel has had a chance to evaluate Ban- 
dits in the comfort of our game room. 
The verdict: sensational! 

At the start of play, you have a group 
of five items (fruits, vegetables, etc. I 
clustered at the right side of the screen. 
Alien bandits then come in and assemble 
at the left side of the screen outside the 
reach of your laser cannon. After they 
have assembled, they take off in various 
formations, flying and swooping about the 
screen, raining bombs upon your base at 
the bottom and making for your goods at 
the right. 

At your disposal, you have a laser 
cannon which can blast the aliens into 
smithereens and you have shields which 
can protect you from their bombs. 

Bandits has 28 levels of play: each level 
has a different group of items on the right 
and features a different combination of 
bandits that go after your goinls. 

You score KM) points for each supply 
item remaining after obliterating all of 
the bandits in an attacking wave. For 
each level you advance, you pick up an 
additional 1(X) points for each remaining 
supply item (maximum 500). If the bandits 
steal all of your supplies, the game is 
over. 

You begin with five ships and are 
awarded a bonus ship for each 5(XX) 
points. 

Shields are a mixed blessing. While they 
provide total protection against bandit 
fire or bombs, you only have a limited 
amount of shield energy. Shield energy is 
totally replenished with each new ship 
and slowly replenished during sustained 
play when the shields are not in use. 

The variety of attack formations and 
aliens is staggering. Indeed, they cannot 
all be stored in memory at one time: thus. 





October 1982 e Creative Computing 



"I'm htm-d If is rlay rnckel-rcndcvous M the 
computer attain'" 

81 



Bandits. 

the disk must be kept in the drive so that 
each attacking formation can be loaded 
as play proceeds. 

The game may be played from the 
keyboard which uses the right and left 
arrow keys for movement, space bar for 
firing, and "S" for shields. We found this 
the least satisfactory method of play. Far 
better was a paddle or joystick with the 
knob (or stick I for movement, button 
for firing, and the space bar for shields. 
Even better, was a switch-type (Atari) 
joystick attached to a Sirius Joyport. 
Joystick movement controls the base, 
while the button fires your laser and a 
forward tilt of the joystick activates the 
shield. We don't see why this movement 
convention could not have been offered 
with a standard joystick, but. cynically 
we observe that doing so would not sell 
Joyports. We also longed for a continuous 
fire feature, similar to the Centipede 
arcade game or its Apple look-a-like. 
Photar. 

The high score of Bandits is saved each 
time the disk is booted up. however, n is 
not permanently recorded. We wish it 
were along with the player initials. 

Nevertheless, despite these criticisms, 
we found Bandits great fun. If you are 
looking for nonstop action, look no fur- 
ther: this will give you your fill. 

Quadrant 61 12 

In this easily played and rather nifty 
game, you navigate a little starship around 
a small sector of the galaxy defending 
your turf against nasty aliens. Your quad- 
rant, 61 12, is shaped like a rectangle just 
about the size of a TV screen. What a 
surprise! Now comes the real surprise. 
This isn't just another version of an arcade 
game; it is original! 

Located in the middle of your quadrant, 
are two smaller squares of which the sides, 
one or two at a time, show only inter- 
mittently. These square boxes are actually 
star gates (or is it the other way around?) 
from which alien vessels eventually 
emerge to occupy your quadrant. Your 
mission, of course, is to blast them to 
smithereens. 

At your disposal, you have the usual 



oice o 



■M-PC SVPfLV CEITf R 

rfMPHEUlIIUFTWIK 
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PERSONAL COMPUTER 
MM 

COAVUS Herd B,s« Systems See Cervus sect** this oaer 

Microsoft 64ft RAM Card NrV 

I7SK RUM Ceil) fee.' 

?56h RAM Card New 

64« RAM CH«s 

Ouee>ee« Quia Board ?S6« 4 tunction ton 

T6 Products. Joystick 

•WIMH 

Autoaaeted Sea Temple ol Apsfiai 
Cavalier. Chamfhonship Blackjack 
Continental Hone Accountant Plus 
Oe»tn» EasyiEiec account*! Sys I 
Infocem. Deadline 

Zen I 
Mil 

Innovative I IM III |a DBMSI 
ISM. Mathmattc 
w laioft. Accountant 

f or each CI. A - » A » O' Payroll atisotu hy> Me test IBM PC accounting i 
reelteveseen iVeiisefandr«wnmendifhitfhry Abesfout' J 99 
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Easyuraer II He.' $259 

Phone Support on Easvarritef II Caa 

Eestspetiei |UX •ords) Nen' $129 

EasrMer |a DBMS! «„• 4,299 

MKto Pre. Voreatar NeW (249 

New S 79 
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$395 
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S160 
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S 69 



Sotcm Supemntet 
Super Calc 
Vmcorp. V-sicak 

Vacate 256* 



SAVE 
70- 
20% 
20 
20% 
31% 
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25% 
2S% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
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25% 
25% 
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25% 

Can 
25 
25 
40% 
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75 
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20 
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VIC 20 Home Computer 

Datasette VIC 1530 

Dull Dine VIC 1540 

Super Eipandei VID 121 1A 3K uith lots ol «ti» 

3ft Memory Eipandei Cartridie 

IK Memory Eipandei Cartndfe 

16*1 Memory Eipandei Cartridge 

VIC Modem. Telephone Interface 

VIC IEEE 4(8 interlace 



$229 24% 



Game Paddle Pair 

Software full line in stock. Call 



S 59 
$479 
$ 56 
$ 32 
S 48 
S II 
$9$ 
S 80 
1 I 
S 15 



20 
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A 



ATARI 



100 Computer 1(1 
100 Compute 321 
100 Comtvter 4K 
400 Co*p«t ( f IM 



110 Disk Drive 

ISO Interface 
410 Recorder 

8?0 Printer 40 Cot Impjct 

8?? Printer 40 Col Thermal 

130 -const .c Modem 

URMM 

UK MM 

If St-:- by OatasoU 

Game Paddles (pair) 

joystick (pa*, 

sonwAtt 

Vi«jk Disk 

Word Proceuini. D-s- 

PiCinin Cart 

Centipede C*rl 

Cawrrisot Mars Disk 

Towcti Typini tape 

Personal financial Mgl Disk 

tnimj.nei Kit Cart 

Eftrcator « 4 Cart 

Pnptmnm Mil Cart 

Commitrvtcatow K4. Cart 

Dow Jones Invest Disk 

Tempte ol *psh* by Ai/tcmatr*d Disk 

Apple Panic by Bioderbund Disk 

RkSter Blaster by Budfeco Oisk 

Bug Attack by Caiakef Dsk 

Ten Wizard by Datasott 0-s- 

Cwnpo series by EdwWare Disk 

Dtadbw by Intocom. Disk 

fork II by Intocom Dnk 

Asteroid by On Line. Dnk 



Steel*)' 





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SM5 


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1247 


3/ 


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1225 


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SAM 


26 


1159 


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1269 


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20 


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S 37 


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S 29 


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Portland. OR. Cash & Carry Outlet 

11507 SW Pacific Hay Pacific Tenace Shop Ctr Tigard OR Over the 
counter sales only On 99W bet»een Rte 7 1 7 and Interstate 5 Call 245 1020 



CP/M BUSINESS 8 DEv 



SOFTWARE 

Adventure Adventure s al to 012 inclusive 
» Ashon Tate. dBase II 8' 
Oatasott. Mychess. 8 
Eoa I Celler. Quicker** lor dBase II 
Qmckscreen tor dBase II 
dUta lor dBase II 
Infocem Deadline. 8* 

2ork > 8 
Innovative. SpeH(uard. 8" 
wlnsoft. Accountant 8'. each module 
lor each Ct A » A P or Payrol APsorufely 
ivstem imUbk tt/e use if and recommend il 
MtcroCrafl. legal Billing t Time Keepmg 
Plot Bilhng I Time Keeping 
MicroPro. Wordstar 8 

Datastar 8" 

Maamerge. 8 

Super Sort 8" 

Word Master. 8 

Spell Star 8' 

Calc Star 8' 
Microsoft. Ionian 80 8' 

Base Compwei 8' 

Cobol 80 8" 

Basic 80 8 
Paactnroe. Magic Wand 8" Word Processor 

O. A R. A P PR or Inventory 8 



S 95 
$495 
$ 39 
$249 
$129 
$ 75 
$ 45 
$ 39 
$220 



SAVE 

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25% 
13% 
13% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 



one of rhe oesf accounting sofhveie 

«**/» APeslPur' $ 99 

$395 45% 

$395 4b 

$249 40% 

$199 40% 

$ 79 40% 

$150 40 

$ 90 40 

$150 40 

$180 40 

$325 2b 

$295 2b 

$54b 2b 

$27b 2b 

$2 7b 30 

$325 3b 



(VI 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



* MP 85* Microcomputer Monitor Printer 
N/P 87A CP/M Microcomputer 

*H P 125 CP M Microcomputer 
N/P I290IM 5 Dual Dines 
rl/r* 71251 Piotessonal Graphics Pkstter 

* H P 74700 Graphics Plotter 
•«H/P 12901 Serial Prmler 

HP 41C Calculator 
HP 41CV Calcuutor 2 2K 
Card leader tor HP4I 
Printer Plotter tor HP41 
Optical Mand lor HP41 
Sottvrare 

Vmcak • tor HP87 

Visicalc • for HPI25 
1*7 Accountant try Insott tor HPI25 

foreacnCI A » A/PorPayroff Apsotufefr the 
have seen We use if md recommend if highly 

Fun Imo of HP accessories and software 







SAVE 


Specie" 


$179S 


36% 


Specie' 


$1795 


a 


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$1595 


78 


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$1125 


a 


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$ 850 


50% 




$ 185 


?b 




$ 245 






$ 159 






$ 289 


7b 




$ 89 


?b 




$ 189 


2b 




$ 159 


20 




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A OesrOoy' 







7*.CORVCIS SYSTEMS 

SAVE 

( Meg Hard Disk S2A95 20 

II Meg Hard Disk J3995 20 

20 Meg Hard Orsl $4795 70 

Minor built in tor easy backup $ 649 20% 

Apcae Interlace $ 239 20% 

Apple HI Interface ISOS) $ 239 20% 

IBM PC Interlace (IBM DOS! S 239 20% 

leroi Interlace |CP M) $ 239 

NEC Interlace ICP M) $ 239 70 

IRS 80 Interlace Icalt) Cast 20 

Other Interfaces. Omn. Net Constellation Minor All in Stock 



NEC 



SAVE 

8001 32K Computer s 739 m 

7KK Total Dual Dnve PC4031 J 739 ?S 

3?« addofl and I Unit PCM17 S 415 75 

Ren T« The Wed«e 32R S IK W 

80?3 Impact Printer f T $ 480 7b 

impact Printer CaWe % 49 7b 

3bl0 Letter Quality Daisy Wheel Printer JI99b 70' 

tAonnoi 1 7 Green $ 159 2b 

Mor-loi ir Color $ 34*. 
Softvwe 

NEC CP l# DOS lor NEC 8001 $11', 

NEC Report Manage* $ 135 30S 

NEC General Accounting $ jiu 

NEC Accounts Receivable | ?y-> 

NEC inuMtory System J ?39 40% 

NEC Payroll System % 739 40S 

NEC Game Pack I $ 74 }Q\ 

NEC Game Pack II $ 74 70 

NEC Word Processor $ 39s 

Intocom /ork It $ 79 

Deadline $ M 
Insott Accountant 

fv earn Gi 4/*7 A P & Piytoll AbiOhttfy the bttt MC xcourthnt software me 

lave i«en We use 4 and recommend 4 highly 4 best buy' % 99 



/JSCl 



FOR THE APPLE II II + 
DIRECT SUBSTITUTES for 
APPLE DRIVES 



MICRO-SCI 

McroSci A? drives and or controllers are d-rect plug (ompatiab* substitutes to 

Apple dnv*s and controlleis A? *>ll lun «M Apple soltM are Save over $350 on an A40 

or A7 dual drive systwn We use them and highly recommend the product 

* 143K Disk Dr,»e $3« Jjs 

Controller Card (or A? Drive $ 79 Jl% 

A40 5 «* 160H Disk Drive $359 20\ 

A70 5 < a?86K Onk Orive Double Density $479 2d** 

Controller Card tor A40 or A70 Orive $ 79 21% 

EM Utikty Sottivare System for 47 ' $ 15 2i\ 



OVERSTOCK SPECIAL 

. r>>a$^ for the 

^Tcippks 11/11+ 



US 16K AddRAM Catd 
ALS /Card. 180 CP/M Card 
AIS Smatterm 80 Col Card 
ALS Synergurer Pack 
AIS Synergirer Pack with Supetcalc 
by Sorctm (while they last) 



SAVE 
S 59 60% 
$199 ?7 
S229 34% 
S450 40% 

J495 53% 



PRINTERS, Daisy Wheel 

SAVf. 
■k Ouaae Sprint 9 45 Cps RO $1750 33^ 

Spi« 5 45 Cps BO SPICIAl 1 $1795 40^ 

♦ Orympia llypeuntei Pimterl IS 100 18CPS, vailh lull cat* 

and interlace lo Apple II $1795 74 



PRINTERS, Impact 



feson See Ipson section baton 
IDS Pnsm 132 Color M/Graphics 
Pnsm80 Color m Craph.cs 
Pacer liter 44)1. • Ciaptucs I 2* Spec. 

Palter Tifei 560 n Giaphic-, 
Okidata Micioline82A 120 Cps 80 Cot Pata I Serial 

M.cioiine8AS 200 Cps 136 Col Serial 200 Cps 



SAVf 
Seeueloer 
$1595 20 



$1495 
$ 595 
$995 
$ 495 

$1295 



35% 
30% 

15 
15 



EPSON 



PRINTERS & ACCESSORIES 



Minn * Grattrei 

M.80 I I • Gramai • 

MIIOOI I . Greltiei • 

Apple Interlace and Cable lor MX80/MII00 

Gralrai 80 lor M180 

Epson Alan Cabae 

Epson TRS 80 Cable 

Grepplei by Orange Micro Specrty Computet 



$425 

$525 
$«95 
$ 95 
$ 79 
$ 30 
$ 30 
$129 



SAVE 

70 



MONITORS 



IIC. 12 Gieen 

ircajw 

Sanyo 

9 E1IW 
kV 9 Green 
17 BIW 
12' Creen 

13 Color Composite 
lemtl. 17 Gieen 
Amdek 17 Gieen ■ 100 

■ r Cotor I Comoosile 
13 Corn II RGB 
Color II 10 Apple II Interlace 
Comtei 1 3 Color Composae 
" 



Overstock Spacuji 



$159 
$349 

$149 
$139 
$199 
$199 
$349 
$119 
$159 
$359 
$799 
$159 
$349 
$529 



SAVE 
25 

25 
3t% 

20^ 

30- 

■ 

20% 

20^ 

20% 

IS 



DISKETTES 



CDC 



• CDC 12 lor 10 Special limited Time 1 

120 each 5 < nith imf. SS SD [Apple IBM etc ) 

12 each 5 • •nil nn t SS SD (Apple IBM etc I 

I2each 5. r*4h rmt SS DD (hVP etc) 

12 each 8" SS SD 
Verbatim 10 each 5 • win line. SS SD 
Maaell 10 each 5 . SS SO 
Dysen 10 each 5 . SS SD 
lOeacriS OS DO 



$195 
$ 22 
$ 28 
$ 28 
$28 
$ 35 
$ 39 
I 49 



SAVE 
57% 

45 
45 
45 
45 

30 



UKUtKINU INFORMATION AND TERMS. Wesh,p,mmrtialelyonCash»iCr«ksMoiieyOiderslortunelOOOlnecksan<]GovernmenlCriecks 
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B&H Apple 11+ 

64K (48K +ALS16K) 

DISK II w/3.3 Com. 
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apple 1 1 /i i + 

supply center 



HARDWARE 



for Apple II /ll* 



i I49 

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MR up Rut I 319 

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2 Cord (7801 W CPM Special $199 
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Synerrafer Pack Special S 450 

if Syoergirer with tree Sorcim 
Supeitak (While they last) 
Apple Computer. 
Silentype II Printer 

Graphics laDKt 
Joysbch ll 
Game ParJdkr. 
Numeric Keypad 
Alloa 170k RAM Disk System 
CCS -eiial Interlace 77IOA 

Other CCS Can 
Dm Par**. lowei Case Claps 
Hayes. Inicromodem ll 

Smertmodem 
ISC I deost« > Paddle 

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SAW 

14 



14 

40 



$ 495 53% 



S 335 
S 675 
$ J9 
t 19 
t 119 

SIMS 
S 139 

Call 
S 34 
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s m 

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s n 

it Keyboard Company 

loysbek II S 39 

Game Padrfe S 19 

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Htl III Modulator S 75 

SupRI an S 39 

it Microsoft /80 Sotti aid S 769 

16k RAM Card S 149 

SottcerdPremiumPack S 579 

CPS Murr.tonct.on Caid S 709 

if (lot. I alcndar S 195 

•matron Applecet Modem S 379 

Oiinfa Micro (.'applet $ 179 

it Piacttcel Petipheiels. "cable A Conn) 

MBS 8K Serial ISpsonl NeW S 179 

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it Miciobuller II It* New' S 709 

Minobuller II 3?H New S 779 

•H Electronics. Super Ian II I 59 

SSI AIO Serial-Para Interlace S 159 

TC Products Gama Paddles $ 79 

Untie. S 45 

it Vider, V.der*rm80col S 749 

Soli Video Switch S 75 

Eochancer II S 99 

I unction Slim S 59 

Enchancer (Rev 6 or 1 •! S 99 

Full Vide, line Can oc 



lb 
27% 

Call 



77S 
77% 
21% 

20% 
201 

21% 

2«% 

)4 
2<% 





SOFTWARE 



BUSINESS 



Apple Computer lac 




SAVE 


" on Apple III Software 


Call 


50 


Ihe Controller (Accounting) 


$499 


20% 


Apple Writer 1 1 


S 59 


20% 


Apple Pascal 


S199 


20% 


Apple 1 orlran 


SIS9 


70 


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S 59 


70 


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01 News t Quotes 


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S 45 


70 


Hon to 1 


S 39 


70 


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SI99 


70 


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SI99 


20% 


lane Manager 


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S7I9 


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S349 


30% 


Coflt.nantal CPA al General ledger 


S189 


25% 


CPA e7 Accounts Rec 


S1S9 


75 


CPA » 1 Accounts Pay 


SI89 




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SI89 


75 


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SI89 




Denver Imanaal Partner 


SI85 




dBase II lot Apple II II • CPM 


S495 


30% 


Foi 4 teller . Quichscreen lor dBase! 


SI79 


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S759 
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11 


Harden Pie WiAer ISpecrlv tad ) 


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$129 


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if Job Control Svs 


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Into Master 


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in 


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roreacAGl A/r? A Por Payroll ABsoruleVlneoest 


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$ '5 


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ScreerrWriter ll 


$ 95 


27% 



on disk for Apple 11/11 + 



Osborne C P Soil {Disk and Bookl 
if Some Common Basic Programs 
75 Business Statistics and Math 

programs tor the Apple 11 S 49 
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40 more very valuable programs 

beyond "Some Com Basic Prog $ 49 

Poachtree Gl AR AP or In. each $189 

it Magic Wand ISpecrly board) $250 

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if siocklac $750 

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PES Report II or III $ 69 

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Southeastern 

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Source, the Source $ 75 

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D6 Uiaitt I or 11 $ 75 

VisrCorp Personal Software 

Vis*alc3 3 $189 

VisiOei Special 1 8175 

Vrsrtae $199 

Desktop Plan II or III Special' $1 75 

Vivplot $159 

VisiSchedule Nea' $239 

Visitrend and VisrPkyt Special' $210 

Vrsilerm $ 79 

7ork $ 33 



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SAVE 
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50- 

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M 

27% 

40% 

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2S% 
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70- 
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Warranty Factory warranty is by Bell and Howell (not 
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AaAoa San. Crush Crumb Chomp $30 



$21 
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Apple Pane: 

Arcade Machine 

Red Alert 

Space Warrior 

Stat Blazer New 1 

Many others 
Bwageco. Raster Blaster 
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Cavalier Bug Attack 
Continental. Home Accountant 

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llnel 
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Intocom. Deadkne New* 

tan 

InsoH. Electrrc Duet by lutus New 1 
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ligMnrng. Maslertype 

Mrerosolt Olympic Decathlon 
typing tutor 

Mate. Robot War 

Online Pegasus 11 

Mouseattack New' 

lime /one New 1 

Jawbreaker New* 

URima II New* 

Marauder 
IhresJIOtd 
Cranston Manor 
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Mystery House 
Soltporn |l Rated) 
Ulysses and Golden Fleece 

Piccadilly. Falcon 

Star Blaster 

Seat rent OolOPOS 

Sinus Sneakws 
Gorgon 
I war ps 

Sir lac Wizardry New' 

Strategic Southern Command 

0IKER BRANDS M SIOCK CAll 



New 



SAW 
25% 

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CM 
27% 
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23% 
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21\ 
25% 
25% 
20% 
25% 
25% 
24% 
30% 
25% 
25% 
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25% 
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25% 
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CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple Games, continued. 



laser cannon in the pointed nose of your 
ship (fired with paddle button 0) and a 
"heat seeker" that will destroy every 
enemy that is in normal space. This is 
activated by pressing the space bar. The 
temptation is to press the heat seeker 
when there are many enemy ships on the 
screen, however, those that are still within 
the confines of the star gates are not 
affected by the heat seekers, hence it is 
wise to wait until a good number have 
emerged from these protective 
enclosures. 

Control of your ship is the easiest we've 
seen in any game. Knob controls the 
ship direction, short jabs on paddle button 
fire your laser cannon, while holding 
down paddle button activates your 
thrusters. It's simple and reliable. The 
only thing you must remember is that it 
takes time for your thrusters to change 
your direction because, like any object, 
your ship has inertia. In other words, once 
you have built up speed in a particular 
direction, you will continue to move in 
that direction no matter what direction 
your ship faces. 

In addition to getting points for shoot- 
ing alien ships, you also get points for 
navigating around the quadrant. Each 
time you go to a corner, a small red cross 
lights up and, when you have scouted all 
four corners, you score a "lap," which is 
indicated in a counter at the top of the 
screen. When you have eliminated the 
current assault, you receive extra points 
for each lap completed. 

If you complete at least one lap in each 
of four different attack groups, you are 
awarded a bonus ship. The number of 
ships you have left is displayed on the 
screen at all times. 

Every so often the alien commander 
will emerge to see who has been destroy- 
ing his ships. Beware! He is a very good 
shot and extremely fast! Fortunately, he 
does not stay around for long. 



creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Quadrant 6112 
Type: Arcade game 

System: 48K Apple. Disk drive. 

Paddles 
Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 
Summary: Fast moving, easy-to-play 
Price: $34.95 
Manufacturer: 

Sensible Software Inc. 

6619PerhamDr..Dept.(; 

West Bloomfield. MI 48033 




Quadrant 6112. 



A thoughtful touch by the author is 
storing the top ten scores and players 
names permanently on the disk. We wish 
more program authors would follow his 
lead. All in all. Quardrani hi 12 is a fast- 
moving, easy-to-play game that all of our 
panelists found good fun. 



Lazer Silk 



Lazer Silk is an amazingly imaginative 
game, in which you are a spider defending 
your web from annoying bugs and deadly 
insects. To keep your web from being 
torn apart, you must bundle (capture) 
bugs as soon as they fly into your web and 
land. To do this, you must get close 
enough to touch them. However, certain 
enemy bugs will not allow themselves to 
be bundled and, if you touch them, you 
will be immediately wiped out. Against 
them, you must use your own deadly 
weapon, Lazer Silk, to shoot them as they 
bombard you. 

In addition, there are scavenger ants 
and beetles which scamper around your 
web and try to steal the bundles for which 
you have fought so hard. These creatures 
too may be bundled, but you must reach 
them quickly. 

Another menace is the quick and unex- 
pected electrode which darts around your 
web, chasing you until either it catches 
you or you shoot it. In addition, attack 
spiders occasionally drop fron the top to 
the bottom of the web; against them there 
is no defense except to get out of the 
way. 

The web is rectangular with a giant 
ellipse stretching from comer to comer 
missing from the center (see illustration). 
You can travel on any strand of the web 
which effectively permits you to go up 
and down, side to side, and diagonally. 
The game may be played from either the 
keyboard or a joystick. We found the 
joystick option far more satisfactory than 
the keyboard. 

84 



We found it took two or three plays of 
the game to get to know the different 
bugs on sight. After all, you don't want to 
go around trying to bundle a bee when it 
will sting you causing you to lose a life. 
On the other hand, it is easy to bundle a 
Xenar mystery bug, but you get 500 points 
if you shoot it instead. Once you mem- 
orize a few of the basics, then it's off to 
the business of spidering. 

On earlier levels, the game seems rather 
tame and it's generally easy to bundle all 
of the bugs that land in your web. How- 
ever, on later levels, you may well find 
yourself in one comer bundling a medfly 
when a scavenger ant appears in the 
diagonally opposite comer and steals two 
or three of your previously hard-earned 



IVLrm SfYPO :(M«*M> 



Lazer Silk. 

bundles. This is bad not only because you 
lose your bundles but because it leaves 
holes in your web over which you cannot 
travel. 

All in all, Lazer Silk is a clever, imagi- 
native game: it was especially well liked 
by the girls on our playing panel. Even so. 
Lazer Silk tended to be less frustrating 
and last longer than most other arcade- 
type games, a fact appreciated by younger 
players. □ 



creative couepafciRtf 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Lazer Silk 

Type: Graphics game 

Author: Eric Knopp 

System: 48K Apple, disk drive, 
joystick 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Novel theme, easy to play 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Gebelli Software Inc. 

1771 Tribute Rd.. Suite A 

Sacramento. CA 95816 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Only Super-Text 
Lets You Choose 



...40 character screen display 

...or 56 character screen display 

...or 70 character screen display 

You're a winner when you choose the exciting Super-Text 40/56/70, 
the only word processor that offers three different screen displays 
without the use of any additional hardware! At $125.00, Super-Text 
40/56/70 gives you features you might not expect for so little cost: 
page headers and footers, multi-file search and replace, easy to 
read documentation and quick reference card, and easy text han- 
dling all the way through. 

And introducing a unique Super-Text feature: design your own 
characters! Now you can create text in cursive, with accent marks, 
in any foreign language you need! 

Super-Text 40/56/70 . . . another reason why MUSE Software is 
one step ahead. 

For the Apple II with 48K and disk drive, retail price $125.00. 

Available at computer stores everywhere. Write or call MUSE 
for information and the name of the dealer nearest you. 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer Corpor. 





Bammo?e h MD S 21 201 • 301 -659-721 2 Otto <Sfe^ HheOOL 



try out the in-stock selection of 

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Have you put aside buying a color monitor 

because it's too expensive? 
But, have you looked at the new TAXAN RGBvision 

color monitor? 
Would you be excited at a suggested retail price 

of $399.oo for the RGBvision I, and $599 for the 

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■ Full compatibility with Apple III and IBM PC without 
interface modules 

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Apple II and 111 are trademarks ot Apple Computer. Inc 
IBM PC is a trademark ol International Business Machine 

CIRCLE 293 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Warlock's Revenge and Kayos 




Dungeons and Asteroids 



David Small 



Warlock's Revenge 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Warlock's Revenge 
Type: Adventure with Hi-Res screens 
System: Atari 400/800 
Format: Cassette or disk 
Language: Basic and machine 
Summary: A good adventure game 
Price: $34.95 

Manufacturer: 

Synergistic Software 
5221 120th Ave. SE 
Belle vue. WA 98006 



Warlock 's Revenge is an Atari transla- 
tion of an Apple game, Oldorf's Revenge. 
It is another graphics adventure and 
seems well done. I didn't encounter any 
bugs in my playing of it, and I had a good 
time, although I have to admit I'm begin- 
ning to bum out on generic adventure 
games. 

After a certain point, you see, I get 
tired of trying to figure out which imple- 
ment I must use to get past a certain 
point. The game becomes boring, and 
settles into mere combination testing. 



David Small. 1 1314 Yucca Dr . Austin. TX 78750. 

October 1882 c Creative Computing 



While Warlock's Revenge suffers from 
this malady to some extent, it isn't nearly 
as bad as some I have seen. It wins points 
for this; there's nothing worse than an 
unplayable, un-figure-outable adventure. 

In this game, you are leading a party 
into a dungeon. You can be any of several 
different types of character (cleric, magi- 
cian, and so on), each of which has special 
skills. These skills are needed to get past 
a certain point in the dungeon and to 
continue the adventure. Be prepared for 
a great deal of testing of combinations, or 
perhaps a short session of dumping the 
game database to the printer. Hint: the 
game is all hardcoded, with all pictures, 
etc., coded into the program. 

The pictures are all done in graphics 8. 
the highest resolution mode the Atari has. 
They seem to have had a good amount of 
work put into them, and the only detrac- 
tion is that in graphics 8 the Atari doesn't 
put out a solid line, it tends to candy- 
stripe and change colors. This is called 
artifacting and can be of use to a pro- 
grammer who understands it; the folks 
who did Warlock didn't, I'm afraid, so 
you would do well to turn off the color on 
your TV. 

The game itself is a fairly standard 
adventure, with pictures at each stop and 
two-word commands. It runs fast enough 
and is fun to play. I recommend it and 
had a good time playing it, even if (I must 
confess) I have yet to completely finish it. 
This one will take you more than a couple 
hours to do. 



Artifacting can be of 

use to a programmer 

who understands it; the 

folks who did Warlock 

didn*. 



In summary, while it may be "just 
another adventure." the game is a lot of 
fun and good to play. Don't let the fact 
that there is good competition for it worry 
you; just because there are several good 
games like it available, doesn't moan this 
one isn't worth getting. There aren't yet 
enough adventures on the market to 
swamp it completely, so if you're into 
such things, or if you would just like to 
give one a try, this is a good choice. 

Every reviewer has to fight a tendency 
to be sarcastic when he discovers a game 
that just doesn't make it. The urge to 
make cutting comments can be over- 
powering. In this case I was going to 
award the Cray- 1 Speed In Arcade Games 
Trophy for this game. But that isn't how I 
view the purpose of a review. I prefer to 
try to make constructive comments on 
games that aren't quite right in the hope 
that the author(s) will consider my opin- 
ions and suggestions and, perhaps, 
improve the game. 



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CIRCLE 268 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



WHAT'S EATING 
YOUR APPLE? 

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Dungeons, continued. 

Kayos 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Kayos 
Type: Arcade 
System: Atari 400/800 
Formal: Cassette or disk 
Language: Machine 

Summary: Good if you have 

superhuman reflexes 
Price: $34.95 

Manufacturer: 

Computer Magic Ltd. 

P.O. Box 26.34 

Huntington Station. NY 11746 



So we come to Kayos. You've guessed 
it — it doesn't make it. It is very well done 
technically. It runs faster than most, and 
obviously a great deal of work went into 
it. I have no complaint with it technically. 
However, its human interface isn't very 
good. It is simply too fast for people. 
Robots with emitter-coupled-logic reflex- 
es might enjoy it. however. 




CIRCLE 302 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



90 



Kayos. 

When you boot it up. you see a field of 
asteroids crossing space from left to 
right— a complex animation task for sure; 
someone worked very hard on it. 

At blinding speed a series of blurry 
objects comes out of the top of the screen 
and dives upon your emplacement: I 
could never identify what they were, they 
went so fast. My average playing time 
was around a minute or two, and I just 
couldn't see spending too much time on 
the game. 

Galaxians, and arcade games like it. 
are a challenge because they are not too 
fast. Much fiendish design effort went 
into making them just fast enough to be 
an agonizing challenge and not simply 
impossible. Kayos lacks this human engi- 
neering quality. It is a game sadly in need 
of a few strategically placed delay loops. 

Look for a reissue soon, I hope. This 
could be a fun game if it were slowed to a 
playable speed. □ 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 




PRINTS LIKE A DAISY... COSTS LIKE A MATRIX. 



Integral Data Systems introduces the 
only low-cost dot matrix printer on the 
market that features Maisey™ printing. 
Maisey printing is a technique that 
allows you to produce correspondence- 
quality text approaching that of more 
expensive daisy-wheel printers, but at 
much faster speeds. 

How fast? With Microprism Printer's™ 
dual speed capability, you can output 
at 75cps in correspondence-quality 
and UOcps in high-speed data mode. 
And it also features sharp, high-density 
graphics in an 84 x 84 dpi format. 

You'll get cleaner, crisper output 
than you ever thought possible in a 
single pass. 

Other standard features of the 
Microprism include proportional 




spacing, text justification and, of course, 
software compatibility with our more 
expensive Prism Printer™ line. 

Hie Microprism Printer is the 
perfect system mate that can handle 
all of your printing requirements. . . 
it's the best of both worlds. So if 
you've been waiting for the price of 
daisy-wheel printers to come down, 
or the quality of dot matrix to go up, 
now is me time to check out the 
exciting new Microprism Printer from 
Integral Data Systems. 

Stop in at your local dealer today 
and ask for a demonstration. If you 

need the name of the dealer nearest 

you, call us toll-free at (800)258-1386. 
Or write Integral Data Systems, 
Milford, NH 03055. 



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CIRCLE 181 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




TRS-80 Arcade Games 



Harry McCracken and Owen Linzmayer 



Video game madness is sweeping 
America. News magazines publish cover 
stories on video games, bookstores sell 
books on how to beat them, and chart- 
topping records are recorded about them. 
It is not surprising, then, that many 
software publishers offer versions of the 
most popular arcade games for home 
computers. 

Not surprising, at least, in the case of 
such computers as the Apple II. Atari, 
and TRS-80 Color Computer. Those 
machines all have high-resolution color 
graphics, sound routines in ROM, and 
paddles or joysticks. Not so the TRS-80 
Model I and Model III. They have low- 
resolution black and white displays, no 
sound routines, and no game controllers. 
That is why it is remarkable that there 
are quite a few good arcade-style games 
for the TRS-80 Model I and III. 

Let's look at four games which make 
especially good use of the limited poten- 
tial of the TRS-80 as an arcade game 
machine. 



Planetoids 

Planetoids, published by Adventure 
International, is, as the name suggests, 
inspired by the classic Atari arcade game 

Harry McCracken. 47 Carlclon Street. Newton. 

MA0215K. 



Asteroids: you control a ship which shoots 
at floating asteroids and enemy space- 
craft. 

Adventure International has released 
versions of Planetoids for both the TRS- 
80 and the Apple II. Amazingly, the TRS- 
80 version is by far the better of the two. 




Planetoids. 

Greg Hassett, known primarily for his 
adventure games, has written one of the 
best arcade-style games available for any 
home computer with or without, high- 
resolution color graphics. 

Many home computer games which try 
to simulate arcade games get the graphics 
of the original down, but Planetoids is 
one of the very few which do a good job 
of simulating the timing of the original. 
That means that playing Planetoids is 
much like playing Asteroids. 

Planetoids is enhanced by its special 
features and playing modes. Like many 



games, it has more than one skill level, 
but it also has the option of saving high 
scores to tape, the ability to abort a game 
in progress, and the ability to "freeze" a 
game, so that you can answer the phone 
and come back to an uninterrupted 
game. 

The special modes include "dogfight" 
mode, in which there are no asteroids 
and you fight one-on-one with the enemy 
ships; "cruise" mode, in which the aster- 
oids move very, very slowly, so that you 
can practice steering your ship; and 
"practice" mode, in which game play 
starts out at a higher skill level than 
normal— Planetoids— gets harder as you 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Planetoids 

Type: Arcade game 

System: TRS-80 Model I and III. 16K 

Formal: Cassette 

Summary: Excellent version of 
Asteroids 

Price: $19.95 

Manufacturer: 

Adventure International 
Box 3435 
Longwood, FL 32750 



92 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 





a i 1 1" 1 1 I 



L 




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the ultimate in arcade 
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(217) 359-8482 
Telex: 206995 



Features: 

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Easy, Competition, High Speed, and Cosmic. 

40 user-adjustable parameters: create and 

save your own custom games. 

an instruction card, a hi-score disk label, and 

a 16-page manual explaining all of the 

variations available. 



See your dealer . . . and see 
what you've been missing! 

For direct orders, add $1.50 and specify UPS or first class mail. 
Illinois residents add 5% sales tax. Visa and MasterCard accepted. 

Apple" is the registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc 



CIRCLE 284 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The best software for 
the IBM Personal Computer. 
Could it be yours? 



Attention, all programmers. Here's a 
chance to reach the top. 

If you've written software that's completed 
and runs on the IBM Personal Computer, we 
could be interested in publishing it. 

(We also could be interested if it runs 
on another computer. If we select your software, 
we'll ask you to adapt it to our system.) 

But be advised. 

Our expectations are great. 

Because the software we publish must be 
good enough to complement IBM Personal 
Computer hardware. In fact, the more you take 
advantage of all our hardware capabilities (see 
the box at right), the more interested in your 
software we become. 

Think about incorporating color graphics 
into your program, for example. 

Use sound. Consider the power of our 
keyboard and remember to utilize the ten 
programmable function keys. 

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appeal. Programs with the greatest chance 
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Education. Entertainment. Personal ^ 

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Keyboard 

83 ke>> 6 ft cord 

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MM) unit * 
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DtagaoMics 
ftsavron self testing* 
Pant\ checking* 



Display Screen Permanent Memory 

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Operating Systems 

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t I'/M -86* 



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MAC KO Assembler. 
COBOL 

Printer 

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2V> characters and 

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resolution: 

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Simultanet ms graphics A 

text ca|iabiluy 
t oiiiiiiuiiii alions 

RS-232-Clnterl 



ler styles, up to Asynchronous (start/stop) 
132 characters/line* prott o 'I 

9x9charactcr matrix* l'p to 9600 bits per second 



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So, if you think your software is the best, 
consider submitting it. If it's accepted, we'll take 
care of the publishing, the marketing and the 
distribution. All you have to do is reap the 
benefits of our new royalty terms. And you're free 
to market your program elsewhere at any turn 
even if you license it to us. 

We're offering the ladder. Think about 
taking the first step. 

For information on how to submit your 
program, write: IBM Personal Computer, 
External Submissions, 
i£. I Dept- 765 PC, Armonk, 

New York 10504. ==== = ■ 




The IBM Personal Computer 
A tool for modern times 



For an authorized IBM Personal Computer dealer near you (or information from IBM about quantity purchases) call 800-447-4700. In Illinois. 800-322-4400. In Alaska or Hawaii, 800-447-0890. 
tUCSD p-System is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California. CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research, inc. 



CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SIZZLIN 



HOT* 



COMING 



FIT VOU! 





GAMES FROM SSI 




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POW€RFUl 







CIRCLE 281 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Arcade Games, continued. 



play— and your score is not recorded on 
the high score chart. 

All of these features ensure that Plane- 
toids will hold your interest for a long 
time. 

I do have two small complaints about 
the game. It does not have sound, and 
there is no two-player mode. Neither of 
these is a big problem, but the game 
would be better if it had sound and two- 
player capability, as most TRS-80 arcade 
games do. 



Alien Defense 

Another game which does a good job 
of adapting an arcade game to the IKS- 
MI is Alien Defense from Soft Sector 
Marketing. Inspired by Williams's arcade 
hit Defender, it is probably the most 
difficult arcade game around for the TRS- 
80. 

As in Defender, you control a ship 
which flies above a horizontally scrolling 
landscape and shoot down many kinds of 
aliens, some of which fly down and kidnap 
people who stand on the landscape. 

The graphics in this game aren't as 



creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Alien Defense 

Type: Arcade game 

System: TRS-80 Model I and III 
16K cassette. 32K disk 

Format: Cassette or disk 

Summary: Good version of Defender 

Price: $19.95 cassette: $24.95 disk 

Manufacturer: 

Soft Sector Marketing 
6250 Middlebelt 
Garden City, MI 48135 



good as those in Planetoids; they flicker 
and the movement is a bit too jerky. That 
isn't surprising, though; there is a great 
deal of movement going on in this game. 

Larry Ashmun. the author of Alien 
Defense, has done a good job of putting 
the ship controls onto the TRS-80 key- 
board. While you must manipulate six 
keys to control your ship, the pattern in 
which the keys are arranged makes it 
easy to do. 

The Model III version of Alien Defense 
has an added feature: the special charac- 
ter set of that computer is used, so that 
the little men look like men, and the alien 



ships look more like alien ships than they 
do on the Model I. This is the only Model 
III game I know of which uses the Model 
III graphics so well. 

All in all. Defender fans should be very 
pleased with Alien Defense. Like 
Defender, it is a very challenging game, 
so beginning arcade game players might 
find it a bit complicated at first. 



Defense Command 



creative contpatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Defense Command 

Type: Arcade game 

System: TRS-80 Model I and III. 
I6K cassette, 32K disk 

Format: Cassette or disk 

Summary: Big Five's best yet 

Price: $15.95 cassette: $19.95 disk 

Manufacturer: 

Big Five Software 

Box 9078-185 

Van Nuys, CA 91409 



Big Five Software has released a steady 
stream of superb games, over the last 
couple of years. One of their most recent 
games. Defense Command, is their best 
yet. It might be described as Space 
Invaders crossed with Defender. You 
control a base at the bottom of the screen. 
Space Invaders style, and protect fuel 
cells from attacking aliens who try to 
steal them. 

Just about everything which has distin- 
guished Big Five games in the past is in 
Defense Command. Explosions are more 
realistic: the high score chart lets you 
type in your full name, rather than just a 
few characters; and the infamous Big Five 
Flagship is more evil than ever. Like 
Robot Attack, Defense Command talks 
through the tape port, but the speech is 
far clearer. 

While Defense Command is a difficult 
game to master, it is not complicated; 
beginners may play terribly, but they will 
understand and enjoy the game. And 
because Defense Command requires 
more true strategy to master than the 
other Big Five games, even advanced 
arcade game enthusiasts will find it a chal- 
lenge. 

If you have trouble formulating a strat- 
egy to play the game well, watch the 
demonstration mode; the computer plays 



the game very well, and it is easy to pick 
up pointers from watching it play itself. 



Armored Patrol 

In writing a TRS-80 version of an 
arcade game the biggest problem is 
usually the creation of an acceptable 
graphics display. This is a difficult task 
with almost any hi-resgame (what current 
arcade game isn't hi-res?) but. when a 
TRS-80 version of a vector graphics game 
is desired, it borders on the impossible — 
or so I thought. Armored Patrol is an 
adaption of the popular arcade game 
Battlezone. which uses vector graphics. 

Written by Wayne Westmoreland ana 
Terry Gilman. Armored Patrol is an 
amazing demonstration of how far crea- 
tive programming can stretch the limited 
graphics capabilities of the TRS-80. In 
Armored Patrol the player assumes the 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Armored Patrol 

Type: Arcade simulation 

System: 16K Model I or III TRS-80 

Format: Cassette 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Superb arcade game 

Price: $19.95 

Manufacturer: 

Adventure International 
Box 3455 
Longwood. FL 32750 



guise of a tank commander positioned in 
a desolate battlezone. This death field is 
littered with indestructible blockhouses 
which serve as obstacles during a shoot 
out. Hidden in this barren land is an 
endless supply of enemy tanks and killer 
robots bent on destroying the player. 

Armored Patrol allows one or two 
players, alternating turns, to test their 
abilities against the enemy forces. The 
program constantly displays and updates 
the players' scores and also keeps track 
of the high-score. The sound effects are 
an added touch to enhance the captivat- 
ing 3-D screen display. 

Never before had I imagined that my 
TRS-80 was capable of such a realistic 
simulation. 

The object of this game is survival. By 
weaving skillfully among the blockhouses, 
the player tries to gain position from 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



97 



28K Commodore VIC C^QQ 
Personal Computer ^^ ^ ^ 
(60% more powerful than VIC-20) 

FOR THE SPECIAL SALE PRICE of $299.00, you get the Commodore VIC-20 
computer, plus we add 60% more programming power. This powerful full sized 
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plug in expandable to 32K RAM, 66 key typewriter professional keyboard with 
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90 DAY IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY! Comes in a beautiful console 
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insurance. Illinois residents add 6% tax. 



CIRCLE 247 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Put your 
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Arcade Games, continued... 

which he can safely blast the enemy 
without risking destruction himself. 

An enemy tank can combine forces 
with a killer robot to attack simulta- 
neously from different vantage points. 
The player is aided by a radar scope that 
gives him a rough idea where the enemy 
is in relation to his position, but visual 
confirmation is usually required for accu- 
rate shooting. 




Armored Patrol. 

As the enemy tank approaches it grows 
in size and its surface details become 
clearer right up to the point where you 
are looking down the cannon barrel. By 
then it is usually too late to do anything 
but pray. 

Armored Patrol is a classic in every 
sense of the word. Its value as a simulation 
is tremendous but it is also a superb 
arcade game. Although the controls are a 
bit difficult to master, it is a wonderful 
program for game players with even 
modest coordination. I recommend this 
package without reservation. — O. W.L. 




CIRCLE 111 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



98 



"When a man starts asking for his paycheck in 
quarters, he s spending too much money on video 
games!..." 

October 1982° Creative Computing 



Sjfr* 




TO ORDER, 
CALL TOLL-FREE: 

800-227-4587 

In California 800-622-0678 

CA residents add sales tax. 

OR WRITE: 

800-SOFTWARE, INC. 

IBS Berry Street. Suite 6820, Son Francisco, CA 94107 

Purchase orders accepted. 

Prompt UPS 3 day Blue Label service. 

Call for shipping charges. 



CIRCLE 161 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Puzzle Of The Tacoma Narrows 

Bridge Collapse: An Interactive 

Videodisc Program For 

Physics Instruction 

Dean Zollman and Robert Fuller 



On November 7, 1940 the bridge across 
the Tacoma Narrows went into violent 
oscillations and collapsed within a few 
hours (Figures 1-3). Most of the final hours 
of the bridge and many earlier oscillations 
were photographed on 16mm color film 
by Barney Elliott, proprietor of The 
Camera Shop in Tacoma. WA. 

The films of the bridge undergoing 
oscillations with amplitudes of over two 
meters can motivate almost any student 
to learn more about wave motion. Several 
years ago one of our students paid the 
ultimate compliment to a short edited 
version of the original film: "I'd even pay 
to see that." 

Thus, while this event was a disaster in 
terms of cost and hurt pride to engineers, 
it has provided physics teachers with the 
most captivating demonstration of wave 
phenomena ever devised. Certainly, phys- 
ics teachers have long applauded the 
designing engineers for their contributions 
to physics instruction and Barney Elliot 
for filming it. 

The quality and uniqueness of the 
Tacoma Narrows Bridge film make it very 
valuable for audio-visual presentations. 
When we and Thomas Campbell of 
Illinois Central College began thinking 
about subjects for our first interactive 
videodisc, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge 
and the reasons for its collapse were 
natural choices. 

Further, several good physics films on 
wave motion and vibrations are available. 
By using them and Mr. Elliot's film we 
believed we could create a low-cost 
instructional videodisc. Thus, we pro- 
posed to the National Science Foundation 
(NSF) Directorate for Science Education 
that it support us in this low-cost approach 
to videodisc education. The NSF agreed 
to provide funds, so we began planning in 
early fall. 1979. 

Dean Zollman. Department of Physics. Kansas 
Stale University. Manhattan. KS bo.SOn. 

Robert G. Fuller. Department of Physics. Univer- 
sit> ot Nebraska Lincoln. Lincoln. Nl f>K.SNX. 




100 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 







SPRINT 9 



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CIRCLE 252 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









Tacoma Bridge, continued. 



The Bridge Disc 

The Puzzle Of The Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge Collapse was created as a Level 
Two videodisc (see box) and is designed 
for use with a Pioneer PR -7820 videodisc 
player. Any student who learns physics 
by using the disc must interact frequently 
via the remote keypad. 

This interaction takes the form of 
answering questions or making choices 
which are presented on the television 
screen. The degree to which the student 
is active during the lesson can be 
described in terms of its length. If played 
from beginning to end as one would a 
motion picture, the program lasts for 
slightly less than 27 minutes. When taking 
part in an interactive lesson, students 
spend from two to four hours using the 
system. 

By using the programming capabilities 
of the player, parts of the program can be 
made available to some students but not 
others. We used this aspect of the tech- 
nology to establish three levels of physics 
instruction. 

These levels are labelled red, blue and 
green and correspond to the three major 
types of introductory physics courses- 
physics for the nonscience student, phys- 
ics presented using algebra and physics 
using calculus. At various points during 
the lesson students branch to frames 
which depend on their level. 

As we developed the disc we were 
guided by some basic principles. First, 
students should have a strong motivation 
to study the subject matter on the disc. 
Second, the physics involved should be 
presented as a problem or puzzle for the 
students to solve. They, not we, should 
be the ones to state "The bridge collapsed 
because..." 

Finally, the interaction between disc 
and student should be much more than 
answering questions. By viewing pictures 
of real experiments they should be able 
to take data and draw conclusions from 
them. In summary, the lesson on the disc 
must be theirs not ours. While we provide 
the means by which they learn, they 
discover what they need to know to solve 
the problem. 

With these thoughts in mind we divided 
The Puzzle Of The Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge Collapse into five parts: Introduc- 
tion to the Player, The Bridge Collapse. 
The Influence of the Wind, The Impor- 
tance of the Bridge Properties, and Con- 
clusion. Perhaps the best way to see how 
students work with the disc is to take a 
guided tour of each part. 

Introduction To The Player 

We assume that students would not 
previously have used an interactive video- 
disc player, so our first step is to teach 
them how to use the system. They are 




guided through a series of operations each 
of which teaches how to use a key or 
series of keys needed to interact with the 
disc. 

The presentation requires action on the 
part of the student: the picture does not 
change, for example, unless he presses 
the appropriate key. By the time the 
student has finished this short section he 
has demonstrated sufficient knowledge of 
the system to complete the lesson. 

The Hook 

When the student reaches the end of 
the introduction to the player he is told to 
enter the number 49, then press RECALL 
SEARCH. These entries on the keypad 
recall from memory the frame number 
stored in memory location 49. then cause 
the machine to search to that frame. 

The next picture states PRESS AUTO- 
STOP. When this key is pressed, the 
machine plays to the frame stored in the 
memory location which is one greater 
than the last one used. (In this case the 
disc plays to the frame stored in memory 
location 50.) This series of entries begins 
the physics lesson. 

We have informally named this section 
of the disc "the hook" because it is used 
to pique the student's curiosity about the 
Tacoma Narrows Bridge and its collapse. 
It "hooks" or intrinsically motivates him 
to complete the study of standing waves 
which is recorded on the disc. 

Here the student views the construc- 
tion, initial oscillations, violent oscillations 
and collapse of the first Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge. Accompanying the video is an 
audio narration created from written 

102 



accounts of Professor F. B. Fahquarson, 
a consulting engineer. Kenneth Arkin. 
chairman of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge 
Authority; and Leonard Coatsworth, a 
reporter for the Tacoma News-Tribune 
and the last person to drive onto the 
bridge. 

We feel that this seven-minute se- 
quence will hook even the least interested 
student into wanting to learn more about 
the reasons for the bridge collapse. 

After the bridge has collapsed and Mr. 
Coatsworth has lamented the loss of his 
daughter's dog Tubby (the only casualty), 
the videodisc stops on a frame containing 
the question "Why did the Tacoma Nar- 
rows Bridge Collapse?" 

We do not answer that question dir- 
ectly. Instead, it is posed so that the 
student is presented with a puzzle to be 
solved. During the next two to four hours 
of study he will discover the pieces that 
can be put together to help explain this 
disaster. With some help from a video 
disc he will solve the puzzle of the 
Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse. 

The Influence Of The Wind 

So far in the lesson the student has 
been rather passive. He has watched the 
bridge collapse but has done little else. 
That situation changes quickly. 

To learn about the influence of the 
wind on the bridge collapse the student 
must take control of a series of experi- 
ments. The experiments involve a mt>del 
of the bridge, a fan and a piece of card- 
board. The fan blows on the bridge with 
three different speeds. In addition to a 
constant push, winds can blow in such a 

October 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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Tacoma Bridge, continued... 

way as to create a pulsating force on 
bridges. 

In this experiment the pulsations are 
created by periodically placing the card- 
board in front of the fan. The fan can be 
set to three different speeds. The pulsing 
action results in no pulses, low frequency 
pulses, and high frequency pulses. With 
three values for each of two variables, 
nine different experiments exist. Each of 
these experiments has been recorded on 
the videodisc. 







S 


PEED 


■ 


^> 


PULSES 


Low 




Medium 




High 


None 


70 




72 




74 


Medium frequency 


7« 




78 




80 


High frequency 


82 




84 




86 



ENTER NUNBER/RECALL/SEARCH 
TO EXITl 88/RECALL/SEARCH 



The student is introduced to the experi- 
ments and told that he must use them to 
determine what aspect of the wind was 
important in the collapse. Then a choice 
matrix (Figure 4) appears on the screen. 



The present Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge has four lanes instead 
of two. Thus, its Linear 
Density is about twice that 
of the collapsed bridge. 

STP FWD 



By pressing appropriate keys the student 
may select the experiments he wishes to 
see. 

When he decides he has seen enough, 
he may end the experiment and move on. 
But. he cannot go far until he has been 
tested on his conclusions. A series of 
multiple choice questions query him 
about the influence of the wind. Incorrect 
answers cause the machine to show the 
experiments again. The student is stuck 
until he reaches the conclusion that the 
rate of pulsation, not the speed of wind, is 
the critical factor. 

The Bridge Properties 

Pulsating forces arising from wind 
cause most bridges to vibrate, but the 



Enter the location of the 
bridge with the higher 
frequency. 

211 Collapsed Tacoma Bridge 

212 Present Tacoma Bridge 

Then press RECALL/SEARCH 




first Tacoma Narrows Bridge fell down. 
To understand the difference between 
this bridge and most others, the student 
moves on to investigate the properties of 
vibrations in general and of vibrating 
bridges in particular. 

To complete the investigation the stu- 
dent must have some knowledge of the 
physics of waves and oscillations. He 
learns this through a series of short 
presentations which rely heavily on a 
computer animated film created by Ency- 
clopedia Brittanica Education Corpora- 
tion with the assistance of Professor 
Albert Baez. 

These sequences, which require some 
interaction by the student, lead up to a 



Capabilities Of The Optical Videodisc 



This optical videodisc system offers 
a new level of capability to the instruc- 
tional designer. Each side of a disc can 
contain about 50,000 individual pic- 
tures (usually called frames). These 
frames can be shown one at a time for 
as long as needed; they can be played 
at regular speed (30 frames per second) 
to show normal motion; or they can 
be played at any slow motion speed 
forward or backward. 

At normal playing speed the video- 
disc can play one or both of two audio 
channels. The audio capabilities allow 
for stereo sound, bilingual education, 
or different narratives for students with 
different backgrounds. While all of 
these features are useful, they would 
be of limited value without random 
access. 

In a very short time an optical 
videodisc player can select and play 
any frame on the disc. For a well- 
constructed disc the search time is less 
than a second. For the worst possible 
situation, a search from frame one to 
frame 50,000, the access time varies 
from a few seconds for the educa- 
tional-industrial models to about 
twenty seconds for a consumer player. 



An interactive videodisc can be 
created at several different levels of 
instruction. At Level One the disc is 
designed for use on a stand-alone 
consumer model player such as the 
Pioneer VP-1000. Most discs at this 
level are motion pictures which play 
from beginning to end without any 
interaction. However, consumer 
players such as the Pioneer VP-1000 
and VP-1 100 have all the capabilities 
described above. Interactive discs can 
be and have been created for it. Per- 
haps, the best and most interactive to 
date is The First National Kidisc pro- 
duced by Bruce Seth Green. (A review 
of this disc appears in the January. 
1982, issue of Creative Computing). 

A Level Two disc requires a small 
microprocessor such as the ones built 
into the Pioneer PR-7820 (formerly 
called the DiscoVision PR-7820) and 
the Sony LDP-1000. These players 
have internal memories which allow 
the instructor to enter program steps 
or to load the numbers of significant 
frames. While the various players have 
slightly different capabilities, they are 
all approximately equivalent to a IK 
microcomputer. 



Generally, a digital program is 
placed on the second audio track at 
the beginning of the disc. This program 
is loaded into the memory of the 
system and controls the operation of 
the disc. To date large numbers of 
videodiscs at this level of interaction 
have been created by General Motors 
and Ford. Many auto showrooms have 
stand-alone players with keypads for 
interaction. The Puzzle Of The 
Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse is 
designed for this type of interaction. 

The third level involves coupling the 
videodisc player to an external com- 
puter. At present the most frequently 
used computers are the personal vari- 
ety. All Pioneer players and the Sony 
are capable of receiving information 
from a computer. Thus, highly inter- 
active lessons using all the advantages 
of both systems are now available. 

The economics lesson developed by 
the Minnesota Educational Computing 
Consortium and described in the 
January, 1982 issue of Creative Com- 
puting is an example of this type of 
disc. A Level One disc can also be 
converted to a Level Three disc as 
was demonstrated by the computer- 
video adventure game published in the 
same issue of Creative Computing— 
D.Z. 



106 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 




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Tacoma Bridge, continued. 



series of experiments with vibrating ropes. 
These ropes are placed under different 
tensions, have different lengths, and have 
different masses per unit length (linear 
densities in the language of physics). 
Experiments for three values of each 
variable are recorded on the disc. 

The student is asked to determine how 
each variable affects the frequency of 
vibration for the rope. Exactly what 
conclusions he is to reach and how he is 
to do so depend on the instructional 
level— red. green, or blue. For example, 
the red level student must use his data to 
derive an equation which describes how 
the frequency depends on the three var- 
iables, while the green level student must 
state how the frequency changes as each 
variable increases or decreases. 

The videodisc is an excellent medium 
with which to present this experiment. In 
real time the motion of the ropes can be 
seen only as a blur. Using the slow motion 
capabilities of the disc, the motion is 
slowed to the point where the student 
can count individual vibrations. In addi- 
tion, each frame on a disc is assigned a 
frame number. Since frames are shown in 
real time at a rate of 30 per second, the 
frame number provides a l/30th second 
timer. Using slow motion and the frame 
number the student can collect data on 
vibrating ropes in a manner which is not 
practical in any other way. 

Once the student has completed ana- 
lyzing his data, he must answer questions 
about his conclusions. First, he is queried 
about vibrating ropes. Then, to help him 
see how his conclusions apply to bridges, 
he is presented with questions such as the 
green level question in Figure 5. When he 
has completed this section, the student is 
ready to put all the pieces of the puzzle 
together. 

The Conclusion 

The two major parts of the puzzle — the 
wind and the properties of the bridge — 
have been investigated separately. To 
bring them together, the interaction 
between the two must be studied. This 
part of the disc does that at the three 
levels of instruction. 

The red level student looks at the 
mathematical relations governing the 
oscillations of the bridge. In doing so he 
learns that the motions can be divided 
into two parts — vertical and twisting 
(torsional). For the Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge he learns that the frequency of 
twisting motion and vertical motion were 
almost identical. Thus, when a part broke 
and allowed the destructive twisting 
motion to begin, it did so quickly. 

The blue or red level student sees a 
segment about turbulence which builds 
up on the downstream side of a flat object 
in the wind. With animated diagrams such 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 




as Figure 6 they learn how this turbulence 
can create pulsating forces on a bridge. 

All three levels view other examples in 
which a pulsating force leads to periodic, 
and sometimes increasing, motion. A flag 
in the wind, a child on a swing and a 
bouncing ball are examples of similar 
physical phenomena. 

As television inevitably does, instruc- 
tional videodisc concludes with a TV 
commercial. Ella Fitzgerald (or was it 
Memorex?) displays one more example 
of a similar event — breaking a wine glass 
with sound. 

Using The Disc 

To date, a few hundred students have 
completed the lesson as described above. 
Most of them have learned the physics 
that we hoped they would. More impor- 
tant, they have become involved in the 
problem solving nature of the presenta- 
tion. In this way they have learned a little 
about how science works and sharpened 
their own ability to look at new situations 
in a systematic way. 

The Future 

When we were developing the disc, we 
included material which would require 
computer control for full interaction. 
While the lesson does not require this 
material to solve the puzzle, it can be 
designed so that students have more 
control over what they see. Thus, a 
program to use the disc under computer 
control is under development. When that 
program is completed, we will have fin- 
ished our work on this disc. 

Our experiences with The Puzzle Of 
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse 
have encouraged us to continue devel- 
oping videodiscs for physics instruction. 
One videodisc, Physics And Automobile 
Collisions, is complete but has not yet 
been used by students. Several others are 
in various stages of development. In each 
case we are constructing the discs so that 
students are presented with problems they 
must solve, and at least part of the 
solution involves taking data from video- 
disc. With this type of instruction we hope 
to increase students' abilities in physics 
and problem solving. At the same time 
we hope they have as much fun learning 
from videodiscs as we have producing 
them. □ 

109 



The First Commercially 
Available Level Two 
Instructional Videodisc 

What do you do with an interactive 
videodisc for physics instruction once 
it is completed. About a year ago we 
were faced with that problem. After 
showing it to our friends, relatives and 
professional colleagues, we looked for 
a commercial distributor. 

At that time the only optical discs 
being distributed were motion pictures 
and a few others such as The First 
National Kidisc. The distributors of 
these discs were not interested in a 
disc with as limited an audience as 
high school and college physics 
teaching. 

Fortunately, a major science text- 
book publisher. John Wiley & Sons, 
was interested in this new form of 
delivering physics instruction. In the 
spring of 1982 John Wiley began selling 
The Puzzle Of The Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge Collapse ($125). Thus, this disc- 
becomes the first Level Two disc to be 
available from a commercial source. 



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TERRAPIN, THE TURTLE PEOPLE, 
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LOGO Ideas 



Robert Lawler 



Passing The Buck 



Sometimes difficult problem-, can be simplified by doing a 
small part and "passing the buck." I his example is to elan I \ the 
idea and the Logo techniques for applying it. Suppose you want 
to print messages in a eocle where ever) word is spelled back- 
wards, e.g. sdrawkcab. How ean you write a procedure to 
switch letters around' You know the procedure begins with a 
title line and a variable input, such as: 

TO SWITCHEM :INPUT 

If the input to SWITCHEM has no letters, nothing should 
be printed maybe a space. If the input is only one letter long 
(such as "I" or "a"), it should be printed. If the input is longer, 
you will always want to print the last letter of the input anyway. 
so you might as well do that and pass the buck (all those other 
letters except the last one) to another procedure, call it 
HARDER: 

TOSWIICHI M IM'l I 

IF EMPTY? :INPUT PRIM SPACE STOP 

IVI'l I ASI IM'l 1 
HARDER Bill ASI INPDI 
I ND 

Now. what should the HARDER procedure be like? 

If the input to SWITCHEM was one letter long, the input to 
HARDER will have no letters it should stop. If HARDER's 
input is one letter long, that letter should be printed. If longer. 
you will want to print the last letter of the input anyway, so you 
might as well do that and pass the buck (all those other letters ol 
HARDER's input except the last one) to another procedure 
call it EVEN-HARDI R 

Doesn't that sound familiar? EVEN-HARDER will ha\e to 
do the job that HARDER was supposed todo. HARDERdoes 
the same thing as SWITCHEM. The good trick in passing the 
buck is vou never have to write the HA KD/:i< procedure if 
SWITCHEM calls itself: 

TO SWITCHEM :INPUT 

IF EMPTY? INPUT PRINT SPACE STOP 

TYPE I. ASI INPUT 

SWITCHEM Bl II AST :INPUT 

END 



What Good Is Planning? 

One view is that planning breaks a problem up into parts, 
each of which can be more simply solved than can the whole. 
For example, if you wanted the turtle to draw a picture of a 

Robert Lawler. Centre Mondial Informatique Et Resources Humaines. 22 
Avenue Matinnon. 7508 Paris. France. 



house, you probably would find it easier first to write a triangle 
procedure for the roof and a square lor the storey then put the 
two together than you would composing a procedure for 
drawing the whole thing at once. 

A richer view of planning is that the breaking up ol a problem 
is \ery fruitful because you will create partial solutions 

which can be used indifferent ways to make other things 1 et\ 
extend the HOUSE example. I he simplest extension ol a 
HOUSE would be to separate the parts front each other and 
reconnect them a different way. Doing so you could make a 
WISHING WELL, such as the one drawn by this procedure: 

l<> WISHING. Wl I I 
RIGHT 180 SIORI ^ 
RIGHT 180 FORWARD 1(H) 
RODE 
END 

This attempt to use the parts ol a HOUSE as parts ol a 
WISHING-WELL runs into an immediate problem: the 
WISHING- WELL is bigger than the house. It you want both of 
them in the same picture, it will be necessary to make another 
triangle and square procedure lor a small wishing-well. At this 
point, it makes sense to generalize the RODE and STOREY 
sub-procedures, specifying their si/e by the use of input 
\ariables. as in the procedure below: 

TO STOREY :SID1 
I II I 90 

FORWARD SID1 2 
RIGHT 90 EDRWARD SIDI 
RIGHT 90 FORWARD SIDI 
RIGHI 90 FORWARD SIDI 
RIGHT 90 FORWARD SIDI 2 
RIGHT 90 
I Nl) 

TO ROOF SIDE 
LEFT 90 

FORWARD SIDI 2 

RIGHI 120 FORWARD SIDI 

RIGHI 120 FORWARD SIDI 

RIGHT 120 FORWARD SIDI 2 

RIGHT 90 

END 

Not only are these new procedures more flexible, the way 
they fit together can now be modified to make a better house 
than the original. 

TO HOUSE.WITH. EAVES 
RIGHT 180 STOREY 100 

RIGHT 180 ROOF 120 

END □ 



October 1982° Creative Computing 



111 



What is Logo? 



Logo is a computer language which was 
developed to provide an environment 
which allows learning to take place as 
naturally as possihle. Seymour Papert and 
his colleagues at Bolt Beranek and 
Newman and later at M IT set out to create 
a computer language which would com- 
bine the capabilities of artificial intel- 
ligence with the theories of Jean Piaget in 
order to allow a learner to build his own 
intellectual structures through estimation, 
interaction, experience and revision. 

The Logo language is designed to pro- 
vide an environment in which the child 
learner is in charge of 

• Setting a problem to solve. 

• Making choices. 

• Playing with the problem.experimenting 
and trying out solutions. 

• Building on what he has already done to 
do something more. 

The language is interactive. You learn it 
at the computer. After working with a 
problem for a while, you edit it, revise it. 
and then play your next steps. 

With Logo, a young learner can enter 
directly into the world of turtle geometry. 
Without memorizing formulas, he can 
create procedures for drawing squares, 
triangles, and circles. 

This is unlike my own experience in 
geometry. I learned geometry in high 
school only because 1 was required to take 
the course as preparation for college. 

Geometric thinking is possible now for 
any learner without a series of pre- 
requisites. At the Lamplighter School in 
Texas, three year olds have used Logo to 



Molly Watt, Educational Alternatives. Gregg Lake 
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Molly Watt 



explore turtle geometry. And MIT 
students use the concepts of turtle 
geometry used in Logo as a way to explore 
mathematics. 

Seymour Papert is often quoted as say- 
ing that "Logo has no threshold, no ceil- 
ing." I have heard it said that Logo is a six 
year old's dream and a computer scientist's 
nightmare. Logo makes complex explora- 
tions possible for learners of all ages, with- 
out imposing artificial hurdles. 



With Logo, a young 

learner can enter 

directly Into the world 

of turtle geometry. 



How does a child explore turtle geom- 
etry? It is really quite simple. Every child 
knows how to move from one place to 
another. Using his own experience in walk- 
ing, a child "teaches" the turtle to move 
across a computer monitor leaving a trail 
or line to create a drawing. 

Let's call our learner Wendy. Her first 
experience might be something like this: 

1. She decides to experiment by drawing 
a square. 

112 



2. She paces a square on the floor to 
notice how she draws it. 

3. She remembers how she did it and 
types a set of commands to the turtle which 
might look like this: 

FORWARD 25 (no. not far enough) 
FORWARD 25 (okay, that's enough) 

RIGHT 40 (oh. that wasn't what I meant 
at all. let's try more) RIGHT 40, (well 
that's not it. try again) RIGHT 10 (that's it) 

(let's see. what was it.) FORWARD 50 

RIGHT 90 

FORWARD 50 

RIGHT 90 

And so on until she has a square. With 
that accomplished, she can simplify the 
steps and teach the computer to do it by 
shifting to the edit mode. What shall the 
name of this procedure be? 

Very often a student will name it with 
her own name, typing: 

TO WENDY 

FORWARD 50 

RIGHT 90 

FORWARD 50 

RIGHT 90 

FORWARD 50 

RIGHT 90 

FORWARD 50 

END 

The turtle will then "know" how to 
WENDY, and will execute a square every 
time the command WENDY is typed. 

Now Wendy can enjoy playing with the 
procedure WENDY, and will probably 
type it over and over for the pleasure of 
watching the turtle "know" how to 
WENDY. The second WENDY will be 
drawn in a screen position which will 
surprise her, and our new Logo user will 
immediately type WENDY again just to 
see what happens. At the end of four 

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What Is Logo, continued... 

WENDYS, there is a new design which 
can be taught to the computer as a pro- 
cedure containing the subprocedure 
WENDY. It looks a bit like a window, so 
Wendy can type: 

TO WINDOW 

WENDY 

WENDY 

WENDY 

WENDY 

END 



or 



TO WINDOW 

REPEAT 4 (WENDY) 

END 

Wendy has started the process of 



Figure 1. Wendy 



So it is with this first turtle drawing: 
Suddenly the Logo user is part of the 
world which assigns airplane reservations, 
cashes checks, and launches space shots. 
This is a world of power, which has in this 
first lesson become part of Wendy's own 
learning continuum. The process is in- 
trinsically motivating and fascinating. 

As every person can learn to use a pencil, 
everyone can — and will — learn to pro- 
gram a computer. 

Projects by New Users 

1 think that it is important to look at 
some examples of tasks that some real 
students have set for themselves as 
problems to solve when beginning to learn 
Logo and to use a computer. 



Figure 2. Window. 




My purpose is to demonstrate the many 
working styles and interests which Logo 
can support. These students were in my 
classes in Amherst and Cambridge, MA 
and were between the ages of 8 and 17. 

After several class sessions in a hands- 
on laboratory, I often suggest to my 
students, "See if you can make the turtle 
draw your initials." Many try the project, 
seem to enjoy the challenge, and then go on 
to some other experiment. 

Two students, Ted and Stella, were 
working side by side, and became com- 
pletely absorbed in drawing letters. Each 
determined to create a complete alphabet. 

Ted immediately wrote a procedure to 
produce the whole alphabet, before creat- 

Figure 3. Rosewindow. 




• Learning to control the turtle. 

• Using the computer as a tool. 

• Teaching the computer to execute an 
original idea and naming it. 

• Noting the steps she used in order to 
iave them as a procedure. 

• Using the procedure as a subprocedure 
in her second procedure. 

She has started to create her own computer 
language. 

Taking the same example one step 
further, our new Logo user, in playing with 
WINDOW, may quickly discover that by 
using the procedure WINDOW and then 
rotating the turtle's position slightly a new 
design is. made that holds a shape which 
begins to approximate a circle. This ex- 
periment can be formalized by typing, 
for example. 

TO ROSEWINDOW 

REPEAT 9 (WINDOW RIGHT 10) 

END 

As in all learning, the first job is to learn 
to control your tool. If you are using a 
pencil, you must practice holding it. 

Your first written word may be your 
own name, which is a profound word to 
the writer. It permits you to show owner- 
ship, authorship, borrow library books, 
sign a check and send a greeting card 
through the mail. It is still a long jump to 
writing a dissertation or even applying for 
a job. However that one word puts you 
into the powerful world of words which 
make up magazines, recipes and phone 
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What is Logo, continued. 

Figure 4. T. 





ing the individual letters. It looked like 
this: 

TO ALPHABET 

A 

DRAW 

B 

DRAW 

C 

DRAW 



Listing 1. Time. 



TO WAIT :T 




IF :T = STOP 




WAIT :T - 1 




END 




TO TIME :HH : MM : SS 




TEST :SS = 60 




I FT MAKE "SS : SS - 60 


TIME :HH < : MM ♦ 1 ) : SS 


IFF MAKE "SS : SS + 5 




TEST :MM = 60 




I FT MAKE "MM : MM - 60 


TIME ( :HH + 1 ) : MM : SS 


TEST :HH - 12 




IFT MAKE "HH : HH - 11 




WAIT 200 




PRINT C3 




( PRINT :HH : MM : SS > 




TIME :HH : MM : SS 




END 




"FALSE is 1 




"TRUE is 1 





END 



ABC 



Ted then began the long process of 
creating procedures to draw each letter in 
turn After his alphabet was completed he 
was dissatisfied with the amount of time 
each letter was displayed on the screen. He 
began to work on the more complex pro- 
gramming problem of creating something 
for the computer to do invisibly so that the 
letter on the screen could continue to be 
displayed for a longer period. This was a 
natural extension of his alphabet pro- 
cedure. 

Stella started out to solve what ap- 
peared to be the same challenge as Ted's. 
During the process, she became fascinated 



by the proportions of height and width 
and how a variable input could change 
the relationships represented graphically. 

The qualities of the computer which 
allowed her to experiment with inputs and 
then provided her with an almost instant 
reformulation of her letters heightened 
her excitement as well as her understand- 
ing about one way a computer could 
extend her thinking. 

She began to collect patterns for mono- 
grams and initials which might make 
interesting designs on stationery. Her 
classmates used her program to think 
about embroidering on denim. For her 
final project, Stella created an art show 
using Logo procedures. 

In one of the first Logo classes, Mark 
and Suzy became a working team. Mark 
seemed to need to be admired for his pro- 
gramming prowess and Su/y was reluctant 
to touch the computer. 

This combination worried me because 
it seemed to reproduce the stereotyped, 
and I believe harmful, pattern of the way 
men and women relate to technology. 



This twosome often seemed to have 
private jokes and to direct gestures toward 
classmates. Although I felt uncomfortable 
and wondered whether I should intervene, 
their classmates paid them no attention. 

In the meantime, I watched and thought 
about them whenever I had a second to 
spare from this demanding programming 
class. I was aware that none of my sug- 
gestions had been accepted by either of 
them. While Mark was actively executing 
his ideas. Suzy admired, and I waited. 

Then one day the duo split, each needing 
a computer to work on. 

Mark was inventing a clock. It was a 
digital clock. The person using his pro- 
gram could type in the hour, minute and 
second and could then watch time move in 
five-second increments. His ability to 
capture some essence of time was satisfy- 
ing to him. and truly mystifying to his 
classmates. Mark told them that his pro- 
gram was simply an approximation of 
time as is the time that all clocks keep. 

Listing I shows how his program looked 
after a solid week of programming. 



Figure 5. 




S JO 50 




IE 



S 25 35 
116 




S 70 7 
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What is Logo, continued.. 

His program does have some "bugs" 
which he has probably solved by now. One 
is the matter of conversion; the seconds 
do not convert to minutes after the num- 
ber 60 is reached. This was not discourag- 
ing to Mark. This was the next part of his 
program which needed attention in order 
to make it work better. 

On the other side of the classroom. Su/v 
sat at a computer alone. At first she- 
seemed to me to be immersed in a science 
fiction book. As 1 moved nearer. I saw that 
she was using the science fiction book as a 
reference for her work. She was working 
with an intensity I had not seen previously. 

Between footstamps and fistshakes at 
the computer she was creating a science 
fiction book She had discovered that the 
computer could print words. Linking her 
interest in reading science fiction with her 
limited know ledge of microcomputers, slit- 
had started on her first self-initiated 
project. She organized the procedures 
shown in Listing 2. 

As the course ended. Su/v was beginning 
to experiment with turtle geometry to 
illustrate each chapter. My next steps for 
Su/y were to teach her how to save pictures 
drawn on the video screen, and to intro- 
duce her to the Logo text editor. 

Su/y shared her project with her class- 
mates during the last day of class. The 
science fiction aspect captured their 
imaginations, and they demonstrated 
genuine interest in her work. 

With our visions of what is possible for 
a Logo user to accomplish. Su/y 's example 
may not seem dramatic. 1 include it be- 
cause I believe we often push students to 



Figure 6. Door Through Time. 




go too fast and forget the value of allowing 
a person to set his own goals. I do not 
believe that Su/y would have started 
sooner if I had structured the lessons dif- 
ferently; she needed a period of watching 
to get herself ready. 

One visually oriented student spent 
many class periods creating drawings, 
saving his pictures directly on his disk 
without writing procedures. Jamie planned 
color and line relationships carefully and 
gave names which suggested to me the 
dimension of fantasy the computer offered 
him. 

While classmates often gave pictures 
and procedures single letter names to avoid 
laborious typing. Jamie was content to 
take the time to type "Door Through 
Time." "Sparkle in the Night." "Ex- 
perience in the Fifth Dimension." delight- 
ing classmates with his naming as much as 
with the pictures. 



Listing 2. Science Fiction. 



TO MARS 
PRINT CA PRINCESS OF MARSD 
PRINT CTHE GODS OF MARSD 
PRINT CTHE WARLORD OF MARS J 
PRINT CTHUVIA,MAID OF MARSD 
PRINT CTHE CHESSMEN OF MARS 3 
PRINT CTHE MASTERMIND OF MARS J 
PRINT CA FIGHTING MAN OF MARSD 
PRINT C SWORDS OF MARS J 
PRINT C SYNTHETIC MEN OF MARSD 
PRINT CLLANA OF 6ATHOLD 
PRINT CJOHN CARTER OF MARSD 
PRINT CTHIS IS THE MARS SERIES 
BY EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS AUTHOR 
TAR Z AN BOOKS D 
END 



NO. 1-11 IN ORDER 
OF THE FAMEOUS 



TO DRAGONS 

PRINT CDRAGONFLIGHTD 

PRINT CDRAGONQUESTD 

PRINT CTHE WHITE DRAGON D 

PRINT CTHIS IS THE DRAGONR1DERS OF PERN TRILOGN 
BY ANN MCAFFERYD 
END 



Another example of the way an in- 
dividual entered the Logo environment or 
"mainland" is Jim. He simply started 
experimenting with the turtle. 

He drew a shape which he later named 
"slot" because it looked like one. This slot 
with its circular ends and straight line 
connections intrigued him. During a series 
of lab periods, interrupted by several other 
projects, he progressed to "tslot" which 
added color and assumed a new position 
on the screen. 

Next he played with variable inputs in 
order to experiment with si/c relation- 
ships. His moment of astonishment came 
when he discovered that the formula for 
a circle which he had memorized was 
approximate. 

Jim was a serious student, and he often 
borrowed the Logo manual to read for 
homework. This provided him with many 
ideas about Logo primitives which might 
enable him to write more complex pro- 
grams. He took himself beyond turtle 



Figure 7. 



c 



D 



Slot 




TSLOTT220 



October 1982* Creative Computing 



119 



What is Logo, contln 

geometry to write an interactive program 
which enabled the user to choose a polygon 
with any number of sides of user-specified 
length for the turtle to draw. 

This project of Jim's pushed my pro- 
gramming ability, for I, too. was a new 
Logo user. I would often take my back-up 
copy of his disk home to work out various 
ways to solve his programming problems 
and bugs. After inventing or getting my- 
self help with possible solutions or simpler 
examples. I created a new file called HELP 
to provide him with examples of possible 
solutions to his problem. 

Jim. being an independent thinker, 
would study the examples in my HELP 
file, then say thoughtfully, "No, I dont 
believe that I want to do it that way," and 
continue with his own exploration and 
problem solving. I did notice that some of 
the HELP ideas found their way into his 
programming, and most of the inventions 
remained Jim's own. 

At the end of the session. Jim was still 
working on centering his polygons above 
the text, and I had begun to use a HELP 
file with other students. 



My first task was to 

invent a computer 

culture. 




My last example is Manual. I have no 
file for his work. He was the class con- 
ceptualizes He had started using com- 
puters because he enjoyed the fast action 
and energy of video games. He knew 
what would make an exciting program. 
Manual would strike up a conversation 
with a likely programmer describing an 
idea for a program. The talk continued as 
the other student moved toward a com- 
puter and started working out Manual's 
ideas. When Manual was satisfied that the 
person was "hooked" on the idea, he re- 
treated and started another person on 
another idea. 

I have Manual to thank for the work 1 
do in the middle of the night, figuring out 
how to make a ball-shaped turtle appear to 
"bounce" off the edges of the screen. 

These stories offer examples of the many 
ways in which students can explore a com- 
puter environment using the Logo 
Language. 

Perhaps I've made it sound as if it "just 
happens." Because Logo permits a student 
to discover in a manner which is natural to 
the learning process it may appear that I 
have undervalued the teacher's role. Now 
we will look at some of the ways I have 
come to think about my role as teacher in 
a Logo classroom. 

The Teacher's Role 

Every computing class I have led has 
been made up of students with a wide 



variety of experience 
about computers. Some students have 
never seen a real computer. Some may 
even be certain that the computer is the 
enemy of humanity and spend energy 
directing prejudicial comments toward it. 
Other students may own their own com- 
puters, belong to "user's clubs" and have 
been programming for years. 

This situation in itself was somewhat 
unnerving to me. I had made a commit- 
ment to myself to become knowledgeable 
about Logo and instructional uses of com- 
puters in order to integrate this tool into a 
school curriculum. I was determined to 
create a relationship between the current 
computer revolution and life in school. 

I had no models. I had never used a 
computer nor seen any person other than 
my husband use one. My first task was to 
invent a computer culture. This culture 
needed to be able to support all the 
students and me as a learner alongside 
them. 

Any teacher's first job is to assess the 
situation and equip himself with: 

• Knowledge 

• Experience 

• Hardware 

• Time 

We must examine our own attitudes 
about computers in our society, ac- 
knowledge the areas creating distress and 
identify the areas bringing optimism. 
As Logo teachers our roles will cover a 
diverse, and perhaps uncomfortable range 
including demonstrator, teacher/ lecturer, 
teller, time structurer. problem setter, 
management solver, arbitrator, decision 
maker, challenger, helper, collaborator, 
process sharer, question asker, idea ex- 
tender, observer, documenter. admirer, 
enjoyer, time provider, technician, and 
model learner. 

I require each student to keep a journal 
of process notes, questions and descrip- 
tions of problems encountered. I read these 
regularly and respond. 

In response I might write a comment 
which is similar to an oral response, "That 
sounds frustrating,"; "Wow! You figured it 
out!"; "I'd like to see how your procedure 
works"; "Jim figured out how to do a 
similar problem, why not ask him for help 
next time?"; "I don't know the answer to 
this question, let's get together after school 
and visit the computer store." 

The journals provide a valuable vehicle 
in which to keep track of progress and to 
allow patterns to become visible. Often 
simply describing a problem will allow a 
student to understand it more fully, and 
thus be able to solve it. Journals provide 
direct access to help. They enable students 
to formalize their own thinking. 

The journals provide me with a sense of 
being in charge, of knowing what is going 
on, and, a means of keeping records of 
student work. They provide an opportun- 
ity for a personal relationship with each 

120 



aily basis. Since I am also 
learning Logo, the journals provide me 
with a sense of comfort; I can see what I 
need to learn, and decide what my own 
homework will be. 

Beyond this, the journals provide both 
the students and me with an assurance 
that this is a collaborative learning ex- 
perience, and that I am working with them. 
Confidence about this allieviates, I believe, 
for both the students and me the sense of 
anxiety which might otherwise be present 
in teaching and learning this subject. Most 
educators agree that anxiety interferes 
with learning. 

As a Logo programming teacher, it is 
my job to make back-up copies of all my 
students' disks in order to protect the 
students from work loss due to damage or 
filing mistakes and to enable me to see the 
patterns in the work of individuals so I 
can plan my next formal lesson for the 
class. 



Journals provide direct 

access to help. They 

enable students to 

formalize their own 

thinking. 



I can collect small groups of students 
around a common interest or pro- 
gramming problem. Sometimes I will ask a 
student to share some work with the 
whole group as a teaching example or as 
a model. By examining the work on the 
back-up disks I can also determine 
whether a programming problem should 
be solved with a "gift" of a tool which the 
programmer is probably not yet ready to 
invent on his own. (Some tools l have 
given include procedures for creating 
circles, explosions, and countdowns.) 

The disks give me time to work on pro- 
gramming problems by trying the pro- 
gram, and trying several solutions, away 
from the stress of a class period. Inevitably 
the disks force me to think about my own 
next learning steps. 

During the actual lab time I wander, 
watch, listen, and answer. 

I feel that the words 1 use are important. 

Instead of solving a problem for a 
youngster by telling or showing the solu- 
tion immediately. I usually say: "describe 
the problem," "Tell me what happens". 
"What did you want to have happen?"; or 
"Try it now and show me." Some teachers 
ask the student to "Teach me what you 
did." 

This type of response is important for 
several reasons. 

• It gives me, as teacher, time. 

• It gives the student time. 

October 1 962 e Creative Computing 




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What is Logo, continued. . . 

• Description is a matter-of-fact task 
which can diminish emotion and allow 
the describer to see what actually hap- 
pened clearly. (Frequently in the middle 
of describing, a student will say "Oh. 
never mind, I see what r did.") 
Matter a student has described the prob- 
lem and neither of us knows how to solve 
it. we write a plan together in plain English 
words. It includes a statement describing 
what the student wanted to have happen. 
Usually when a solution is not clear to 
either of us, we are working with an 
example which is too difficult for us. We 
substitute a simpler problem "for prac- 
tice." 

Then, together we write a superpro- 
cedure in the same way that Ted wrote one 
for his alphabet, before he had invented the 
subprocedures. I make very sure that the 
first step in the procedure is one that the 
student and I can solve successfully right 
then. 

Other jobs for the teacher include col- 
lecting, displaying and identifying re- 
sources. 



/ have rarely seen a 

computer which is not 

surrounded by a group 

interacting with it and 

kibbitzing with each 

other in a most 

congenial way. 



I use bulletin boards to stimulate the 
learning process. I might post a weekly 
"Mystery Procedure." a new command 
with its definition and examples of its use. 
a challenging programming idea, a pro- 
cedure to copy, a picture of a student's 
procedure, or a chart of students' names 
indicating their specific areas of expertise 
in order to make peer tutoring possible for 
every student. Sometimes I post an inter- 
active program for students to copy, use, 
then modify and make their own. 

Creating a Supportive Community 

The computer community which we 
establish in our classrooms is for many 
students (and teachers) a first computer 
culture. As educators, we must be con- 
cerned about the values which are formed 
and used by this community of learners. 

Many question my use of the word 
"community" in connection with com- 
puters. However, I have rarely seen a com- 
puter which is not surrounded by a group 
interacting with it and kibbitzing with each 
other in a most congenial way. 

Most computers are a social and in in- 




tellectual center in a classroom unless 

usage is specifically regulated otherwise. 

Watchers see new ways to solve problems. 

participate in brainstorming new ideas and 

derive a great deal of pleasure from the 

process. 
Teena Crowley, a third grade teacher, 

said. "I wish Logo were everyone's intro- 
duction to community work. Everyone is 
involved and offers input from the start." 
Usually during a first class with a group I 
find it important to declare myself a Logo 
learner as well as a Logo teacher. I do it 
because it is honest and because it estab- 
lishes a basis for collaboration. The 
responsibility for helping and teaching 
and creating this class belongs to all. It is 
an ideal opportunity for me to model the 
motto "Life Long Learning," certainly an 
important part of any curriculum. 

Many issues emerge in the establishment 
of a Logo community. One of the first is 
the issue of ownership of procedures. Is 
it copying or stealing to save work which 
did not necessarily originate from the 
saver's own inspiration? 

The nature of Logo filing and saving 
makes it almost impossible for beginning 
users to keep separate files, and so from 
the first time SAVE is typed, a file of 
mixed-up origin exists. 

I prefer to be excited by the pos- 
sibilities of this "sharing" rather than 
regret it as a necessary "evil." I legitimize 
the sharing, giving, changing, and using of 
one another's procedures as part of the 
context of the community we are creating 
together. 

I share my work with my students and I 
encourage them to exchange procedures 
among themselves. 

Classes soon begin to create a vocab- 
ulary specific to their community. In one 
class a procedure named WING — basic- 
ally an outwardly spirally triangle which 
appeared to fly across the screen — be- 
came a favorite expression for a way of 
moving quickly across a space with arms 
rotating rhythmically. This reference point 
created a sense of cohesion and inclusion 
among classmates and added a dimension 
of good-natured humor. 

I credit some of my success in creating 
a supportive community to my insistence 
that part of the experience in computer 
class is participating in discussions about 
ethical and responsible computer use. 

I am genuinely worried about how our 
society makes decisions about computer 
use. I make clear to my students that com- 
puters are surrounded by a human culture 
with developed values and a sense of 
conscious choice about their use. 

I believe that one way people develop 
into responsible, rational human beings is 
by participating in discussions about 
dilemmas with peers. 

I often start a discussion with a simple 
story. Ideally, it describes an issue which 
is real or potential issue for this class, wit h- 

124 



out embarrassing any group member. 
Once I told about a filing mistake I made 
when making a back-up copy of Ted's 
alphabet. Half the procedures for creating 
letters disappeared through my mistake. I 
had to tell him what I had done to his work, 
and how sorry I was to have made such a 
silly and harmful mistake. 



Part of the experience 
in computer class is 

participating in 

discussions about 

ethical and responsible 

computer use. 



A 20-minute period of sharing of mis- 
take stories followed. No one was required 
to talk, but all class members were ex- 
pected to participate by being part of our 
circle. The rules also prevented comments 
or judgments being directed towards any 
person or point of view. Discussion was 
encouraged. 

Other issues which have worked for dis- 
cussions in my classes are: 

• Scheduling of computer use. 

• What about someone who doesn't take 
a turn? 

• Is it okay to borrow disks, copy disks, 
change disks? 

• What about using "bad" or "dirty" 
words to name procedures? 

• Should all schools have computers? 

• Should all kids have to learn to program 
a computer? 

• Why would a girl want to use a com- 
puter? 

• What kinds of information should a 
school computer keep? 

• Is it possible to have a really "private" 
computer file? 

• What are some ways computers work 
in our lives? 

• How can I get my family to value my 
programming instead of dismissing me 
as a "brain"? 

The discussion which touched me the 
most deeply was requested by my students 
at the end of a summer school session. The 
subject was: now that we know so much 
about computer programming, how can 
we help our teachers feel comfortable 
knowing less than we do, so we can have 
computers in schools? 

Beyond these ways of thinking about 
structuring a class and a curriculum, there 
are many opportunities for collaborative 
programming. One teacher has helped her 
students create a class adventure game 
using Logo. 

The class planned the rooms, and then 
pairs or individuals created the procedures 

October 1982 ° Creative Computing 




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What it Logo, continued. 



to make each room. Her role was to set up 
the structure and aid in the process of 
linking. 

Harold Abelson's manual for Logo 
gives many examples of interactive pro- 
grams which can be enjoyed by a class. 
Many teachers are using it to create their 
own programs for guessing numbers and 
creating crazy sentences. 

Dan Watt's work creating curriculum 
for a dynamic turtle which moves accord- 
ing to laws of physics is interesting to use 
and then modify. 

A great need exists for all Logo teachers 
to share their emerging curricula. This will 
enhance our collective understanding and 
provide more models about the ways 
students can work within a Logo environ- 
ment. 



What Logo Teachers Say They Teach 

• Computer literacy. 

• The history and learning theory in Logo. 

• How to program a computer-like char- 
acter, a turtle robot or Bit Trak. 

• Controlling a turtle on a screen. 

• How to pace out shapes and then teach 
the turtle to draw shapes. 

• How to change pencolors and back- 
ground colors. 

• How to edit. 

• How to initialize a disk. 

• How to draw initials. 

• How to use repeat. 

• How to use subprocedures in pro- 
cedures. 

• How to use recursion. 

• How to read a print-out of programs. 



• How to draw procedure trees. 

• How to use variables. 

• How to use the Logo Manual. 

• How to manage flies and clear the work- 
place. 

• How to use existing interactive pro- 
grams and modify them. 

This simple and straightforward list 
may be more or less what you expected. 
However when 1 ask my Logo students, 
whether school children or professional 
educators, what they learned in Logo class 
the list is quite different — fuller and 
more profound. 

What Logo Students Say They Learn 

• About problem solving and estimation. 

• About thinking and learning styles. 



This person used to 
develop applications 
for the 8086/8088 
market with the 
best of them. 





October 1082 ° Creative Computing 









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What is Logo, continued. 



About how to use their own learning 
style. 

To think logically. 

lo work without emotional manipula- 
tions; the computer doesn't care whether 
you feel angry, 
lo use procedural thinking. 
To use strategies lor problem solving. 
To become comfortable thinking math- 
ematical!). 

To be able to think geometrically. 
To be able to consider laws of motion. 
About language by creating my own sys- 
tem for naming procedures. 
About graphics and design. 
How important revision of procedures 
and text is. and how simple it is to do. 
That decimals are useful. 
How to type. 



• How to be patient. 

• How to take risks in working. 

The most significant things they claim 

to have learned include: 

• looking at their own mistakes with an 
interest in understanding what happened 
instead of shame. 

• Feeling competent in setting their own 
problems and supported in solving them. 

• Understanding that learning and doing 
involve frustration and case: they go 
quickly or slowly, parts are intriguing or 
boring, and this is what makes up all 
work and life. 

There is no question in my mind that 
working with computers is one way of 
forming a direct link with a sense of the 
future. Computers can provide a sense of 



optimism, new frontiers to be explored, 
and a kingdom to be conquered. 

Logo was developed to create an inter- 
active environment, a mainland, in which 
students could set their own pace, prob- 
lems and goals It is a comfortable wa\ for 
me to enter the future. It is a challenging 
way and it is a wa\ that I can understand, 
choose and control. □ 




This person 
used to develop 
applications for 

the Z-80 market 
with the best 
of them. 





October 1982 c Creative Computing 



129 



This person develops 
applications for the entire 
market, including the Z-80, 
8080, 8086/8088, 6502, 
LSI-ll/PDP-11, 9900, and the 
M68000 with the best there is. 

The Universal 
Operating System.™ 

Why does this application developer look so happy, you 
may ask? 

Because, unlike others in his field, he's one of the smart 
ones. He uses the UCSD p-System™ from SofTech Microsystems. 
It's the first truly universal operating system ever developed. It 
lets him develop an awesome array of high-quality applications. 
And it's equally at home with an IBM PC, TRS-80™ Model II, 
Apple Ilf Osborne l^TI Business System 200? Zenith Z-89* 
Hewlett-Packard HP-87I" Philips P-2000r the new DEC 
Professionals!" or any other micro in the market. 

That makes our developer one of the elite. Because 
he'll never have to worry about locking himself into 
an operating system that will eventually lock 
him out of the market. 

A Universal Operating System. At last. 

Whether it's a Z-80, 8086/8088, M68000, 
6502, or you name it, the p-System is portable 
across any popular microprocessor made any- 
where today. 

And we don't mean just at the source code 
level, either. We mean you can develop your pro- 
gram, on any machine, then compile to object code 
(p-code), and it's totally transportable. 

You get it done right the first time. Every time. For any machine. 
Now you can design for the whole market. 
Once and for all. 

The p-System actually enables you to broaden your customer base 
without significant reinvestment in programming, time and time again. 
Simply because it's the only OS that runs the same object code programs 
on all popular 8- and 16 -bit microprocessors. No matter who makes them. 
No matter who uses them. 




And that's only the beginning. There's more to the p-System philosophy. 
Much more. 

Take programmer productivity, for example. We know how much 
work you put into programming, so we understand the importance of stream- 
lining that process. So we saw to it that the p- System allows you to reuse 
program components, time and time again. 

It's been our experience that as much as 50% of the code developed 
for one application can be reused on others. And you can also create your 
own library of utilities suited to solving your own unique problems. 

Try finding that on some other operating system. 

All the tools you need for the job. Any job. 

When you write your programs with the p- System, you can use any 
combination of UCSD Pascal? FORTRAN -77 and BASIC. Each language 
operating effectively with the others. So you can finally take advantage of 
the best features of each language — in a single program. And you also get 
a complete, fully integrated set of software development tools to make 
your job even simpler. Naturally. Including a screen editor, macro assemblers, 
and a debugger, as well as add-ons such as TURTLEGRAPHICS, Native 
Code Generators, and even Print Spoolers. 

Our admirers have impeccable credentials. 

In case you wondered who else believes in our Universal Operating 
System, there's the fact that the p-System is licensed by most of the major 
hardware manufacturers around. Manufacturers like IBM, DEC, TI, HP, 
Commodore, Osborne, Philips, and Zenith. You know, all those "little guys'.' 

And the p-System's reliability is well -documented. Has been since 1977. 
And this, coupled with the upward compatibility of source code programs, 
has given the p-System five years of proven, documented field testing. By 
the toughest critics in the business. 

Given all this, it's easy to see how your productivity can 
be enhanced. 

Now you can develop higher quality applications faster, less expen- 
sively, and more dependably than ever before. For a much larger market. 

All at the same time. 

All on one machine. 

All without worrying about some hardware enhancement limiting 
your business opportunities and leaving you with no other choice than 
peddling popcorn or ice cream on some lonely street corner. 

If you don't believe it just take a look at our Applications Catalog 
to prove it. 

At last, using the p-System, you can design programs once. 

Once and for all. 





o=a 



i 
I 
i 



I hear you, SofTech Microsystems. Please send me 
a brochure on the p-System, the world's only Universal 
Operating System. And keep me off the streets. 



Please send coupon to: 

SofTech Microsystems, 9494 Black Mountain Rd. 

San Diego, CA 92126, or call (714) 578-6105 



NAME 

COMPANY 
ADDRESS- 
CITY 



TITLE. 



STATE. 



ZIP 



TELEPHONE 



EXT 



UCSD D SntaOl and UCSD Pascal are trademarks of the Regents of the University of California; Universal Operating System is a trademark .of SofTech 
Microsystems; TRS80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp.; Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc.; Osborne 1 is a trademark of Osborne G 



I 
I 
I 



puter Corp ; Business System 200 is a trademark of Texas Instruments; 7. 89 is a trademark of Zenith Corp.; HP-87 is a trademark of Hewlett Packard Inc.; 
P-2000 is a'trademark of Philips Kk.tn.mo. and Professional is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp. 



o?$e 



CC 




CIRCLE 266 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VinrpniSC UPDATE 



Anyone trying to track down the Aurora Interface (Apple I! to Pioneer V°-10OO videodisc player) 
mentioned in our January 1982 issue may have had a problem. Reason: Aurora is still around but they sold 
the rights to the interface to another firm, Anthro-Oigital Software, P.O. Box 1385, Pittsfleld, MA 01202. 
It's now called the Omnisc an La ser Video Qisc I nterfa ce and is available with software for $250. 

Anthro-OigitaT~aTso offers a Flipper for 550 wh~1ch switches Apple output signals (two in to one out 
or one in to either of two outs), an excellent word processing system (The Executive Secretary), a mini word 
processor for the Hebrew language ($60) and several other interestsing products. 

AMOEK PRICING 



Two new Amdek products were mentioned on this page in the August issue. The final prices announced 
at MCC were different than our advance information. The 3" microfloppy disk drive is $899 (not $699) and 
the digital plotter is bargain priced at $949 (not $1200-1300). 

JAPAN. IMC. GETS SMARTER ABOUT SOFTWARE 

For three years we have been admiring the computers and peripherals from various Japanese makers. 
But none has really proved a threat to American makers. Why not? In one word, software, or lack thereof. 
As I observed back in the October 1975 Creative Computing , a computer without good software might as well be 
a boat anchor. 

Hot many Japanese computers have wound up as boat anchors, but not many have been sold in the U.S. 
either. However, that is about to change dramatically with the strokes of several pens on contracts between 
Microsoft and three Japanese manufacturers. 

MS-DOS, a 16-bit operating system developed by Microsoft for the IBM PC, will be implemented on 
computers from Hitachi, NEC, and Panasonic- Also, Wang, a major force in the WP market, has tapped 
Microsoft to implement MS-DOS on their low-end "professional computers." 

Along a similar vein, the Structured Systems Group has also signed on the dotted line to convert 
their accounting software to several Japanese makes. 

As if this weren't enough, take a look at the phenomenal amount of software released by NEC for the 
PC8000 series (see CES/MCC report in this issue). Not only that, but NEC has announced a similar 
committment for the just-announced Advanced Personal Computer. 

We also can't help but be mightily impressed with the new 16-bit Mitsubishi computer. It supports 
CP/M-S6 and has dual 300K disk drives and 12RK RAM standard. As if that weren't enough, it also includes 
IBM 3270 emulation, Tektronix 4010 emulation, MBasic Plus, Fortran, Cobol and two versions of Pascal. 

Someone must have told the Japanese about software. They listened and learned fast! 

ATARI/LUCASFILMS JOINT VENTURE 

In an uncharacteristicly low-key press conference at CES, Atari announced the formation of a new 
company owned 50-50 by Atari and Lucasfilms (creators of Star Wars, Empire Strikes ^ack and Raiders of the 
Lost Ark). The union was apparently sparked by Smalltalk-creator Al an Kay former Ty of Xerox PARCfPalo Alto 
ResearcK Center), now of Atari. What did Alan Kay have to say? Well, seems he ducked out of the press 
reception early— if he was ever there at all. 

Anyway, after ducking all questions, an unnamed spokesman for Atari told us that the first product 
of the joint venture will be a video game based on Raiders of the Lost Ark . What else? No answer. 

Are we optimistic? Guardedly, yes. But as Charlie Brown once said, "there is no greater burden 
than having a great potential." 

TRS-RO COLOR COMPUTER TO BE SOLD IN INDEPENDENT OUTLETS 

Tandy with some 6000 Radio shack outlets for TRS-80 computers is looking for even greater retail 
penetration. A first move toward this goal is the signing on of 60 RCA consumer electronics distributors to 
handle a repackaged version of the TRS-80 Color Computer. These 60 distributors service about 2000 retail 
outlets. 

The color computer will be repackaged in a white case and will carry the designation TDp System 100, 
with Tnp standing for Tandy Distributor Products. Pricing will be comparable to the existing unit in Radio 
Shack stores ($399 for 16K version, $490 w ith extended Basic). 
MATTEL: HERE WE GO AGAIN 

The on-again, off-again release of the keyboard unit for the Mattel Intellivision video game 
accompanied by lower and lower prices is on again. The original price of $700 in October 1979 was far over 
competitive units. However, pricing was the least of Mattel's problems since the keyboard unit was plagued 
with hardware problems and lacked applications software. 

A re-release of a re-engineered unit at a lower price is now scheduled for 1983. 1983!? Well, we'll 
see. 

y-MART COMMITTING TO COMPUTERS 

K-Mart announced that 1100 stores will handle the Commodore VIC-20, up from 550 stores two months 
ago. In addition, a spokesman confirmed that the chain has committed to an equal dollar amount (around $10 
million) of TI 99/4A home computers. The chain also expects to handle the lower-priced ($100) 
Timex/Sinclair unit. 









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The Role of Motivation in 
Computer-Assisted Instruction 



Richard P. Swenson and Chrys Anderson 



In one of his early ( 1961 ) articles, noted 
Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner 
decried the common use of aversive 
techniques in the classroom. In Skinner's 
opinion, "The birch rod and cane are 
gone, but their place has been taken by 
equally effective punishments (criticism, 
possible ridicule, failure). ..the student 
must learn, or else!" 

Studies in the area of human learning 
have repeatedly demonstrated that the 
best teaching methods are those that rely 
most heavily on positive techniques to 
motivate people. Since motivation has 
been identified as a critical component in 
learning, it makes a great deal of intuitive 
sense to apply the knowledge we have 
about motivation to one of the newest 
and most promising forms of education, 
instruction via computer, or computer- 
assisted instruction (CAD. 

An essential prelude to a discussion 
about motivation is an explanation of the 
role of reinforcement in learning. Rein- 
forcement is a technical term used by 
psychologists. It refers to any event which 
follows a behavior and subsequently 
increases the likelihood that the behavior 
will occur again. A reinforcer increases 

Richard P. Swenson and Chrys Anderson. Educa- 
tional Research. Inc.. 44 N. Last Chance Gulch. 
Helena. MT 59601. 



the frequency of the behavior it follows. 

Good teachers are skilled at identifying 
and delivering reinforcers in the class- 
room. For many young children, verbal 
praise ("Good work!") is a very effective 
reinforcer. Stars or points to be accumu- 
lated and exchanged for some privilege 
are also useful. 

An important aspect of reinforcement 
is the fact that, by definition, it must be 



Children prefer to 

watch a video alligator 

eat a stick man than 

see the man escape 

unscathed. 



individualized. What is reinforcing to 
Johnny will not necessarily be reinforcing 
to Jane. To determine if a suspected 
reinforcer is effective, it must be tested 
empirically; it must be validated. 

In the design of educational software, 
the role of reinforcement is too important 
to overlook. We are aware of two 
instances in which intrepid programmers 

134 



created such clever reinforcement rou- 
tines that they felt no need to validate 
them. In one case, the feedback routine 
was designed to send a Snoopy dog 
parading across the screen with a sign 
that read "Good job!" Snoopy was pro- 
grammed to make that entrance when- 
ever a student made a correct response 
to a question posed by the computer. 

If, on the other hand, the student made 
an incorrect response. Snoopy made his 
appearance by walking upside down 
across the top of the video screen, drop- 
ping his sign about halfway across. Not 
too surprisingly, many students deliber- 
ately chose wrong answers so they could 
see Snoopy upside down on the screen, 
which was much more interesting than 
the intended reinforcer. The programmer 
had guessed what the students would 
"work for"— and guessed wrong. 

Similarly, another programmer learned 
the hard way that children prefer to watch 
a video alligator eat a stick man than see 
the man escape unscathed. The lesson to 
be learned in both cases is the same: a 
routine is only reinforcing if it works, and 
the only way to determine if it works is to 
put it to an empirical test. Since a rein- 
forcement routine which "isn't" can 
negate an otherwise excellent program, it 
is clearly worth the time it takes to test it. 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 



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Role of Motivation, continued... 



Motivation 

From the preceding discussion, perhaps 
it is obvious that the most important 
function of reinforcement in a CAI pro- 
gram is a motivational one. It provides 
the student with a reason to keep learning. 
But reinforcers differ in kind. Reinforce- 
ment is frequently characterized as pri- 
mary, secondary or generalized. 

Primary reinforcers are those which are 
essentially unlearned and which are 
almost universally reinforcing. Their moti- 
vational properties seem to be inherent 
so no learning is necessary. Food when 
hungry, and water when thirsty, are good 
examples of primary reinforcers. Stimula- 
tion, visual or tactile, can also be consid- 
ered a primary reinforcer. 

In terms of the computer, visually 
stimulating things like "crazy art" (ran- 
domly generated flashing lines) perhaps 
come the closest to fitting the definition 
of a primary reinforcer. A person appar- 
ently need not learn to be entertained by 
the appearance of visually stimulating 
material on the screen. 

Secondary reinforcers are no less 
potent motivationally, but they are 
learned motivators. Praise is the classic 
example of a secondary reinforcer. It 
means nothing to a newborn, but most of 
us. at some point in the course of our 
socialization, learn to value the praise of 
others, initially our parents and later other 
"important persons." An example of a 
routine using secondary reinforcement on 
the computer would be one which allowed 
the user to earn the opportunity to play a 
video game. 

Generalized reinforcers are actually a 
special class of secondary reinforcers. 
They require learning as do all secondary 
reinforcers, but they are general rather 
than specific. Money is the best example. 
Money is an extremely powerful rein- 
forcer in our society not because of its 
intrinsic worth, but because it can be 
exchanged for things which are valuable 
(shelter, clothing, food). 

On the computer, a generalized rein- 
forcer might be given in the form of a 
point, star or other marking on the screen. 
The accumulated points would become 
valuable if they could subsequently be 
exchanged for privileges or valued 
objects. 

There are advantages and disadvan- 
tages associated with each class of rein- 
forcer. Generalized reinforcers have one 
big advantage insofar as it is very difficult 
to satiate or become tired of them. To 
the extent that they are general (e.g.. they 
can be exchanged for any number of 
different things), the user does not tire of 
accumulating them. It is. on the other 
hand, relatively easy to satiate a person 
with primary and secondary reinforcers if 
they are programmed to be delivered at a 
high rate. 

October 1982 6 Creative Computing 



However, the use of generalized rein- 
forcers in CAI has a major disadvantage 
— the reinforcers are external to the 
computer. Both secondary and primary 
reinforcement routines can be totally self- 
contained. The motivational system is 
built-in to the computer program. Gener- 
alized reinforcers, on the other hand, 
depend on occurrences totally indepen- 
dent of the machine. True, the computer 
can reliably deliver the points (or what- 
ever) dependent on a student's response, 
but it can't see to it that the points are 
subsequently exchanged for something of 
value (a grade, praise or money). If the 
accumulated reinforcers are never 
exchanged, they will probably lose their 
reinforcing qualities in a short time. 

There are no rules to tell us when to 
use a particular kind of reinforcement. 
Experience and knowledge of the results 
of various studies allow us to make edu- 
cated guesses about what is likely to be 
most effective for a given audience. 

Reinforcement designed for computer 
software can also be described along a 
continuum of "obtrusiveness." As such, it 
can be passive, active or interactive. 



The timing of 

reinforcement is as 

important as its 

occurrence. 



Reinforcement which is passive only 
delivers information about the adequacy 
of a user response. For example, a pro- 
gram which presents a new arithmetic 
problem when the previous one has been 
correctly answered is passively rein- 
forcing. The user is informed that the 
response was correct; but nothing else 
happens on the screen. 

Active reinforcement also provides 
information about response adequacy, but 
the reinforcement event contains addi- 
tional information as well. The additional 
information might be in the form of added 
visual stimulation (e.g., flashing happy 
faces) or it might contain elements of 
positive praise ("Good job, Charlie!"). 

The critical difference between the two 
types of reinforcement is the addition of 
information above and beyond the simple 
acknowledgement of a correct response. 
This additional information tells the stu- 
dent that "someone" is pleased and happy 
about his success. 

Interactive reinforcement has all the 
properties of both passive and active 
reinforcement, but it adds a new dimen- 
sion—it allows user participation. A video 

137 



game which can be played only after the 
user has made a correct response falls 
into this category. 

To design educational software with 
highly effective motivational routines, one 
must first recognize the critical nature of 
the role of reinforcement and the dimen- 
sions along which reinforcers can vary. 
The next step involves understanding 
some of the variables which influence the 
effectiveness of the reinforcer. We will 
limit our examination to four of the most 
important variables: timing, appropriate- 
ness, relevancy, and configuration. 

Timing 

The timing of reinforcement is as 
important as its occurrence. In other 
words, if the timing is off, there is little 
value in delivering the reinforcer. 
Chances are very great that an improperly 
timed reinforcer will actually reinforce 
something other than the desired 
response. 

To be most effective, reinforcement 
should occur immediately after the 
desired response. (In fact, the literature 
shows that the ideal interval between the 
response and the reinforcer is .5 seconds.) 
Initially, the reinforcer should be deliver- 
ed every time the desired response occurs. 
This is true whenever an individual is 
learning a new skill. As the individual 
gains some experience and knowledge, 
the reinforcement schedule should be 
"thinned out"; it should be given less than 
every time the desired response occurs 
(e.g., every other time or every fifth 
time). 

Timing is an especially critical variable 
of reinforcement with important implica- 
tions for educational software programs. 
Not only are immediacy and scheduling 
important factors, but there is an addition- 
al temporal element to consider— length 
or duration of reinforcer. Assuming that 
the reinforcement event has a discrete 
beginning and end, how long should it 
appear on the screen? 

There is obviously no simple answer to 
that question. It depends to a great extent 
on the type of reinforcement used in a 
particular program. An interactive rein- 
forcement in the form of a challenging 
Star Wars-type game can be effective if it 
is programmed to last several minutes. 
An active reinforcer such as a happy face 
or a "good job" message will quickly lose 
its effectiveness if it appears on the screen 
for longer than a few seconds. 

Appropriateness 

Appropriateness of reinforcement is 
another important consideration. At an 
abstract level, there is no such thing as an 
"appropriate" reinforcer; there are simply 
effective and ineffective ones. At a dif- 
ferent level, appropriateness does become 



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CIRCLE 1 10 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Role of Motivation, continued... 

Before planning any aspect of the 
motivational routine, a programmer must 
know the audience for which it is 
intended. Age of the audience is an 
extremely important factor. Clearly, what 
turns a 5-year-old on is unlikely to have 
much appeal to someone who is 50. 

The best information a program design- 
er can have is that stemming from an 
empirical test. If you really want to 
determine if a happy face reinforces a 10- 
year-old. the way to find out is to test as 
many of them as are willing, able and 
available. There is no substitute for ;in 
empirical test. 

Another audience variable which must 
be considered is nature of disability, if 
any. For instance, let's look at an educa- 
tional program geared toward teaching 
about common anti-epileptic medications 
and their side effects. The audience in 
this case would probably be epileptics 
and parents and professionals who deal 
with epileptics. It would, then, be clearly 
inappropriate to design a motivational 
routine which employed flashing lights or 
pictures of any sort, since flashing is an 
environmental condition known to pre- 
cipitate seizures. 

Similarly, materials directed toward 
students with learning disabilities or 
autism must be designed specifically for 
those groups. Autistic children, for 
example, have been found to "over-react" 
to certain kinds of visual stimulation and 
to select irrelevant aspects of a stimulus 
display when learning. 

With the learning disabled student, 
planning is even more complicated since 
there are so many different disabilities 



which require unique interventions. The 
child with dyslexia will have substantially 
different needs than the child who occa- 
sionally reverses digits. 

Relevancy 

Relevancy of reinforcement is a rela- 
tively new consideration stimulated by 
attempts to design better and better 
computer courseware. The goal of educa- 
tional software is to teach concepts and 
skills in the most expedient way. Research 
in the areas of psychology and human 
learning shows that reinforcement is 
critically important. An individual must 
be motivated to learn. 



The goal of educational 
software is to teach 

concepts and skills in 

the most expedient 

way. 



To be maximally efficient, reinforce- 
ment should be not only motivational but 
informational as well. In other words, the 
event designed to be reinforced should, if 
at all possible, also add to the user's 
information about the subject matter. For 
example, a word game might be the 
reinforcer following a lesson in English, 
or an exciting game routine might require 
the application of newly-learned math 
skills. 




"Can I borrow the calculator tonight? 



teUcpuzr 



Configuration 

When we speak of configuration, we 
refer to the feedback routine as a whole 
and not just its reinforcement component. 
Although it is possible to structure a 
program to minimize student errors, in 
most programs students will continue to 
make several or. perhaps, many errors 
before they learn the material well enough 
to make only correct responses. 

As long as students continue to make 
errors, the computer must be pro- 
grammed to deal with those errors in 
some way. The psychological literature. 
and our own years of experience in 
teaching, point out the need not only to 
accentuate the positive but also to mini- 
mize the negative aspects of feedback. 
We have drawn the conclusion that as far 
as incorrect responses are concerned, the 
less said the better. Of course, the student 
requires the basic feedback that a given 
response was incorrect, but any addi- 
tional, judgmental information is not only 
unnecessary but undesirable. 

By this time, it should be increasingly 
clear that developing sound motivational 
routines for educational software is a 
complicated and challenging proposition. 
There are no simple rules of thumb, no 
universal truths. There have been many 
studies done in the unending attempt to 
discover how and why people learn, and 
some of those findings have been sum- 
marized above. Two final points are in 
order, however, before we conclude this 
discussion. 

Psychologists have long talked about 
an "inverted U-shaped curve" of motiva- 
tion. In so doing, they refer to the rela- 
tionship between the speed of learning 
and the strength of a given motivator at a 
given time. As the incentive or motivation 
becomes more compelling, an individual's 
rate of learning will improve. ..up to a 
point. Beyond that point, performance 
will actually be hindered. 

This makes a great deal of intuitive 
sense if you think of the increasing pres- 
sure on an individual to respond correctly. 
At a certain level, the pressure becomes 
too great — too much hinges on his 
response. Elements of anxiety begin to 
enter the picture and performance begins 
to deteriorate correspondingly. In the 
design of educational software, then, you 
can have too much of a good thing. 

This brings us up to the second and 
final point. There is a danger that rein- 
forcement routines can be distracting. 
Two minutes of shooting down planes on 
the screen as a reward for an instructional 
segment completed may put the student 
into a different mood that is detrimental 
to efficient learning. Once again, the best 
way to determine the optimal circum- 
stances for learning using the computer is 
the empirical test. There is no substitute. 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



139 



How To Solve It-With The Computer 

International Computer Problem 
Solving Contest II Results 



Donald T. Piele 



Devising a computer problem solving 
contest for the growing crop of young, 
talented computer problem solvers 
becomes more difficult each year. The 
problem is this: How do you create a set 
of five programming problems that will 
keep a team of three computer whiz kids 
busy for two hours and at the same time 
not be a frustrating experience for a 
beginning team? 

Last spring Tim Fossum, a colleague at 
the University of Wisconsin-Parkside, and 
I faced this problem for the sixth con- 
secutive year. In each of the three divi- 
sions; elementary grades (4-6), junior 
(grades 7-9). and senior (grades 10-12). 
we created a set of five computer problem 
questions. All three sets appeared last 
month in this column and interested 
readers were invited to solve them. This 
month, as promised, we present a com- 
plete set of solutions to all IS problems 
(five for each division) along with an 
announcement of the top teams in each 
division. 

Elementary Division 

At the request of several local contest 
directors, we agreed to experiment with 
an elementary division this year for stu- 



Oonald T. Piele. University of Wisconsin-Parkside 
Box 2000. Kenosha. Wl 53141. 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 




Figure I. 



Place 



Elementary Division Winners 



Team/Member Names 



Advisor/School 



Apple Maniacs 
Nick Wilt 
Jason Hagen 

The System Crashers 
Paula Rickert 
Ethan Magdovitz 
Urjeet Patel 

Nether-Providence M.S. 
Erik Grisson 
Mike Vartanian 



Jackson 

Kenny Hempstead 
Mike Parr 
Paul Franklin 

Rotton Apples 
Bill Childs 
Tim Kokesh 



M. Kinney 

Park Road Elementary School 

Pittsford, NY 14534 

R. Grierson 

The Latin School of Chicago 
59 W. North Blvd. 
Chicago. IL 60610 

N. Racier 

Wallingford-Swathmore School D. 
200 S. Providence Rd. 
Wallingford, PA 10986 

B. Davis 

Morgan Hill Unified S.D. 

P.O. Box 927 

Morgan Hill, CA 95037 

G. S tailings 

Bartlesville Association of 
Computer Hobbyists 
1406 Macklyn Lane 
Bartlesville. OK 74003 



140 



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How to Solve It, continued... 



Place 


Team/Member Names 


Advisor/School 


2 


Apple Peelers 


G. Stallings 
(same as above) 


2 


Apple Eaters 
Roland Dreier 


E.J. Romer 
Princeton Day School 
Box 75 
Princeton. NJ 08540 


3 


Richard Schossberg 
Kevin Blackman 


G. Ropes 

Rippowam-Cisqua School 
Box 488 
Bedford. NY 10506 


3 


Peter Thomas 
Ian Tholl 


B. Thomas 
Washington Apple PI 
P.O. Box 34511 
Bethesda. MD 20817 


3 


The Random 
Mathew Zimmer 
Scott Leban 
Lang Ambrose 


D. Reilly 

Norfolk Academy 
1585 WesleyanDr. 
Norfolk. VA 23502 


3 


The Computer Artists 
Steven Dollins 
Richard Langston 


A. Dollins 

The Micro Computer Center 
1409 Terrace Dr. 
Pittsburgh. PA 15228 


3 


Lone TRS Shack-Man 
Barry Brown 


J. Brown 

Harding Academy 
Box 775 
Searcy. AR 72143 


3 


Denmark 
Dennis Hall 
Marc Majcher 


Fairport Central 
38 West Church St. 
Fairport. NY 14450 


3 


JAS 
Jeff Chrisope 
Andy Lorenz 
Steve Gray 


D. Stranger 
CAPS Project 
Rochester Public School 
Rochester, MN 55901 


Honorable Mention: 






The Mirman School 
Blessed Sacrament 
American School in London 
MSD Washington Township 
Orchard Lake Middle School 


Los Angeles. CA 
Morton, IL 
London. England 
Indianapolis, IN 
West Bloomfield. MI 



dents in grades 4 through 6. We were 
surprised to discover that over 1 18 teams 
at 46 contest sites participated officially. 

First place in the elementary division 
went to the Apple Maniacs, Nick Wilt 
and Jason Hagen, from Park Road Ele- 
mentary School in Pittsford, NY. They 
were the only team to solve all five 
problems successfully. The contest direc- 
tor was Margaret Kinney, a parent volun- 
teer who teaches programming at two of 
the Pittsford Schools. 

Second place was shared by six teams 
who solved four problems very well, and 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



third place was shared by eight teams 
who also solved four but not without some 
difficulty. Several schools were also cited 
for honorable mention. The complete 
rankings appear in Figure 1. 



Junior Division 

We received the results from 307 teams 
in 83 local contest sites in the junior 
division. Top honors went to The Two 
Charlies, a team consisting of Charles Tsai 
and Chuck Williamson from Salem. Their 
advisor. Harold Snyder, reports that both 

143 



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CIRCLE 137 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



How to Solve It, continued... 

boys are outstanding students and very 
active in the Continental Mathematics 
League and the Atlantic-Pacific Mathe- 
matics League contests. 

Charles Tsai, a freshman at South 
Salem High School last year, had the top 
individual total score during the year for 
his school. He has his own TRS-80 at 
home and programs in Basic and machine 
language. 

Chuck Williamson was an eighth grader 
at Leslie Middle School, next door to 
South High, which made it convenient 
for him to take honors geometry at South 
High while still in junior high. Chuck uses 
an Apple II at home but during the 
contest The Two Charlies used a SOL 
computer and wrote their programs in 
Microsoft Basic. 

Second and third place honors were 
awarded to eight other teams. All of these 
teams solved all five problems. The com- 
plete list of winners appears in Figure 2. 

Senior Division 

As usual the senior division was the 
most popular. Results from 586 teams 
were reported from 147 contest sites. First 
place in the senior division went to the 
team of Spencer Greene and Truman Joe 
of Klein High School in Spring. TX. Their 
school adviser, Josie Mallery, said both 
are talented academically and shine par- 
ticularly in mathematics. 

Spence, a sophomore, and Truman, a 
junior, both have Apple II computers at 
home and write programs in Basic and 
assembly language. Both boys compete 
regularly in mathematics competitions 
and Spence is preparing for the Mathe- 
matics Olympian sponsored by the 
National Council of Teachers of Mathe- 
matics. 

They correctly solved all five problems 
on an Apple II computer. Second place 
went to the Return of The Electronic 
Imbroglio, a team from Cambridge 
Rindge and Latin School in Cambridge. 
MA. 

Eight teams finished in third place. 
Each team solved all five problems with 
varying degrees of ease and style. The 
complete list of winners appears in Figure 
3. 

Overall Results 

On the surface it might appear that this 
year's contest problems were too easy 
since so many junior and senior division 
teams solved all five problems. But in fact 
it turned out to be just about right since 
only 1.7% of the senior teams and 3% of 
the junior teams solved all five problems. 
The average number of problems solved 
(out of five possible) was 1.6 in the senior 
division and 1.3 in the junior division. 

It appears that the gap between the 
experienced teams and the beginning 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 




<-igure 



Junior Division Winners 



Place 


Team/Members 


Advisor/School 


1 


The Two Charlies 
Charles Tsai 
Chuck Williamson 


Harold Snyder 
South Salem H.S. 
2405 Saginaw St. 
Salem, OR 97302 


2 


Pet People 
Mark Knutsen 
Glen Whitney 


M. Monaco / K. Warner 
Abraham Clark H.S. 
122 E. 6th Ave. 
Roselle. NJ 07703 


3 


Apple Core 
Dwight A. Lee 
Eric Brand 
Andrew Williams 


Rich Rozychi 
Rolling Meadows H.S. 
2901 Central Rd. 
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008 


3 


File Types 
Stephen Schmidt 
Dan Shafer 
Jonathan Johnson 


Bruce Campbell 
The Prairie School 
4050 Lighthouse Dr. 
Racine. WI 53402 


3 


The Bucketheads 
Larrson 
Ullman 


Joseph Hofmeister 

Cincinnati Country Day School 

6905GwenRd. 

Cincinnati, OH 45243 


3 


Compu-Tigers 
Anton Rang 
Don Greene 


Don Schultz 

New Richmond M.S. 

New Richmond. WI 54017 


3 


Nodules 
Josh Millard 
Jason Finn 
Mike Selinker 


L. Kashner / D. Fredrickson 
South Shore M.S. 
8875 Rainier Ave. 
Seattle, WA 981 18 


3 


David Franklin 
Dan Schwartz 


Susan Fleig 

Georgetown Day School 
4530 MacArthur Blvd. 
Washington, D.C. 


3 


Ferrandopulle 
Koh 


Doug Lewis 
Gilman School 
5407 Roland Ave. 
Baltimore, MD 



teams is getting wider as microcomputers 
become commonplace in elementary and 
secondary schools across the country. 
The few schools that have been involved 
with microcomputers for several years are 
beginning to see the results of providing 
talented kids access to computers. 

The level of difficulty for each contest 
problem can be judged by observing the 
frequency with which the problem was 
solved during the contest. This number 
appears as a percentage in Table 1. Thus 
a low value means the problem was more 
difficult. 

Focus 

One of the reasons that we continue to 
create the problems for this programming 

144 



contest is because it is fun and a chal- 
lenge. From the feedback we get from 
local contest directors, this is the same 
reason their students enjoy entering the 
contest. 

The problems we select require a com- 
bination of skills: 1) Good control of a 
programming language— every problem 
can be solved using standard Basic (All of 
the teams which were ranked this year 
used Basic. Advisors of the few teams 
that used Pascal reported a severe handi- 
cap because of the time needed to com- 
pile the program and the string handling 
limitations): 2) The ability to solve prob- 
lems in general: 3) Experience in imple- 
menting a problem solving strategy within 
the context of a computer language. 



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CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



How to Solve It, continued. 

The problems we use are generally 
classified as: 

1) Words: Searching/sorting, replacing, 
rearranging, modifying. 

2) Numbers: Multiple precision arith- 
metic, special properties. 

3) Simulations: Simple games or experi- 
ments. 

4) Print Graphics: Designs that can be 
printed out. 

5) Puzzles 

We were pleased to hear reports from 
several contest directors that our problem 
solving emphasis is causing some advisors 
to change the focus of their curriculum. 
In some areas teachers came to the 
contest specifically to see how their 
curriculum could be modified to help 
students prepare for the next contest. 

Conclusion 

It has never been the intention of this 
contest to glorify the winning team or the 
concept of winning in general. There is 
no trip to Disneyland or free micro- 
computer for the winning team. The top 
team in each division simply has their 
names and the name of their school 
engraved on a traveling silver trophy 
which they can keep for one year. 

Most of the recognition involved with 
this contest comes at the local level. 
Several directors sent us newspaper 
stories describing the outcome of the local 
contest which often involved an awards 
presentation and sometimes even a din- 
ner. Providing this kind of recognition 
can only be done at the local level where 
getting your name printed in the local 
newspaper is always a thrill. 

Finally, our congratulations go to each 
student who participated this year. Only 
one team, of course, can "win" in the 
sense of being ranked first in its division. 
But from what we saw in the returns, 
there are many young students who are 
winners all over the world. These students 
have demonstrated their ability to take 
on a difficult challenge and give it their 
best shot. 



Figure 3. 



Senior Division Winners 



Place 



Team/Membe rs 

Spencer Gr 
Truman Joe 



Return of The 
Electronic Imbroglio 



Team U 1 

Ryan McGuire 
Tom Kreyl 
Tom White 

Mash I 
Rick Bouchard 
Mike Grier 
Norm McClarkin 

Elmira Lancers 
Glenn Bauman 
Jim Kuhn 
Dave McClarkin 

SR. n\ 
Russell Gehr 
Mark Lindell 
Robert Schapire 

Team A 



Team A 



Romulus 
Peter Cherna 
Edward Lam 
Aurum Washawsky 

Team A 
Brian Kelley 
Elmo Peele 



Advisor/School 

Josie Mallery 
Klein High School 
16715 Steubner Airline Rd. 
Spring, TX 77373 



Elizabeth Griffiths 
Cambridge Rindge & Latin S. 
459 Broadway St. 
Cambridge. MA 02138 

David Dussault 
Livonia H.S. 
Big Tree St. 
Livonia, NY 14487 

Milford Area Senior H.S. 
West St. 
Milford. NH 03055 



J. Galbraith/ R. Clausi 
Elmira Secondary School 
Elmira, Ontario. Canada 



Philip Gibbons 
Bethlehem Central H.S. 
Delmar, NY 12054 



G. Peddle 

North York Board of Education 

Downsview, Ontario, Canada 

Joseph Reger 

Ben Gurion University 

Beer Sheva, Israel 

Ian Hodgson 
Wager H 

St. Luc 
Quebec, Canada 

Ava Crum 

Winfield High School 

Winfield, WV 25213 



Post Script 

Next year's contest will be held on 
Saturday. April 30, 1983. Schools that 
cannot hold the contest on this date will 
be allowed to hold the contest on Friday, 
April 29. In order to continue organizing 
and printing the contest, a small fee of $2 
will be charged to each local contest site 
within the United States. 

Foreign countries will be charged $5, 
the extra amount needed to cover post- 
age. All funds will be used to support the 
contest. Complete details will be 
announced in this column in January. 
Interested parties who write for infor- 
mation should include a stamped self- 
October 1982 c Creative Computing 



Table I. 



Frequency Distribution 



Problem Number 


Elementary 


Junior 


1 


40% 


15% 






23% 


3 




25% 


4 








18% 




Average number 






f problems solved 


1.7 


1.3 


y all teams. 







1.6 



addressed envelope. Send to: Dr. D.T. 
Piele, Box 2000, University of Wisconsin- 
Parkside, Kenosha. WI 53141. Everyone 

146 



who participated in last year's contest 
will automatically receive an entry form 
in January. 



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tow to Solve It, contini 

1982 Contest Solutions 

The solutions listed below represent 
some of the best efforts of the top ten 
teams in each division of the 1982 contest. 



AU of the solutions were writ 
soft Basic to run on the Apple II com- 
puter—the computer most commonly 
found in schools. Q 



»! 



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October 1962 e Creative Computing 



How to Solve It, continued... 

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100 N-I-l Numt.er 01 fraction! 
110 M 

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Put in ascending order 

if r < r > m 

THEN M=F< I) : P-l 
I4ci NFXT I 

I HEN END 
PR I NT N(P)»"/"«D<P> 

1 70 F ( P ) ■ 1 00 

QOTO 1K> 

HO DATA 1 . 2 
DATA .4 

240 CAT,. 

DATA 2,9 
HATA 0,0 

2/9 
1/ I 
1/2 
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1 * i 

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input "Numbfr OF GAMES - " : N 
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Wlu ii ; "IP 

40 ' N 

50 A-(i : B 

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PRINT "B"l : B-H+l : 
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THFN PRINT " (A)": TA-TA +1 

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t 1 Oi I 1 I 

IF B : -4 AND B >■ A -t . 
THEN PR IN I " <B>" : OOTO 

150 NEXT I 
1 60 PR I N I 

170 PRINT "PLAYER A griN ";TA;" 
OAM " : N 

October 1082 e Creative Computing 



END 

NUMBER OF GAMES ■ 10 

WINS A POINT : 

BAABBB IB) 
ABABABBB (B) 
AABAA (A) 
PBPAAAAA (A; 
BAABABAA (A) 
BPBB (B) 
AAAA (A> 
BABAAA (A) 
ABBABB ( B ) 
ABBBAB (B) 
FLAYER A WON 5 
GAMES OUT OF 10 

NUMBER OF GAMES ■ 10 

HANCE A WINS A POINT ; 60 

AAAA (A) 
ABABAA (A) 
ABAAA (A) 
PBBB <B) 
BABAAA (A) 
BAAAA ( A > 

AABABBABABBAAA (A) 
BBBB (B) 
ABBPAAAA (A) 
BABBAABABB <B> 

PLAYER A* WON 7 GAMES OUT Of IO 

1 Jun i '-r Fr ob I •■ #4 
VERTICAL HISTOGRAM 
»###■*####»######## 
10 I =0 
20 REAP X 

IF X"<"> THFN 70 
40 IF X<0 OR X>9 THEN 
50 A<X)*A(X>+1 
60 GOTO 20 
70 FOR X-l TO * 
80 IF M<A(X> THEN M»A(X) 
M ■ iMtx h«»»th 

90 NEXT X 

100 FOR O « M TO 1 STEP -1 

110 FOR X=l TO 9 

120 IF A(X><0 THEN PRINT " " 

f I OOTO 1 40 
130 PRINT "» "I 
140 NFXT X 

PRINT 
160 NEXT G 

170 PRINT "1 2345678 9* 
180 END 

999 ' *•«»*«»»*»#*»•»»•»»•»*»»»•« 

1000 DATA 1,7,2,9, 13,6. 7,1, 3,7, 5i 

7,9.0 



123456789 

1 Jun I "i l'i ..(.• I *-<r. #'. 

AliriiMATHl INFIATION 

10 INPUT —/. [NCREAS4 - "I 
READ A» 

IF A*="*ENP*" THEN END 
40 A*=A«+" " 

FOR 1-1 TO LEN(A») 
60 S=ASC<MIP»IA*. I . 1 ) ) 

70 IF S<48 OR 57 rHEN 

**•(»*** »«»*fr«*»*»tf«.*»#*W*»*« 

100 X=l : P-0 
1 10 P=P+1 

-ASf (MID»(A*. X+P. 1 ) 
140 TF S>47 AND S "53 THEN 110 
1 50 »»««»*«»»»*»•*•«««•#«♦«»*« 
160 P*=MIP«(A», X,P) 
1 70 W=VAL ( P« ) 

W=W»( l+C/100) 
190 W=*INT< loo»w+. 51/100 
0«-STR*(W) : 



B»=LEFT»<A*.X-1 ) +0» * 
RIGHT#(At,LEN<A«) -P-X + l ) 
210 A»=B« : I=I+LEN(U«> 
NEXT I 
PRINT A* 
40 GOTO 
250 »«*»»»»«»»#»»»«»»»»»•»*»* 
260 PhIh "OLD MACDONALD 8 7 COWS 

GAVE 120 POUNDS 01 MILF FuDAY. " 
270 DATA "THEY Will. COME HOME AT 
4 P.M. " 
HATA "»END»" 



7. INCREASI i: 

OLD MACDONALD 8 7.34 COWS GAVE 
1.-14.4 POUNDS OF MIL! 10DAY. 
THEY Will COME HUME AT 4.4t: P.M. 

V. INCREASE ■ 15 

OLD MAC DONALD OW 

n lUNDL. OF MIL I TODAY. 

THFY WILL COME HOME AT 4.6 P.M. 

1 W I 

VI RT1CAI H 

At) 

•;nt<A*,n 

IF ■ 

Ul . T N 

80 ***»##**###**#*###*♦# 
IR n-max TO I STEP -1 

100 II "i" N THF N PRINT " 

» 1 1 G 

110 PRINT "*"! 

ni -x r o 

R1NT 

NFXT N 
14(1 *•*•••••*•*•*••«*•*• 
1 t.( . FOR 1 = 1 ro 
1 60 PR I NT CHR« < 64+ 1 ) ; 
170 NEXT I 
200 DATA "THE QUICt BROWN FOX 

JUMPED OVER FHF I.A2Y DOG. " 
210 DATA "THIS IS AN EXAMI 

HATA "TO TEST YOUR HISTOGRAM 
PROGRAM. YOU" 

.-(ATA "CAN USE rHIS EXAMPLE." 
500 DATA "*ENP«" 



* # # * #*» 

* * #* * « ,*,» 

* # *« * »# ###« 

* • ••• ••••* •••• »• 

* •••»••• ••••• •••• ••* 

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPGRSTUVWXYZ 



■m #.' 






[NPU1 "if 
; A* 

PRINT "FN 

I A* 

I I N(A*> >5 THEN I" 

4C> I ID* (A*, I, 

IF' rHTN 10 

A( I )=S : 

NEXT I 

[NI : PRINT A* J PRINT 
100 »*»♦»*»»»»«»*»«*»»#*•»»#»••»« 



150 



APPLE • ALTOS • ATARI • MAXELL • DYSAN • EPSON • CCS • SHARP • CASIO • HP • VERBATIM • MEMOREX • SOROC ■ CORVUS • ADDS 



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Accounting Plus 1 1 " 












Plus... 

Software Dimensions announces three new modules for Apple II* users with Accounting Plus 
each designed with the same high standards and human engineering factors that have made 
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numbers or assign them automatically- and more 

G L Plus expands your financial reporting capabilities, including changes in your financial 
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You won t find this kind of flexibility and sophistication in any other Apple II accounting system 
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Software Dimensions Inc., 6341 Auburn Blvd., Citrus Heights. CA 95610 916/722/8000 

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CIRCLE 308 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







How to Solve It, continued... 


IF MID«(A*.X+P. I ) : " " THEN 1 














I -1 TMI N !'<■ 1 0OT0 


P«=MID»(A».X.P> 






W^VAI. (P»> 








W°U>I IVC/100) 








M-INT(100«M +.5)/100 








****«#*#»«-*»#*«*»#*•*»»#*»*»#»*«* 






.ii 


0*» STR»<W>: B«=LEFT*(A», X-1 I+CW+ 








RIGHT*<A*,LEN<A»)-P-X+1 ) 






13 1 HE N 


> A««B» 








NEXT I 






u ; 


1 1 2<"> 






PRINT A 


280 **••«»»»»»*#»«»•**»»»***»»»#»•*#» 








DATA "BE ADVISED THAT ITEM #1234 COST *1. 




PRINT 


. 






• 1 


300 DATA "REMIT TO P.O. BOX . 








MINIMUM ORDER IS •tOO." 






PRINTl PRINT 


DATA "»END»" 






COMBINA 










•/. TNCRF~ 






BE ADVISED THAT ITEM #1234 COST »14.-5 OR 2 FOR 


•28. 




ENTER A STRING 154 


REMIT TO P.O. BOX 2000. MINIMUM ORDER IS »112. 






H34 


•/. INCREASE • 14 

BE ADVISED THAT ITEM #1234 COST 








♦14.76 OR 2 FOR C28.50. 








REMIT TO P.O. BOX 2000. MINIMUM ORDER IS *114. 






ol 4 








134 


. ;■ l ?-it. 1*4 

n NNi 






I ARE 4 COMBINATIONS TOTAI I NO 1".. 


l#«*<*»*#»*«« 






EN1 


10 INPUT "NUMRFR Of ' ;N 

INPUT "v. CHANCE A WINS A P0IN1 








RINT 

4n 1 Tl.i N 






78 


. 






87 


D< i > 








IF > -.FN A-A+l : Q 








B-P+l: 








U A -. AN, THEN PRINT 








"A"» ITA«TA*HGOT0 1 

I 10 






THERE ARE 6 COMBINATIONS IOTALIM 


ir B "2 AND B -=A+/ 1HFN PRINI 
"b"; : lb-lb+1 IUUIU i 

1 :. 1 ii 60 






■ 


6 AND 1A :l£N PRINT " 
















( A / i : 00 ri.i 








' IF T6>«6 AND TE l"HEN PRINT " 








( B ) " : 00 in 








•50 








TA-ri: TEWO 








210 NEXT I 






















-. 


















PRINT 






tmi MB I NAT IONS TOTAI INi. ; 


:40 PRINT "PLAYER A WOfTIGAI" 1 OF 

END 


•N 




EN 1 


























NUMBER mi 111 

■/. CHANCE A WINS A FT. I NT - 35 






rHERE AM 2 COMBINATIONS TOTAI I NO 13. 


AAABBABBAA (A) 






1 ... K 


AABAAAA <A> 






■ 


F.'BAAABAAA (A) 








AAAAAA ( A ) 






INPUI •■■/. ini i "II 


mAEPAABBBAABABAA ( A ) 






ii..: «* 


BABAAABABA (A) 






II A»* "*END»" THEN 1 


AABBAAABA (A) 






4n «»-«*»'■ " 


BAAAAABBBA ( A ) 






•- i i EN(A*> 


AAAAABA (A) 






IF- MID*<A». I . I > >"»" 


AAABAARRBA (A) 






100 x^m 








1 10 P»0 : F 


PLAYER A WON 10 SETS OUT OF 10 






♦ 1 








1 -:,, || » tp.| FN( A*> tHEN 








14c If Mill*' A*. t<> <1 F-F+l : II 








i mi r>* 1 A*. X l-P* 1.1 > ) 4 








MIDK A», UK 1 1 i './ 1MFN 








r.n IF F-2 THEN 








October 1 982 e Creative Computing 1 S 


IS 






From Aspen Software 

The Only Complete Document Proofreading Sulim 
For CPM-, TRS-80- and IBM-PC Word Processors 



l?(i|@OIF B 



Featuring Random House' Dictionary 

• Complete Accuracy-looks up every word, 
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analysis, plus Random House Dictionary 

■ • Full Interactive Correction-standard 

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QRAMMATik™ 

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"It \ou uw a word prtnt'witr and a spelling 
checker, then \ou should investigate the unique 
capabilities of this program Orammatik i\ a 
surprisingli fast and easv to use tool for 
analyzing writing stile and punt tuatum" 

--Bob louden in Into World. 12 XI 
"r'or the user w ho is as tight with his dollar as I. 
Proofreader is the program of thou e. " 

-Stephen Kimmel in Creative Computing. 3 K2 
An\one involved with word processing in am 
wai. whether writing manuals, letters, 
hrtnhures. newscopi. reports, el* is encouraged 
to get the ext ellent program Orammatik " 

-A. A. Wicks in Computromcs. 6 82 

Grammatik and Proofreader are compatible with all 
CP M MS-DOS (mcl IBM-PC) and TRS-80 word 
processors Current CP'M formats standards . 
Northstar Omikron. Osborne Apple Please call/or 
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P O Box 339-C Tijeras. NM 87059 
(505) 281 1634 




How to Solve It, continued... 



FRAC I IONS in i if i TMrtl S 



in INpiu "FNTH- YOUR i r.'Ai rniN : ".Ai-PPINI 
IM 

RaREMAINI'l I D'DENOMINATOR. Q" DIGITS OF AN:..Wt K 
10 K^VAL (A«>: Z-LEN(STR»<F I l-VAi ( MID* ( A* . 2 ) > 
4l> PRINT A»; " * »| 
50 IF R<D IHI-N 70 

A-1NT <K/|i>:PRINT A«lR-R-H»D 
R=R#1ci 

80 FOR i .-<■> ro 

90 IF H-O THF.N I -I -I - 0OT0 

100 RHCD'Rl u(LI'INT(R/D)i R-10»(R-Q(L>»D) 

110 I 2-0 TO . : If R-RM.L2) THEN Fl -1 I0OT0 

120 NEXT L2 ■■ NEXT L : PRINT "Nn REPETITIONS IN FIRS1 IO0 DJi_.il 

1 30 #i*#*##»*»inm-#»»ei.*###*#i*-#».t. tut- 



MO IF | --I THEN 180 

1.50 PRINT ". "; 

160 FOR Z«0 TO 1.1 IF FL AND L2"2 'HEN PRINT »<"! 

170 PRINT 0(Z)ii NEXT : IF FL THEN PRINT ")"; 

180 PRINT tPRINT : END 



ENTER YOUR FRACTION : 
1/3 • . <3> 

ENTER YOUR FRACTION : 
?2/5 » 4.4 

ENTER YOUR FRACTION : 1/7 
1/7 ■ . (142857) 

ENTER YOUR FRACTION » 3/8 
3/8 - .375 

ENTER YOUR FRACTION ! 45/56 
4-V.6 - .803(57t428) 

ENTER YOUR FRACTION : 11/59 

11/59 - .(18644067796610169491525423728813559322i> 508474976271) 




"There it is. Perkins, the most elementa- 
ry particle of matter. " 



154 



October 1982* Creative Computing 




INTERNATIONAL 

SUMMER 

CONSUMER 

ELECTRONICS 

SHOW 



June 6-9, 1982 

McCormick Place, McCormick Inn 
Conrad Hilton Hotel, Chicago 



1982 
NATIONAL 
COMPUTER 
CONFERENCE 

JUNE 7-10 • ASTRODOMAIN 
• HOUSTON, TEXAS 



I was on the first flight in the morning 
of Tuesday, June 8 from Chicago to 
Houston. My seatmate, an engineer con- 
nected with the oil pipeline busiess. 
commented to me that after years of 
flying between Chicago and Houston, he 
had rarely seen a plane absolutely full. 

I allowed that the full load was under- 
standable since probably three quarters 
of the people on the flight were going 
from CES to NCC. 

"CES. NCC. What are those?" he 
asked. 

"Good question," said I and went on to 
explain about the two largest extrava- 
ganzas in the consumer electronics and 
computer industries. 

CES is short for Consumer Electronics 
Show. It is held twice a year, the Winter 
CES the first week in January in Las 
Vegas, and the Summer CES the first 
week in June in Chicago. It is strictly an 
industry show; the general public is not 
allowed in. It's the place where manufact- 
urers of hi-fi systems, video equipment, 
personal communications, security sys- 
tems, telephones, video games, electronic 
games, wristwatches, calculators, and 
every other conceivable consumer elec- 
tronic device come to display their wares. 

The audience (show attendees) are 
principally buyers for department stores, 
chains, and independent dealers. Also 
other manufacturers attend to see what 
the competition is up to and. of course, 
the press is there en masse to see what's 
new and report on it for their respective 
audiences. 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



David H.Ahl 



CES sprawls over three floors of the 
McCormick Place Exhibition Center as 
well as acres of pavement outside (for the 
satellite antenna systems and dishes) and 
spills over into two hotels. The booths 
are lavish and spectacular with many 
covering as much as 2000 square feet. 
Those on the main floor are often two- 
story affairs with private lounges on the 
second floor, well stocked with refresh- 
ments, for closing the big deals. 

Every effort is made to woo the dealer, 
particularly in hotly competitive areas 
such as video game cartridges, component 
hi-fi systems, and auto sound systems. 
Activision, for example, sponsored an 
elaborate party with a jungle theme to 



Manufacturers show off 

their wares at two 

extravaganzas 



introduce their new Atari video car- 
tridges. Jensen sponsored a paddle wheel 
cruise on Lake Michigan to show off their 
new auto sound speakers. On any given 
evening of the show, at least twenty-five 
receptions are being held simultaneously. 

Unlike a consumer show where the 
products displayed are all available, CES 
is a place for trial balloons. Frequently, 
manufacturers will show prototype pro- 
ducts. If they get enough orders, the item 
goes into production. On the other hand, 
if demand is soft, the product may never 
see the light of day. For example, three 
years ago five video game systems were 
shown at CES but only one of them, the 
Atari VCS, ever made it to marketing a 
major way. At each succeeding CES, 
various Hong Kong and Japanese com- 
panies have shown programmable game 
units for private labelling. One. the 
Radofin was picked up by a discount store 
chain to sell under their brand name, but 
it never really got off the ground. This 
year, however, a resurgence of interest in 
video game units was evident with major 
manufacturers such as Coleco jumping 
into the fray. By Christmas, there will be 
six competing units on the market: the 
Atari VCS, the Atari 5200 (a 400 com- 
puter system without a keyboard), Mattel 
Intellivision, NAP, Odyssey 2, Coleco- 
vision, and systems from Emerson and 
Tyrom (the makers of the Omar back- 
gammon and chess computers). 

There were only three new computers 
at CES, the Panasonic JR-200. NEC PC 



155 



CES/NCC continued... 

6000 and Sinclair Spectrum. Several Jap- 
anese manufacturers were showing com- 
puters that had been shown at previous 
CES shows but for which there was not 
sufficient demand to bring them to mar- 
ket. We are assured now. though, that 
Casio. Quasar, and Toshiba will all have 
new units on the market by year end. 

Speaking of computers, why should the 
NCC (National Computer Conference) be 
scheduled the same week as CES? Simply 
because five years ago when these shows 
were scheduled no one forecast that 
computers would be a consumer item and 
that there would be any overlap in exhibi- 
tors or audience for the two shows. 
Today, we know better, but unfortu- 
nately, many manufacturers had to make 
a hard decision as to which show to 
exhibit in. Some, such as Commodore, 
Texas Instruments, Toshiba and Pana- 
sonic elected to exhibit in both shows. 
Others such as Atari, Casio and Sinclair 
put all their marbles in CES. But the vast 
majority of computer manufacturers 
opted for NCC. 

Like CES. NCC is also an industry 
show: the general public is not allowed 
in. Although a huge show with high 
attendance (over 90,000). NCC is far more 
sedate than CES. Although manufacturers 
spend big bucks displaying their hardware 
to best advantage, they tend to do it 
without the aid of Penthouse Pets, Play- 
boy Bunnies, and other scantily clad 
females gracing their booths. NCC is also 
somewhat quieter than CES since there 
aren't scores of hi-fi manufacturers vying 
with each other to show off zillion watt 
amplifiers or earth shaking woofers. 

Inevitably at every press reception or 
meeting in the press room the first ques- 
tion asked is, "what did you see that's 
new?" That's what we are going to try to 
answer for you. albeit somewhat briefly, 
in the space below. We can't begin to 
describe all of the new products of the 
over 600 manufacturers represented at 
the two shows. However, we have tried to 
select some of the most significant new 
introductions, the most interesting, and 
some novel and unexpected entries. 

Among my colleagues, there was gen- 
eral consensus that this was the year of 
the video game at CES. I counted 16 
separate manufacturers making cartridges 
for the Atari VCS and six making other 
systems or cartridges. This growth is 
staggering from the three manufacturers 
that existed a year ago. 

NCC was unquestionably dominated by 
microcomputers and more specifically, 
small business systems. There were at 
least four Osborne clones, two Apple 
clones and scores of TRS-80 Model III 
look-a-likes. 

And now, join us for a tour of these 
shows and some of the new products 
displayed. 



COMPUTERS 



Epson Compact Computer 

A notebook-sized computer that runs 
on internal batteries for up to 50 hours 
with power and features comparable to 
many desktop computers was introduced 
by Epson America. 

Called the HX-20. the computer fea- 
tures 16K RAM expandable to 32K, and 
32K ROM expandable to 64K with an 
optional expansion unit. Other features 
include RS-232C and serial interfaces, a 
full-size ASCII keyboard, a built-in 24- 
column dot matrix printer with bit 
addressable graphics capabilities, an LCD 
virtual screen with a 20 x 4 character 
display and virtual width to 255 characters 
available by Basic "width" command, and 
tone generation. 




The HX-20 uses an extended version of 
Microsoft Basic and has internal time, 
date and alarm string functions. Optional 
interfaces include a barcode reader, audio 
cassette, and systems bus for expanded 
capabilities. A microcassette and ROM 
cartridge are also available. 

Epson America, Inc., 3415 Kashiwa St.. 
Torrance, CA 90505. (213) 539-9140. 

CIRCLE 340 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Cromemco CP/M System 

Cromemco, Inc., announced the C-10 
personal computer system. It uses a Z- 
80A microprocessor operating at 4MHz 
with 64K of RAM, and has a 25 line by 80 
character graphics display on a 12" green 
phosphor CRT. 

The C-10 Super Pak system also 
includes a double sided, double density 
disk drive, a detachable keyboard, RS- 
232 serial and parallel ports, and an RS- 
232 modem port with full handshake 
capability and an array of software pack- 
ages. The software packages include a 
CP/M compatible operating system. 
Structured Basic, as a word processing 
package and a spread-sheet calculator 
program. S785. 

Cromemco also offers the pieces as 
separate items. The C-10 personal com- 

156 




puter itself, is $995. The model CKBA 
keyboard is $195, the model CST 
ergonomic stand. $195; the 309 Kb model 
CFD floppy disk drive, $595; and the 
model CLO letter-quality printer. $895. 

The use of double sided, double density 
5 1/4" floppy disk drives gives the C-10 
drives 390 kilobytes of storage per drive 
The C-10 is also upwardly software com- 
patible with other Cromemco computers, 
including the System One, System Two 
and System Three series. All programs 
that can run under the CP/M or CDOS 
operating systems can also be run under 
Cromix, Cromemco's proprietary version 
of Unix. If a piece of software is written 
in Cromemco's Structured Basic 
language, the program created on the C- 
10 can run on Cromemco's 16/32-bit 
Motorola 68000 microprocessor-based 
CPU board, the DPU. In addition to the 
Structured Basic included with the Super 
Pak and word processing packages, high- 
level languages such as Fortan, rational 
Fortran, and Cobol are available. 

Cromemco, Inc., 280 Bernardo Ave., 
Mountain View, CA 94043. (415) 964- 
7400. 

CIRCLE 341 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Wang Professional Computer 

Wang Laboratories. Inc. introduced the 
Wang Professional Computer. It includes 
a 16-bit professional computing system, 
the ability to function as a workstation on 
any Wang 2200. Virtual Storage (VS), 
Office Information System (OIS), or 
Alliance system, and more communi- 
cations options. The Wang Professional 
Computer can run in stand-alone mode, 
through coaxial cable to other Wang 
products, over phone lines to Wang and 
non-Wang products, and through Wang- 
Net. Wang's local area network. 

Other features include Microsoft's Disk 
Operating System (MS-DOS), which is 
enhanced by Wang, and optional CP/M 
80 operating system emulation, and 
Wang's PC-Word Processing. 

The Wang Professional Computer is a 
highly modular system. It can be config- 
ured as the basic "off-the-shelf" system 
with the electronics enclosure and detach- 
able keyboard, or it can be expanded into 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 













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GUNS-FMT DEFIANCE 


OK 


PRICE 

$21 


RUSSKI OOCK 


OK 


PMCI 

S30 






1 


I ^^^ 




*^^»^ 






HELLFIRE WARRIOR 


DK 


34 


SARGON II 


OK 


30 










^^»* 


^f%t*' 






HOME ACCOUNTANT 


OK 


04 


SAVAGE ISLAND 


CS 


17 






1 


-Jl^oW*^ ^^gflJR^^"'' 


^cr 




* 




HOME MONEY MINDER 


OK 


30 


SNACK ATTACK 


DK 


20 








K^^ps 


IV 




MAIM 


PIKE 


HORIZON V 


OK 


30 


SNAKE SYTE 


OK 


20 












COMP. STOCKS S OONOS 


CS 


114 


INVASION ORION 


OK 


21 


SNEAKERS 


DK 


20 














CONTEXT CONNECTOR 


OK 


1S3 


JAWBREAKER 


OK 


20 


SORCERER OF SIVA 


DK 


20 








\\wtm 


* 


PRICE 


COONT 

CPA #1 GEN. LEDGER 

CPA «2 ACCTS REC. 


CS 
DK 
OK 


17 
213 
213 


JOYSTICK 

KEYBOARD ENHANCER 
MAGIC WINNW 


AC 
AC 
DK 


51 

110 

BS 


SPACE OOARKS 
SPEUSTAR 
STAR BLASTER 


DK 
DK 
DK 


20 

170 
20 








3D GRAPHICS by BUDCE 


OK 


SM 








30 SOPERCRAPHICS 


DK 


34 


CPA #3 ACCTS PAY. 


DK 


213 


MAGIC WORDS 


DK 


00 


STAR THIEF 


DK 


20 








ACCTS PAY. by CONT. 


DK 


213 


CPA »4 PAYROLL 


OK 


213 


MAILMERGE 


OK 


100 


STRANGE OOVSSEV 


CS 


17 








ACCTS REC. by CONT. 


DK 


M3 


CPA 85 PROP. MCMT. 


OK 


421 


MASTER TYPE 


OK 


34 


SOPERSCRIRE II 


OK 


111 








ADVENTORELANO 


CS 


17 


CRUSH.CRUMOLE B CHOMP DK 


20 


MATHMAGIC 


OK 


77 


SUPERSOFT 1 


OK 


170 








ALIEN RAIN 


DK 


21 


CYOORG 


DK 


20 


MICRO MEMO 


DK 


34 


SWASHBUCKLER 


DK 


30 








APPIE PANIC 


DK 


20 


0.0. MASTER 


OK 


105 


MICROWAVE 


DK 


30 


SWITCHPLATE 


AC 


10 








APPLE SPELLER 


DK 


04 


OATA CAPTURE 40 


DK 


55 


MISSION IMPOSSIBLE 


CS 


17 


TASC COMPLIED 


OK 


140 








ASTEROID by ON LIME 


DK 


17 


DATA FACTORY 


DK 


120 


MOUSEATTACK 


DK 


30 


TAX MANAGER 


DK 


120 








ATLANTIS 


OK 


34 


DATA REPORTER 


OK 


120 


MYSTERY FON NOSE 


CS 


17 


TEMPLE OF APSHAI 


DK 


34 








0-1 NOCLEAR OOMOER 


CS 


14 


DATASTAR 


OK 


251 


NEOTRONS 


OK 


20 


THRESHOLD 


DK 


34 








DEER RUN 


DK 


20 


DOS DOSS 


OK 


21 


OLYMPIC OECATHLON 


OK 


20 


TIME ZONE by ON LINE 


DK 


B5 








DORG 


DK 


20 


DONG BEETLE 


DK 


20 


OUTPOST 


OK 


20 


TRILOGY GAME by OOOGE 


DK 


21 








BUG ATTACK 


DK 


21 


E-Z LEDGER 


DK 


51 


PAYROLL- OROOERRUNO 


OK 


213 


TWERPS 


DK 


20 








BUDGE'S 30 GRAPHICS 


OK 


34 


ELECTRIC DOET 


DK 


20 


PAYROLL- CONTINENTAL 


OK 


330 


ULTIMA 


DK 


34 








RONE'S TRILOGY 


DK 


21 


ELIMINATOR 


OK 


21 


PFS: REPORT 


OK 


01 


ULVS & GOLOEN FLEECE 


DK 


30 








■ BUDGET PLANNER 


OK 


121 


EXECDTIVE SECRETARY 


OK 


213 


PFS: PERS. FILING SYS 


OK 


100 


UTILITY CITY 


OK 


25 








CALCSTAR 


OK 


100 


FLIGHT SIMULATOR 


OK 


21 


PLANETOIDS ASTEROIDS 


DK 


21 


VISICALC 3.3 


OK 


213 








CA STATE TAX PREP 


DK 


04 


FORTE 


OK 


20 


PNL1.5 


DK 


30 


VISIFILE 


DK 


213 








CASTLE WOLFENSTEIN 


OK 


20 


FR06ER 


DK 


30 


PIRATE'S ADVENTURE 


CS 


17 


VISISCHEDOLE 


DK 


255 








CEILING ZERO 


DK 


20 


GAME PADDLES 


AC 


34 


PROF. EASVMAILER 


DK 


120 


VISITREND/VISIPLOT 


OK 


255 








COMPU MATH/ARITH 


DK 


43 


GEN. LEDGER by CONT. 


DK 


213 


PROF. EASYWRITER 


DK 


213 


VOODOO CASTLE 


CS 


17 








COMPU MATH/DECIMALS 


OK 


34 


GHOST TOWN 


CS 


17 


PROPERTY M GMT -CONT 


DK 


421 


WIZARORY 


OK 


43 








COMPO -MATH/FRACTIONS 


DK 


34 


GOLDEN VOYAGE 


CS 


17 


PYRAMID OF DNM 


CS 


17 


WORDSTAR 


DK 


318 








COMPO-RUD 


DK 


20 


GRAFORTH II 


DK 


01 


RASTER BLASTER 


DK 


20 


WORDSTAR GUIDE 


BK 


17 








COMPOTER EODSBAll 


DK 


20 


GRAPHIC PACKAGE 


OK 


51 


RICNHET 


DK 


17 


ZEN GRAVITY PINBAll 


OK 


20 








COMPUTER GOLF 


OK 


20 


GROGON 

Jll 


DK 
J 


34 


ROOIK CORE UNLOCKED 

l-ADI 


OK 


21 


ZORK 


DK 


34 








NAM 


* 


PAICt 


NAME 


ft 


met 


1/ 

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11 


\m 


$ PWCE 


NAME 


* 


PRICE 




1 3-0 SUPERGRAPHICS 


DK 


134 


CRHSH.CRUMRLESCNMI 


• DK 


S2S 


STICK 


AC 


S34 


RASTER BLASTER 


OK 


S2I 








ADVENTORELAND 


CS 


17 


CYPHER BOWL 


CS 


43 


LONAR LANDER 


CS 


13 


RICNHET 


DK 


17 








All RAM S 40 THIEVES 


DK 


20 


DONG BEETLE 


DK 


20 


MATCH RACERS 


DK 


20 


SAVAGE ISLAND 


CS 


17 








ANDROMEDA 


OK 


34 


FROGGER 


OK 


30 


MISSION IMPOSSIBLE 


CS 


17 


SPACE INVADERS 


CT 


3B 








APPLE PANIC 


OK 


20 


GALACTIC CHASE 


OK 


20 


MISSION: ASTEROID 


OK 


21 


STRANGE ODYSSEY 


CS 


17 








ASTEROIDS RY ATARI 


CT 


30 


GHOST HUNTER 


CS 


20 


MOUSEATTACK 


OK 


30 


TEMPLE OF APSHAI 


DK 


34 








0-1 NUCLEAR DOMDER 


CS 


14 


GHOST TOWN 


CS 


17 


MYSTERY FIN NOSE 


CS 


17 


THE COUNT 


CS 


17 








ROG ATTACK 


OK 


20 


GOLDEN VOYAGE 


CS 


17 


PAC MAN-BY ATARI 


CT 


30 


THRESHOLD 


DK 


34 








CAVERNS OF MARS 


DK 


34 


GRAPHIC COMPOSER 


CS 


34 


PAROUS by ATARI 


AC 


IS 


VERSA. GRAPHIC TAOLETS 


AC 


254 








CENTIPEDE OV ATARI 


CT 


30 


JAWBREAKER 


DK 


20 


PIRATE'S ADVENTORE 


CS 


17 


VISICALC 


DK 


213 








COMP. STOCKS S BONDS 


DK 


10 


JOYSTICKS (pitr] 


AC 


10 


PNL1.5 


DK 


30 


VNNO CASTLE 


CS 


17 








CROSSFIRE 


OK 


20 


K-RAZY SHOOTOUT 


CT 


43 


PYRAMID OF NOM 


CS 


17 


WIZ S PRINCESS 


OK 


2B 








1 Radio /haek TRI-80 

INS lOn tfcyHt*K VjWwirt oi tw Mjao SNK» D i I en a* Tift COTyX" 


• CALL FOR NEW & OTHER AVAILABLE 
UNLISTED ITEMS 












NAME 


$ PMCf 


NAMf 


* 


■met 


• Manufacturer Origina 


Is not copies 




^ 






ADVENTORELAND 


CS 


S17 


MYSTERY FORI NOSE 


CS 


S17 


• No extra cost for credit card orders^- 

• Fast shipping to your door ^^^^00 




^ 






8 1 NOCLEAR OOMOER 


CS 


14 


OLYMPIC DECATHLON 


OK 


20 




^\ 






RASIC COMPILER 


DK 


100 


PIGSKIN 


OK 


17 


o TYPE KEY: 










-\ 






COMP. STOCKS & OONOS 


OK 


IB 


PIRATE'S ADVENTVRE 


CS 


17 


AC ACCESSORY BK 


BOOK 




—i 


kf\- 






CRUSHCRUMBLEfi CHOMP 


OK 


20 


PLANETOIDS ASTEROIDS 


OK 


17 


CS CASSETTE 






^^Bp^^ -*%1 








OEFENSE COMMANO 


OK 


17 


PVOAMID OF DNM 


CS 


17 


CT CARTRIDGE > 
DK DISK _^^^^ 




^^ 


■^^ ««\tV 












DUEl-N-DROIDS 


OK 


10 


RICNHET 


OK 


17 






B^pO** 


^VoAYlV* 












ELIMMATOR 


DK 


17 


SARNN II 


OK 


20 




BBP^ 




► SvWT 


..\ o' 


,<-■•' 








■ f LIGHT SIMULATOR 


CS 


21 


SAVAGE ISLAND 


CS 


17 






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*«* 










GHOST TOWN 


CS 


17 


SCARFMAN 


DK 


14 




r^^^ -*»■ 


M»tj> 














GOLDEN VOYAGE 


CS 


17 


SPACE INTRUDERS 


OK 


17 




1 r 


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11 


J^ 


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GUNS-FORT DEFIANCE 


OK 


21 


STAR WARRIOR 


DK 


34 






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INVASION ORION 


DK 


21 


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17 






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DK 


77 


TANKTICS 


CS 


21 






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METEOR MISSION II 


CS 


14 


TEMPLE OF APSHAI 


DK 


34 






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CS 


14 


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CS 


17 






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CIRCLE 126 ON READER SE 


RVICE CARD 









CES/NCC continue 




more powerful configurations with 
optional displays or home TV connection, 
printers, and diskette or Winchester disk 
storage devices. 

The Base System Unit. Model PC001. 
contains the electronic enclosure with 
128K memory, a 320K disk drive low- 
profile keyboard. MS-DOS operating sys- 
tem, and Basic interpreter. 

Four Standard configurations are avail- 
able. The Wang Professional Computer 
Base System Unit (Model PCOOl) costs 
$2695. Other units are priced to $8945. 

Wang Laboratories. Inc.. One Industrial 
Ave.. Lowell. MA 01851. (617) 459-5000. 

CIRCLE 342 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



corporate management information sys- 
tem, and both Grid Central and Compass 
Central are support computers backing 
up Compass Computer users. 

A bit-mapped, flat-panel display mea- 
suring 4 3/4" x 3 1/2" can produce 
characters along with charts or graphs. A 
matrix density of 320 by 240 dots produces 
high-quality graphic images in amber 
which, according to recent studies, pro- 
duces the least eye strain. For text-editing 
application, the screen can display as 
many as 24 lines and up to 70 proportion- 
ally spaced characters. 

Wider data formats can be viewed by 
scrolling, which extends the width of the 
text to as many as 256 characters. When 
handling columnar data, as many as 256 
columns of varying widths can be created. 
In this way, the left-to-right width for 
columnar documents such as spread 
sheets is virtually limitless on the Compass 
Computer. Base price $8150. 

Among the developmental tools 
included in the Compass Computer are 
five compatible languages (Microsoft- 
compatible Basic. Pascal. C. PL/M. and 
Fortran 77). an editor, and a macro 
assembler. The five applications packages 
are Gridfile. Gridplan. Gridplot. Grid- 
writer, and Gridpath. 

Grid Systems Corporation. 2535 Garcia 
Ave.. Mountain View. CA 94043. (415) 
961-4800. 

CIRCLE 343 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Innovative Unit from Grid Micro Source Portable Unit 

Grid Systems Corporation announced 
the portable Compass Computer which 
provides managers of corporations with 
the means of gathering information from 
colleagues and internal and external 
databases, the tools to analyze this infor- 
mation, and a way to report their results. 
It includes program development tools 
and applications programs that include 
text editing, graphics, a project manage- 
ment package, database management and 
an electronic spread sheet program, ter- 
minal emulators, and a network of sup- Micro Source Inc. introduced the 
computers that extend the Compass Com- M6000P portable microcomputer system, 
puter's range and power. The standard system features the Z-80 
The compact 9 1/4 lb. Compass Com- CPU, 64K RAM, a standard keyboard 
puter is a portable workstation for a with 83 keys, a 9" CRT with 80 character 

by 24 line video interface, and a CP/M 
2.2 operating system. The system includes 
two double sided, double density. 5 1/4" 
disk drives. An 8-slot card cage can hold 
a wide variety of STD Bus circuit boards. 
Micro Source Inc.. 595 N. Clayton Rd.. 
New Lebanon, OH 45345. (513) 687-1395. 





Apple III CP/M Card 

Apple Computer announced Softcard 
III. an Apple III Z80 board for CP/M 
capability. With the Apple Softcard III 
System. CP/M-based application pro- 
grams join the Apple III library of soft- 
ware, which is based on the Apple III 
Sophisticated Operating System (SOS). 
The system supports the Apple 5- 
megabyte mass storage system. Profile, 
on which both SOS and CP/M files can 
be stored. 

The Apple Softcard III System includes 
a plug-in Z80 microprocessor card, CP/M 
software, four manuals, and Microsoft 
Basic. The system requires a 128K Apple 
III personal computer with a suitable 
video display device. Optional peripheral 
devices include a compatible printer, 
external Apple Disk III drives or Profile 
hard-disk drive. $450. 

Apple Computer, Inc., 10260 Bandley 
Dr., Cupertino, CA 95014. (408) 996- 
1010. 

CIRCLE 344 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Dynabyte Monarch 

The Dynabyte Monarch is a multiuser 
computer system for concurrent proces- 
sing of both 8 and 16-bit programs. 

Monarch supports CP/M, MP/M II, 
CP/M-86, MP/M-86, Unix, Oasis- 16 and 
Business Basic (Basic Four compatible). 
Monarch incorporates a single-board 
design without giving up expansion capa- 
bilities. Both the Multibus and S-100 bus 
are offered as optional internal card 
cages. 




Monarch's Model 6600 standard con- 
figuration includes 256K RAM, 19Mb 
Winchester disk storage, nine RS-232 
serial ports, one RS-422 high speed port, 
one parallel port, and an 8" IBM-compat- 
ible disk drive. $10,995. Eight additional 
serial ports can be added, as well as up to 
1 megabyte of memory in 256K incre- 
ments. Monarch can expand to 76Mb and 
a 17Mb cartridge tape drive expansion 
unit. Error correction circuitry is also 
available. 

Dynabyte, 521 Cottonwood Dr.. 
Milpitas. CA 95035. (408) 263-1221. 

CIRCLE 345 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 



It's hard to picture 

all of DYNACOMP's software 




IMMY 








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TRIf'l i 










STOCK CI n! 




NYINDEX 




SUPER SUB CHASE 




MAIL MASK R 






• i MAPI 



- 




HIN RUMMY 



SPACE LANES 




ESCAPE FROM 
VOLANTIUM 






IC) 1982 PROMEDIA ASSOCIATES 



TURN TO NEXT PAGE.... 



- 

r. 



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— 
s 



DYNACOMP 

Quality software for*: 

APPLE II Plus ALTAI R**** 



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NORTH STAR*** 
ATARI 
PET/CBM 



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( MRASK ( BASH ) 



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•a4*»<hMMMfM*k*iJa»«Jar<M Y— ran eeaerateHini ■iiiieapasarkii hIiihIh mnaal. 




M>^x>W>|il (best year 



Prtce: 117.95 Ceatette 12 1 .93 Drah—r 




■rarlia. tabe. placet Ureal a.***-. .- *— a - IkK R.a»,.a I*. mw<i. 

FOREST FIRF-<Au*iut.r>» 

Otaap nhIm «•**•«• ■>< eeaaal eflecra. 

vmraMMiMMirMlnaMicwaN 



i— iww haw it» —— wm aa» a« « a i>w«. *i awna, 
CRANSTON MANOR ADVENTLRE (NorlhSur.S«a«rRrair«a«4CP/M(«ly> Pr.re:SI9.93Diaft*t»t 

At lee* A iMHinM Aaa.a—i. smb. In* North Sre. e*e (f« avaereae ( KANMON KANOM AOVtNTDRE 



sis. I I \A( I AllUN' lA.aifoMr for aU 



Price: SIS.95 (eateate 119.95 Dta-acap 
> lb* aa. — pkaeW V— r e— .■«■■ W.— « A* ^. 

' ■■■»' » Tbta I — III » m " " i*w*> 'M I '"— m» 

■area art* Mm avwv s be*, ape M Al>Vt Mil WM 

Price: SI4.*3 Caaaetlr til 95 Dnketle 




AVAILABILITY 



ms*t llMT . 



(BASK tl» ..■■pit. ATM*. XM-a UO Hm*. /-- «*. a*d •> 



i %'. ( V H a^.ntt Mr »«UM. k. tto SmiN 



■AtAtu n I im vwiH»M<nrni«i 

••( . . .*• -*«. wr •« rm-aw «a*aw i ■** 
rjMBBAf^ <«wn (Nr«vaM«rrA> r 



- NMM. - C *ASftT UM. . ** a , 



DYNACOMP OFFERS THE FOLLOWING 

• Widest variety • Friendly service 

a Guaranteed quality • Free catalog* 

a Fastest delivery • Toll free order phone 



■UNlis u* »■ li 1 1 m i ■ m il 



AND MORE... 



Price: 113 »3 CtutlltlOW DlimeeW 



t rwCtxtaia n—t lee aW M 
LIL MEN FROM MARS (Ataei oajy) 



WMkaANAI OO.MV 
Pnc«rSI*.*3 Cauene/S23.*3 DiUetM 



xkelrheAaMfip 



ALVINIAiarionK) 

Al VtN ta a «•»• a*. aaV aaflte Vm are trawwseae ■ hagMi 
rtTMa Yna en erarsaaeaafl i- a«aa4 ikeae cMm anaaia >a*i 
D* aa meaaa*) Ata*. easst raatar haa 1 
■raeaaiirliaaaait>liBieMet>trfcal»eealiaaia<.eta 



Price: 117.9$ (««t.«»:i»< [t.Urttr 



FSCAPF FROM VOI ANTH M . Atari oe,r>) 



* . *• cam daaea aad a ae« aaareaaa a*pa 



Price: SI5.93 < atwtw 111 « Dfokatta 

•ILSXAPT (M<mV<tiANnilMIT*eara»«*>aiflMar 

■ eeaeat M t» ta batoe >«*■ a 
l-IMW ip PW II ai« nn it> M 



aiennni A(»ilil,piitlwea»a«aa»via>ii»«i>i t ar t riaaia1pi 



ALPHA FIGHTER tAiarioevty) 



Price: 113.93 (atactic SI7.93 DitAaete 
_ earn ta ~' AintA FKaHTIR »« .-■ ! rx aa Ceatrasj rfo altea aaatatitae 
elrtartalaav AirttABAST .. ,a Mt* paati a* a- atw.HO-**— bt • kv> Hffraprikv 
I eMsaraaa Bkt SHpthri .w ar«n > ALPHA 



THE RINGS OF THE EMPIRE lAtari mI» 



Prtcc. SI4.93 ( atwiir 111.93 Otvkclle 
■sp.a* , eae*c« I a. h ■— * *«. Haw aVt^pa ra- 
•«*teaa*maeraa«* Tkaa aa> aaap peaae naaa a* 



INTRUDER ALERT lAian oe>h» 



Price: IIS « iaaacMe SI9 93 DiUene 



are ere.afcal PSITItm * ALERT n 



a • ravaawh md wM raa. M I4K « 



■aM laet 
GOLF PRO (Atari only) Price: 117.93 (atvettc IJI 93 Diaketu 

■eattiiaRalaaaiaiPaatlaa t iae>l ra e«e(aaaaaiapa lt aw>af>WJr<W 

ii a fhi app r ii Ulilt l n i m i un s tin i Hri a ir antiirn'in*iaT n - i -anrT , *"r '-^- 'i ■ "-*■' *■*- 

harrrea a*«-ar»4ai.ae»a1araWi.a»a Va» aaa aal a^aaSa a^a^ aaeaaaraiaay aarae aaa^waev ■aa1pa«a«Hwpf»»« 
aKHH-WawMaoM. Waaa.aaTla l .Ataatt»»aaa»fcMaA»ia»a« J OUae»i> n^m*rt thH •*! mm, tmtmth 



GAMES PACK I (AteilaMr for all 

< .* Ml S HA( K I <~um rke ■ Uw 
s*iti HaAaeanae Ta w r peer ra »*v* 



r»» 



•> *. pnr* paal ta. iW nYNACOMP « 



atolRLAClUA<.M 



GAMES PACK II (A>ailaMr for all c.rmpaiicri) Price: 114.93 Ca.arttr IIS. 95 DiakcMe 

GAMI S PACK II aaraaaWa aW paeaea (.RA/Y ( KjMTS JOTTO A«"I Y-IHX f Y. I Iff . WIJr4PU» a«W aaken Aa ••* 
OAKS PATH I. ail aW paaan are aaaeaa ea aaar aTap»a— a*4 era taaWe traea a ear— Yoa aaW pa.Hara.awty eapay 
DYMACOPaV* «*n*aa> •KRAZY llbHTS 
•Vlp raw 1991 ar eaaee par ae-area- -tar* y*m tarn kasy a UYNACOMT . .Jaartw* kar Naet 114 917 

Price: 112.93 < aaaettr SU.9S Diakene 



SIPIR SI B( HASI lAianoair)! 
vow ha*>i tar rke foeatoa aekea 



Price: 119.93 ( aaacOeVS*} 95 Dniean 



TWO PLAYER GAMES 



IW<» PI AVI R GAMES I Available for all coaapajteia. J2K d.vi d.vittie only) 
■a^aa-taw*Msiaa l aa*.a 1 a^waS.aa^aa 1 aMWKiaraai.-*ipai 
a.aWraa^aaS4w<iaapaa...aai<a^^ t aiiiaW«ai(aa>iri l ahap4avaaialla« 
I fcy DYNACOPP* Baaaaaia aea aVsaa. f i a*, eaaaaapaaaar (JaPfi wn « law. OVNACCaNP e«m 
, far* ta a aaaMrrM •" ">*» 1 1 9 9Vc*tfcrtM. Ill 91,'eath NtwilawamparajM. Barai 
R> 

iZERaaMllLIT/KRIEG 

Naa, IMS rtac* Srmal aaaVt mm at Ktrv Raaau TW Paaaat— ■ it—e patr Irtetaa 



a. The aaweaara al Dawtarfc. aW 



Sn -I STARSHIP TROOPERS araal INVASION OF THE MUD PEOPLE 



INVAWON Or TW. pMJO PEOPU 



**a» acaeea •* akaa* aataJ Isaera »KkI> haw 
■M*al FALL OF THF THIRD REICH a*a1 ARMORCAR 

■ AH 111 IMI IIDKI) HI H H 

Uai*- Nwck. I94i Pla.. Raraap-a. C inwt Ih» *lan — aV. ( 



fcnalk, laaaVMloaNank IT **a a» aW *aW. Wp*a 

ARkKMKAR 

laHlIrt 1944 Place : Maaak. Rwaaa* A Giiias fc-aaa ttae a— ta haw* pr— a-d fce .aaHeeeam 

■ u ppk n A rekel n*n>v al aa—eerd tan hm narh Para* aWaia^i paniaea WarMad iriiPai,. 

Sei -4 MOUNT SURIIACHI anal MIDDLF EARTH 

MOtmMiRttVMHI 

Dear l*F*k I94S Piece- ha-a ttm» Ike Japaeeaa apeaeal ta 

aaekefcap ihapral Mlaaal iiiRii tnaai tk* haR c*a*i cawat H 



a talaaP. ism w sea a ntlMal aka n lt n si itw 



WOfHi LARTX appaara. Main. haa H Har eaaar trtphlaaaap bar 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Pftcc: 114.93 ( atvrttr III <#< Drakem 



CRVMAlSh, 



NORTH STAR SOFTWARI- IMIUM.I t NSSF I LIBRARY 

DVraACt^raa*a M aaatTlama«aW13*e.kaatarat.M laktarv Tkmaaaakaerwra»fc.aas«a4aa>aavprapraa»i aaaiaBara- 
aerataaeaaaj walae lar «- aaxfciea* to. . TIt*« afcaaaW ke part a< evaey Narati feaar eaaVa caaWraaa CaN aa ewtaa 
DVNAt (M4P tat cetaeit rrpataYap Nte ca-aaaaa at sfce NSM .aB.taiaa 
Pvhr. t**i.a.t, 1* *)**,* 14*. aae#*l 

• IIS9 9S 

Price-. 119 9 a >.'» Drakanet 



z 






HI 



2 
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* 

7 



BUSINESS and UTILITIES 






Prwe: **•» »3 m» Dttkctir* 
NM|> oateiaSoa tar lap, tin «l 




Price: 1J4.05 DUlW 




TEXT MASTER < Aaa* 32K. 4UMM Mir) 

TEXT MASTER to a | 
n a n aaaai aAtcfc (ai 



> Tfc. rata. 



M an StK al RAM. Ap*l*»* « ROM. x 

■V ■ »»<■ rat Ifcee* H tt 

al IIXIMASTIH,. 
■aarw. Tito iaa.toto.de a*eMcAte to 
TEXT MASTER MM COUXCT. USE. EXECUTE. MONUM. INSERT. MERGE. STOP. REMUM. Willi SAVt 
COPY I HI I REPLACE. WAIT. MOW. LENGTH. MM Rl savi CLEAR. AUTO. Rl TRV ATTEND. SET 
MANUAL CHANGE. SCRATCH. SHOW. CATALOG MOOBTY. t (M0FAR1 NUM. DISPLAY. HELP 

Price: M» *5 Dtaknw 



•alt*, rnaw-t arrwto* to BASK . FORTRAN , t* . m*, W Wk .Alto, aaaaa. Ret *a»»»-ri m.i adttor 
AM* *a —arAar c atapa n r. ■ i Mi | A n Aaart twy a— art torreetoa. Ivan tow BASIC araaraw aaaa 
— aayMaaaRalSSaaaa^aaaJlaaataacialiiRlailapMawa lt aiaaltataaTalaai 




PAYFIVE lAppk II 
Tfcto taaa 
•AVnvE 



SHOPPING LIST I Aran oe.r>> 



»|M»aJaajMa>aalaa « aaaaa»aala»Waa«»aaaS»a**a«t»i 



Pme S5* W DhUltt 



a^lawMwaRawalrfWMwISaaiartalaailali.i TAX OTTIMLZEAfca. aaaa «■■!■,..»*, S.M dto 

CM aflkaa aW ccawre ti-ajlUi —* rfca MaM to* Mkiaa to Ma aa*a Mat TAX OPTWIZER M Ma d.A » eAi V 

STOCK MASTER STOCK PLOT (Apr* *tK> Pricr SSt.M DttAelte 

TSatlaaraR half ii aaarS piiiaiai aiaaat»aiia«aaa1aaMa>aMaaMawTaa»aa>aalracaa*iaata>>»lMi><ala > SiaM» 



tomato. 



Mai Mart MX «h 



ptaadaTMda-aV 



m ffatoa. P/E. laaVaaafDJ. S 4 P. NASOAQj aaat MORE* Vaa aaj aaal rrBMESt aW prtca Stotoryalaa* 



TURNKEY AND MENU (Atari mm>I Price: SIT SS DrtActie 

TURNKEY M ■ mMm* aaaaraaa *e*ath eatoa* yatt a* r*c«M — loSer e /— lore, a Aia— n aaert* Stoa-fcy *•*- aaal ™- 
TURfRCEY.IaaaaVi#aBaaaaaMSa«MiaaaaiaMRii. aa^ aiia>.. taa aa.aalaaal TlwnjRNWEV Maaaiii ahi taaaa* 

«Nh DOS IS aad larladu aaa r fct. praaraaa. MENU MENU Sat. rt» n a n a n al aaa> MtJjotoo alaAaata U t*,. aad 
a«ia^.i».ito.tote*.>e»a\A^ TURNKEY aad MENU .woaMw aca> 






•yrWIjaaa*.. la 
* vary •raHaaaaxal >i r haji 1 

Pricr S2S.93 Dkhrtte 

as. raettotoMj aaal aaatMaa Na« Vath Stock F-whaa** 
Mt todaa aWa Maat. -a- M#M a-* ■— Ian. 
a*, r araalatl v . a i . ma.Hm aaal awtofj aoataaaa 
•fca* Ma* MM al M» data NYINDEX M a- maOaat 



PLAYER- MISSILE GRAPHICS TABLET (Atari Mr)) Pr«« SIS.S3 t 

TWPLAVERMa S BBJCatAPHKSTAaHET»M^ Iiii r i h f Aaalaa. a. 

GRAPHPCS MODE ». Mo raaajt- to* «*> Saw. to reed rfca tacaMaaa al iSaaa M-a Mjacha aa aaar ffaavh popar aaat 
r MraMi. W.OT. aaal QUA WTO. WMfc PMG y^ ■*■ aa aMa a* 1 1 iBj I il t i il « lajiiHi ■ i M* , n i|i|iMr* 




MICROMAGICIAvfM 
laMap 
MMlM 



ORDERING INFORMATION 



■aaatar Manaanaa II acaMg S> VISA at MaaMf L ara MM. all a 
1Si»>iMj and HaadSaf CSaran Drawn 

WMMa NartJi Aawttra: AAJ IJ 00 AS w A w I. 

dl>«(AarMaM 



P.-CP M I>taai 



DYNACOMP, Inc. (Depto 

1427 Monroe Avenue 
Rochester. New York 14618 

24 hour menage and order photic: (716) 442-8731 
Toll free order phono: (t(X» I2S4772 
(•90) 828-6773 
Office phone (9AM 5PM EST): (716) 442-8960 



education 



HODGE PODGt < Atx>to 4SK ortly) Pr..r SU «5 < .»«»r SIS«5 lli..rii f 

Lat MOOGE POOGE a* yaaa ttuU* tatxtwi »aaaia| anv Say an «a«r Aaafo -HI r..»l. la a ehaVraa* aaal ta tr laam n 
"^aUrmtafntMritototlmwimmiktimdiiwttimfmkrv Tfca »r°a|taa> »yaaam» >«■!«■> 4wdw M aa.|araaa»*a > Sjt Mr 
.h«1Aralmaaat»wlv>taT HOUGI WlOtJ I* .wwiAii^i.. fcwaa etr. ^ « - *.~ »i.i^. . ~». rl»»«a*>.« h. ih, 
walinaaMntM r awa m a Saa rtw aacaaVal i,um l li*nH>t P «r>>« a*»waa. .- INI t ■«•'( Mil U aaal M M I Al It 

TEACHER'S AIDE (Atari mm PET onty I MsM SI LM CaWMaSMV1 1*5 DiakciM 

II ALHLR-S AIM ,aMHM^« m l«t<< H *>l« ( Ma»4. WF »t.*~ D.k..i»M H »aV.»M ln .a4 

MaaaaM ph> Sa n a m l aaatt an tfca Saal aaanaa ajaaVa* an r»» iillilil wn ni M ■■* kaiaj Saaad atoraAat* *».-.•! 
araia. al caa»*.a,al> » ara ataaMatl hai. a. at! TW Ita.O ■■*■» caaatat. -I laaw atoStaa.*. .at aawt. aJarN ana 

*aa» eal rtW <hl*»a .r a l . n rtm. nV k-a ha-al aV.v.^-, ^^aat , aa> ha. 4»Ha»a\T* iL^.«ti tfce- t.aa-^er » —eta. H» 
-v-**hih.i,m«^a..™aW.K«l I wrtfll Al HIKsMMI ■* ■»< aarrrr* a AnN, •«■ 



STATISTICS and ENGINEERING 



Pf*C» BM.«9 COMaSaS/lliat) Drtinir 



lraa»aa»»a«arS*w.ana»lara^^ 

a raarrtaa] pilara Mmmj •» aaawarl Man cvrva M *W raaaa raaa*. laVal laaj •>••• »••*». aa« 

r a»aA>» al aa»l> aaral w Hai atraiaHna IfcwMtaa* 



Prka S1S.S5 CsMM SJI.S5 I>..k.-l. 



tataj •»»•■ aw • 



■ alaanap r4 t*n —aaal (Jala aaal « 



Price: SI* *« r«twti*S2V«5 IMrArtlc 




HARMONIC ANALYZER I A.aiLiMc for Ml ccMttMicni Price: %!4 «< CMMMW tMM DrtAcne 

IIABMOMC ANALYZE R a. *ttmm4 tar Hat aawreaa. aaatyaW al rrpawnv. a4«fc.m. l-atara* Mlaai AUka 
aawarraiaaa. i II n il I n ii|i/a*4iM-^ a*a*M a* ttata aaaa »4>*tn.ta aaloataaaa, i >*. ,.■>- u UrS ■>■>••»* lev >a*v »rtaaa 
raala»a«a»iiaa»a<aa<l*t»a»MaVi»arriw n» .*^.*Jaaa*.* i-«».4*«4. . ut-. ^-...^aai—,..^ 

to iraata tfca Asto SW ruairij a* Mar III aifjatMha. 

FOURKRANA1Y/IR Tl AaadlHAKM. iSK ANA) V/l M -at aapaei fca.^ Kaa^tlwa fc H a<«*Maa^pt«a«l SSI *S 
llRraa .111 rural am4 SU *S Irktaa MaSrrtaii 



Prree $!"> V « naelU S.'» •*« Drtkerle 




REORESSION II ( A.MmAM far MS 



MI I Til INI ARRH.RI ASIONlMI RH A*arta**tfor aS cnaaiaMrt) Prke %1* t*t atwMr S.'U-K IJmAtUt 
MUI Mi a » 1 lie n liraM aafcaarr »atfcaaj» la. aaaayreatj elato aata tamaaaana. Maa ar ■■>. Maaaal- la <t> aa <ta» vwhaara. 



■ilaSIl I TW aaaaSte al *m*+in atal Ana al 



ANOVA (N01 nMUUt oa Alari ciucW or lor PET I RMi Price «**<♦< I i».iir M"« DnhriK 

haaaMAr ANOVA (.-.*,« al variaacal r>r«eAwa Sea Saaa lla-M.g la tb. Iar«a -..-».—. (aaaawtat* Naa. 
DYNACOMP haa traaa* * aW a-awt el •*» latfrlvaa to »-*)( avatoaaa lar «™ ,w. lu .i arte* ANOVA. rfc. 
OYMACOM** aoataia n f>arttoMa a*rfc»Ato efca l^ay. »■*«* aael N-a»a> lawaAwa. Ah* a*a » A.«l aw Hat Vara* 1 KP 
■ftottol eaatfaa lat Mwaa anMiaiiSar arret, ANOVA. A. aor .aery T»- a. .-a«-%-a 4-. — aa-.^™.«,»,«., n ... 
S*vMS»a*Mr 
ANOVA M a wa 



BASIC SCIENTIFIC SURROUTINES. Vcatwaran I arMl 2 INm aealUble foe Alar.) 

PVI%«a C OMPairtw,i i i lill I ■I H W il lawijwta^aarafcrya^tortwpna.l., W.^IIASW \Ht\Illn \l MNXMSTaVf.V 
V^laaara laaalffcaF W a «t MaiiA»M*aa4^..»)iaai«a4. wBVn ■a»art.r) TWat aafc. — Ma. > fcav. baaa a*aaa.t>la»i 
I aaaS «>Sarttoa M a aaaaa apt|taaa afc- h aerVHt* •— I ea a t antttw aaab 




h-rtf <«M«.« SU*SCa***tta.SlSO»DMr.»IM 
AR raaM caatacraaaa ata a.aHaali tor S*» •* (*••>■ ..*«h..., kJIIM^ . 
llfi aw t.»a,M.^p>>ia'i>.a. w »itiKi. MV( VttMIIH M llrtlil IISI\ Vatoam I aaal t m 

BASK. SCHNtllKSUSWOUTSNES.Val I HtS a*^^ SI* *\ • JV p"*«a«a 
BASK SCItlNTIfK SUBMOUTTNf S. Val lin»Mr» SIISS • SI SO aatraat 
Saa raarean to KltOBAIO. Dr DeASa. aaej ACCESS 

SOFTNET (A»pre II ■*d TRSB0 4SK 

SOfTNETa»aytaraaa4to i ria8ttotArli«. 
rMMaytolS0ceMa^rMatrltaiato«at4»vaa 

■to tovnhaa to arator AaeeAaMaai aa 



Price SI»-»« Co i OOtM S23.W Dtiketle 

thai . 11a. e*aaw*M*w> Aayawaiaat alWC 
I II II R ANAI VSIS laatot.. Wj Maj «*,■»■ Uai-.,. 



ACTIVE CIRCUIT ANALYSIS (Ata.USecloeallc.MfHiMni PriejrtlS.WCoiMOM S« s« INtkeiie 



alaaa to fca ayaiae v . aaal Aw r«e*AMaj t aaaplt a 1a l l a|t* a« ti 
MtoMMtM aaaAra H eirSa ta 



LOOIC SIMULATOR > A.a.laAM tur all c. 



a-a ajtoaa *H n4 aawtot aaa, W aWt*4 Saw yoae araa4ra-a.A»| atml ton 



' '' Hi»hr"r 
n a. ii IBM 11 fcaa* a*4l Mm < ... -a -.11 
- K I X 1. Mt aatl MAND 
- . l.-k.4... tttttt vatv>- < 

■ a.toMS I'H.R MM1 lAIihH 



B) AM III 1 II(tl(IN(Ava.tofckl*»allo«»»pa,»er»lul»li J»l.m*.a.K. Prr,r S."* ■.< l.,.l, Mr \ 1 ' I' I.,.*, 
BEAM INI IH HON U rtw. Oral to DVNACOMTa aa* aartoa -I *rra««aral aneavai* ».4,..„ ra.fc.vr. It .—».».. al 
wwa .nna . The Stat pt a j i aa aaratan rtw H m ili| a n M al aala Seat ■*■< e. ttoa. .rfca rlw. e>t..to>a. iMraJMMala. rfca 
toha1a»Wtoa^to r M >M i l r r ^ ri tr»rr TM 




y-Hi —*.... ~4 k,, la aw rtw pr^H Aba. lartoral 



STAlHtST(Ncala.toUSIeor.Al*..tav«i.e.-l.-f'( I I RM. Ri,.r il*,»5CMIMSM S?VSJ DiUene 

ttJSBll 

. "alAtll SI >. 

. Ifc.a.1 



ABOUT DYNACOMP 



irVNAt < rMT W. a laaMtoi JlitnSala 
toaiti..'te| aae fcajfc toval ol aaaRr» a 



ala.ejadrh.UYNM OaSPpI 

I II— •• MPaBfJMM Ml MBOfe 
Hi. Mi s * 



nttq*. A N Al O.0 



CIRCLE 160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





CES/NCC continued... 



Zenith Dual MPU Systems 

Zenith Data Systems introduced the 
Z100 series of desktop computers which 
have as standard features both 8- and 16- 
bit microprocessors, a five-slot S-100 
expansion chassis, two built-in 320K 5 
1/4" diskette drives. 128K RAM. color 
graphics with control of eight colors and 
144.000 dots, and keyboard in a single 
housing. Memory is expandable on all 
models to 768K. 




The computers use the IEEE 696 
expansion chassis (commonly called the 
S100 bus), which enables the use of a 
wide variety of S100 options. 

Digital color or RGB output is standard 
on both versions of the Z 100. The low- 
profile version also has monochrome 
composite video output. 

It also uses CP/M on the 8-bit side of 
the computer, which makes transfer of 8- 
bit software to the Z100 possible, while 
Z-DOS and the diskette format of the 
Z100 make most software for the IBM 
personal computer available to the new 
Zenith computers. The retail price of a 
Z100 system including software is less 
than $5000. 

Zenith Data Systems. 1000 Milwaukee 
Ave., Glenview.IL 60025. (312) 391-8181. 

CIRCLE 346 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Five from Commodore 

The Commodore Max Machine is a 
three-in-one home computer/game 
machine/music synthesizer which in- 
cludes an array of arcade games, educa- 
tional and musical programs and periph- 
erals. It has a 40-column x 25-line screen 
and 16 colors. The sound system produces 
three independent voices, each with a 
nine-octave range, contains a program- 




mable ADSR generator and a program- 
mable filter, and has variable resonance. 
$179.95. 

The Commodore 64 gives home and 
business users 64K computing capability 
along with "three-dimensional-style" color 
game graphics and music synthesis. The 
Commodore 64 can use VIC-20 peripher- 
als and can also use many programs and 
files created for Commodore's line of PET 




and CBM education- and business- 
oriented computers. It has a 40-column x 
25-line screen and 16 colors, as well as 
64K RAM. $595. 

The Commodore Information Network, 
is a user-oriented telecommunications 
service that allows home computerists to 
get technical assistance, exchange pro- 
gramming tips, access Commodore 
product information and play games. 
Users of Commodore's VIC-20 home 
computer can access the service with the 
VICmodem cartridge and a modular 
telephone. With the purchase of a 
VICmodem, Commodore provides a free 
one-year subscription to CompuServe, 
and one free hour of time on the Compu- 
Serve network. 

Thirteen cartridge games— including 
three Bally/Midway arcade games— for 
the VIC-20 are now available. 
Commodore also has a complete range of 
peripheral products for the VIC. including 
a single disk drive, graphic printer. 
VICmodem, and 16K memory expansion 
cartridge. The Bally/Midway games are 
Gorf, Omega Race, and Wizard of Wor. 
Commodore's own Space Vulture, Raid 
on Fort Knox and Pinball Spectacular are 
also available, as are Mole Attack and 
The Sky is Falling, Commodore's 
children's cartridge games. The five Scott 
Adams adventures are also available. 

Commodore also introduced the BX256 
16-bit multiprocessor professional micro- 
computer, featuring 256K user memory 
(RAM), the BX256 is an enhanced version 
of Commodore's B series microcomputer 
and has two processors, including a 16-bit 
8088 for CP/M-86. It also has an 80- 
column screen and built-in dual disk 
drives. It is expandable to a maximum of 
256K RAM internally with 640K exter- 
nally, and can accommodate an optional 
Z80 processor board. $2995. 

Commodore also has the B128 micro- 
computer which features 128K user mem- 
ory (RAM), an attached 80-column screen 
and built-in dual drive. B series computers 
are expandable to a maximum of 256K 
RAM internally with potential for 640K 




externally, and accommodate an optional 
Z80 processor board to provide CP/M 
compatibility. $1695. 

The P128 microcomputer is the third 
generation of the PET series. The PI 28. 
which connects directly to a television set 
monitor via built-in RF modulator, fea- 
tures 128K RAM, 40 columns by 25 lines 
display, and 16 colors for either text or 
graphics. The P128 also features a high 
resolution graphic display of 320 by 200 
pixels. Storage in the PI 28 is expandable 




to a maximum of 256K RAM internally 
and 640K externally. This third- 
generation machine also becomes a multi- 
processor system via a Commodore- 
designed Z80 processor board that offers 
CP/M compatibility. $995. 

A "Family" of "Easy" spreadsheet pro- 
grams has also been introduced by Com- 
modore. The four new programs, Easy- 
Calc, EasyPlot, Easy Tools, and Easy- 
Scan, run on SuperPet and Commodore 
64 micros. EasyCalc is $149.95 for the 
SuperPet and $99.95 for the Commodore 
64. EasyPlot for the SuperPet is $149.95 
and $99.95 for the Commodore 64. Com- 
modore dealers have Easy Tools for the 
SuperPet for $124.95 and for the Com- 
modore 64 for $79,955. EasyScan is 
$124.95 for the SuperPet and $79.95 for 
the Commodore 64. 

Commodore Business Machines. Inc.. 
Computer Systems Division. The 
Meadows, 487 Devon Park Dr.. Wayne. 
PA 19087. (215) 687-9750. 

CIRCLE 347 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



162 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 




Qua On Systems 



^-' Que On Systems 

IBM's 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 

Que Corporation's new 300 page book, IBM's 
PERSONAL COMPUTER describes the hardware, 
peripherals and IBM's program library. Whether you 
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...at computer stores and fine book stores $14.95 

and... 

PERSONAL COMPUTER AGE 

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Keeps you updated monthly with the latest news and 
applications for your IBM Personal Computer. 
Featuring: Hardware and Software Reviews — New 
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$18.00/YR. 

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CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CES/NCC continued. 



Lobo Personal Computer 

Lobo Drives International introduced 
the MAX-80 personal computer. 

The streamlined keyboard unit houses 
the 5 MHz Z80. 64K RAM. two RS-232C 
serial ports, a built-in Centronics-type 
parallel port, a buffered bus expansion 
connector, and built-in controllers for all 
standard floppy disk drives as well as a 
hard disk interface. 




The MAX-80 supports two business- 
oriented operating systems — the 
TRSDOS-compatible LDOS and CP/M. 

Standard 80 x 24. 64 x 16 and 16 x 32 
video display modes are all software 
selectable, and both text and graphics 
characters are generated in user-acces- 
sible RAM. The 76-key keyboard with a 
numeric pad and four function keys also 
houses a real-time clock with self-charging 
backup battery. The complete MAX-80 
keyboard unit is priced at SHOO and the 
high-resolution, green screen monitor is 
priced at $150. 

Lobo Drives International. 358 S. Fair- 
view Ave.. Goleta. CA 931 17. (805) 683- 
1576. 

CIRCLE348 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Altos Network Systems 

Altos Computer Systems announced a 
family of 16-bit microcomputers that are 
compatible with a variety of operating 
systems and business application software 
programs. 

Based on the Intel 8086 micropro- 
cessor, the ACS8600 systems allow up to 
eight users to share up to a million bytes 
of main (RAM) memory, plus on line 
floppy Winchester hard disk storage of 
from 1 to 80 megabytes. They feature 
error detection and correction and a 
memory management system. 

The basic system, with 512K RAM. 
20Mb hard disk, and floppy disk backup, 
lists for $12,500. The 40Mb system is also 
available with up to 80Mb possible using 
an upgrade kit. Mag tape cartridge 
(17Mb) backup is available too. 

The family supports the Xenix oper- 
ating system — Bell Lab's Unix, version 7 
adapted by Microsoft— as well as CP/M- 
86, MP/M-86 and Oasis-6. 

Languages supporting end user appli- 
cations are Microsoft versions of Basic. 
Cobol, Pascal, and Fortran, as well as 



Cis-Cobol. RM-Cobol, Pascal/M-86 and 
C-Basic-86. 

In addition to eight terminals and 
peripherals, the system allows expansion 
through a Multibus port and accepts both 
synchronous (bisync) and asynchronous 
(async) communications protocols. It can 
handle network data rates of up to 800 
kilobaud for high speed networking. 

A dual drive floppy disk controller 
contains one megabyte of storage on two 
single sided, double density disks. Eight- 
inch Winchester disks are available in 
10Mb, and 40Mb capacities. Floppy disks 
for backup accept 500K on a single disk, 
and mag tape systems are available with 
higher capacities. 

Altos also announced Ethernet com- 
puter networking capability for its 16-bit 
microcomputers, and an economical 
Altos-to-Altos high speed networking 
scheme called Altos-Net. 

The networks implement Altos-Net/ 
Unet networking software, running under 
the Xenix version of the Unix operating 
system. Because the two networking 
schemes— inter-Altos and Ethernet — 
share the same software, upgrading is pos- 
sible. 

Ethernet will permit the networking of 
up to 100 Altos 16-bit computers, with up 
to eight users per CPU. As an alternative. 
inter-Altos networking can be accom- 
plished with Altos-Net/Unet software 
utilizing twisted pair cabling with high 
speed transmission speeds. 

Three functional layers make up an 
Ethernet network: The network medium 
itself — consisting of shielded coaxial 
cable, transceivers, interfaces, and ter- 
minators; users— who initiate actions and 
request services; and servers— such as 
printers and other shared peripherals. 
Altos computers can be directly (locally) 
connected to Ethernet through Altos' 
Ethernet interface as well as indirectly 
< remotely ) connected via telephone lines. 

The Altos-Net/Unet software package 
uses the Internet Protocol (IP) and Trans- 
mission Control Protocol (TCP) to pro- 
vide operating systems support for OEMs 
and software houses wishing to develop 
distributed applications. 

At the applications level, the software 
provides file transfer capability, and 
electronic mail and terminal emulation 
protocols. 

Altos' implementation of Ethernet costs 
$2,500 per CPU. which includes Altos- 
Net/Unet networking software and the 
Ethernet controller. Cabling and trans- 
ceivers are extra. 

Altos Computer Systems, 2360 Bering 
Dr., San Jose. CA 95131. (408) 946-6700. 

CIRCLE 349 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Toshiba Personal Computer 

The Toshiba T100 personal computer 
has a 64K RAM. It also uses a 32K ROM 
for Basic and a 16K RAM for video. The 
T100 can accept four double sided, 
double density. 5 1/4" floppy disks each 
holding 280 kilobytes. It features a 90-key 
detached keyboard and a choice of five 
I/O video screen options, including a flat- 
panel liquid crystal display showing eight 
lines of 40 characters each. 





Three other products announced by 
Toshiba America. Inc. are the P1350 
LetterPerfect printer. OCR-V100 page 
reader, and DF-2100 document filing 
system. 

TAI's P1350 LetterPerfect printer oper- 
ates at 100 characters per second in word 
processing applications and at 160 cps for 
data processing jobs. The printer provides 
graphics production capability and 
handles interchangeable character fonts. 
It also provides friction or tractor paper 
feed of up to five-part copy. 

The OCR-V100 page reader is a data 
entry unit which reads at 250 cps and 
recognizes a variety of typewriter fonts 
separately or in combination. 

Toshiba's DF-2100 document filing 
system features charge-coupled device 
(CCD) technology for input, a laser disk 
system for filing, and a laser print system 
for hardcopy output. The unit stores up 
to 10.(XX) pages of text on laser disks 
measuring 30 centimeters in diameter. 

Toshiba America. Inc., 2441 Michelle 
Dr.. Tustin. CA 92680. (714) 730-5000. 

CIRCLE 3S0 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NEC PC 6000 System 

NEC Home Electronics has introduced 
the PC -6000 computer system. It features 
a combination of educational and home 
entertainment capabilities. The basic PC- 
6000 system (microcomputer keyboard) 
attaches to a standard B&.W or color 
television. 



164 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



If 



DO 



[imiinnmiiiHiiii 



ii i m iiai m mi inr ix 



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THE ABOVE PRICES ARE FOR PREPAID ORDERS 

WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG: INDICATE APPLE OR ATARI 
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SEVEN DAYS 8 am - 9 pm 

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ATARI IS A TRADEMARK OF ATARI. INC 



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LatajJ 



CIRCLE 148 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CES/NCC continued... 




Utilizing NEC's Z80 microprocessor, 
the system contains 16K RAM and 16K 
ROM that are both expandable to 32K. 
Also featured is a version of the Microsoft 
Basic, with enhanced graphics and sound 
capabilities utilizing joysticks. 

Additional peripheral equipment 
includes an RS-232 interface, minifloppy 
disk drive, data recorder for cassette-type 
programming. 40-character thermal 
printer. RAM and ROM cartridge to 
expand memory to 32K. and mask ROM. 
A 23" monochromatic monitor are also 
available. 

Included among the entertainment 
software for the PC -6000 system are 
Music Editor, Tennis. Othello. 3-D-Maze. 
High Jump, and Graph Generator. 

NEC Home Electronics (U.S.A.) Inc.. 
1401 Estes Ave.. Elk Grove Village. IL 
60007. (312) 228-5900. 

CIRCLE 351 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SONY Business System 

Sony Corporation of America 
announced a desktop microcomputer for 
business applications, the SMC-70. which 
is marketed through Sony's Communica- 
tions Products Company. 




There is a full range of peripheral 
devices and accessories available with the 
system, including an optional 16-bit 
adaptor unit that upgrades the SMC-70 
from a Z80A system to an 8086 system. 
The basic unit offers 64K program/data 
memory, an additional 38K graphics 
memory and a separate 32K system 
memory. Also, 13 resident I/O interfaces 
are standard. The systems storage options 
begin with the 3.5" Sony micro floppy 
disk drives. Also available is a high density 
floppy disk, a 6 Mb hard disk system and 
a 256K cache memory device. The basic 
unit contains four different levels of 



graphics and costs $1,475. 

Sony Corporation of America. 9 West 
57th St., New York, NY 10019. (212) 371- 
5800. 

CIRCLE 352 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Unix on CompuThink Hawk 

CompuThink has designed the Hawk 
32 as a 16/32-bit processor with a multi- 
user, multitasking system. The Hawk 32 
is built around the MC68000 micropro- 
cessor which communicates externally 
with 16-bit capacity, but carries on inter- 
nal communication at the 32-bit level. 
The Hawk 32 has a resident memory of 
128 kilobytes which can be increased to 
one megabyte. 

For simultaneous multi-user, multi- 
tasking applications, the Hawk 32 uses 
the Unix version 7 operating system 
developed by Bell Labs. The Hawk 32 
Language library consists of 68000 Assem- 
bler, C, Pascal, Basic, Fortran 77 and 
ANSI 74 Cobol. 

CompuThink, 965 West Maude Ave., 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086. (408) 245-4033. 

CIRCLE 353 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Friends Amis (Panasonic) 
Hand-held Computer 

Friends Amis, Inc. and the Matsushita 
Corporation have jointly created a hand- 
held computer based on the 6502 micro- 
processor with a 16K operating system in 
ROM. It is powered by rechargeable 
batteries. 




The computer is expandable, when 
combined with the Friend Amis Data- 
shuttle, to 40K RAM and 96K ROM. The 
system can be connected to a variety of 
portable peripherals such as 40-and 80- 
column printers, four-color plotters, RS- 
232 ports, modems, and a video adaptor 
with color graphics. 

There are RAM modules up to 16K 
each. Six such modules may be connected 
to the system. A portable Eprom burner 
lets HHC system users burn their own 
E proms using SnapBasic, SnapForth, and 
other Friends Amis languages. Up to five 
16K ROM capsules may be inserted simul- 
taneously in the expanded system. 

Friends Amis, Inc., 505 Beach St., San 
Francisco, CA 94133. (415) 928-2800. 

CIRCLE 354 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CP/M Upgrade for DEC VT100 

C. Itoh Electronics, Inc. introduced its 
own version of Digital Equipment Cor- 
poration's VT-18X upgrade kit, the CIT- 
188. 

The CIT-188 allows both CIT-101 and 
DEC VT100 terminals to be upgraded to 
a 64K CP/M compatible, Z80 based 
personal computer. 




The CIT-188 kit consists of a 64K Z80A 
based CPU board, a dual DS/DD 5 1/4" 
floppy disk package, and all necessary 
hardware, cables and installation 
instructions. 

An optional add-on floppy disk package 
containing two additional 5 1/4" disk 
drives is available for $1925. Also offered 
is an optional dual-processor CPU board, 
including Z80A and Intel 8088 micro- 
processors and 128K of RAM. 

Distributor: Arco Corporation, 2515 
McCabe Way, Irvine, CA 92714. (714) 
557-51 18. 

CIRCLE 355 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



8086 MPU for Olivetti M20 

Tecmar Inc. has announced an 8086 
Alternate Processor for the Olivetti M20 
Personal Computer. The APB 1086 board 
further expands the M20 by adding an 
8086 microprocessor with CP/M-86 or 
MS-DOS to the M20's standard Z8001 
processor and Olivetti PCOS operating 
system. 

The M20 basic unit features a Zilog 
Z8001, 128K memory, one double density, 
double sided minifloppy, a 16-bit data bus 
and a 12" monochrome monitor. Also 
included as standard are five expansion 
slots, an RS-232C serial interface and a 
parallel printer interface. $2695. 

Tecmar. Inc.. 23600 Mercantile Rd.. 
Cleveland, OH 44122. (216) 464-7410. 

CIRCLE 356 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




166 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Psssstt... 

(Jingle Bells, Jingle 
Bells. Jingle All The...) 




We're really not rushing the season. 
We wouldn't even mention it if we didn't 
think you'd want to know. 

The Strictly Soft Ware Holiday 
Catalogs (Apple & IBM) are going to be 
ready early this fall. More software than 
ever. Same great prices. And with a 
customer service and technical support 
program that's so good that... well, let's 
just say someone at the North Pole is on 



our mailing list. •»" 

If you're already on the Strictly Soft 
Ware list, you'll automatically receive 
our Holiday Catalog. If you're not on the 
list, call us (toll-free) at 1-800-848-5263. 
Bulk mailing starts Oct. 1. 

Don't be left out in the cold by not 
ordering the free Strictly Soft Ware 
Holiday Catalog. It may be the nicest 
present you get this year. 



Holiday 
Gift Idea #1 

The Strictly Soft 
Ware Subscription 
Plan. Prepayment 
allows the account to 
be drawn upon for 
whatever you want, 
whenever you want. 
When we send the 
package, we'll provide 
a balance statement as 
well. Here's a gift that 
can last all year long. 



SPECIALS 



Tax Man $19.95 Kids & the Apple . . $14.99 

Bandits $23.95 Ultima II $39.99 

Airsim I $24.99 Word Handler . . . $159.99 

P.F.S $89.99 Frogger $26.99 

Terrapin Logo $119.99 Hard Hat Noah . . $23.95 
Visicalc $169.99 Shelia $19.95 



IBM • SPECIALS • IBM 



Write-On $99.99 Visicalc $189.99 

Word Star $239.99 Visidex $189.99 

Volkswriter $159.99 DeskTop Plan $189.99 



Abov Specials In Elfect Until Oct. 1, 1982 



Holiday 
Gift Idea #2 

The Strictly Soft 

Ware Gift Certificate. 
Here's the perfect way 
to take the guesswork 
out of holiday giving. 
A gift certificate and 
the Strictly Soft Ware 
holiday catalog guar- 
antee the perfect gift 
for everyone on your 
holiday list. 



VISA 



We take Master Card or VISA (include card 
# and expiration date). Ohio residents add 
5.5% tax. Include $2.00 lor postage. 3% 
discount if check accompanies order. 

Send for free catalog. Prices subject to 
change. Hrs.: 9 9 weekdays; 9-6 Sat. 



Strictly Soft Ware 

Post Office Box 338 
Granville, Ohio 43023 
order by phone 800-848-5253 
in Ohio 614-587-2938 



Apple if a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. 

IBM ib a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 




Soft Wore 



V~V 



CIRCLE 283 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CES/NCC continued. 



PRINTERS 



IDS MicroPrism Printer 

The MicroPrism Printer from Integral 
Data Systems offers dot matrix print 
quality approaching that of daisy-wheel 
printers. 




The draft mode operates at 110 cps, 
while correspondence quality throughout 
is 75 cps. High-density graphics are avail- 
able in 84 x 84 dot per inch format, and 
all modes print in a single pass. The 
MicroPrism makes use of a nine-wire 
staggered design printhead. capable of 
printing nearly fully-formed characters. 

Integral Data Systems. Milford. NH 
03055. (603) 673-9100. 

CIRCLE 357 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Daisy Wheel/Dot Matrix Unit 

Metaframe announced the Dotsy 
Printer Center which offers both 150 cps 
dot matrix and 20 cps daisy wheel print- 
ing. The dot matrix mode has a bi- 
directional 9x7 dot matrix with true 
descenders, and the daisy wheel mode 
has a bi-directional daisy wheel print ele- 
ment. 

The print format for the dot matrix 
mode is 132 columns and for the daisy 
wheel mode is 132 columns at 10 pitch. 




The dot matrix mode has a print speed of 
150 cps and features % ASCII characters 
with upper and lower case. The daisy 
wheel mode has an interchangeable daisy 
wheel print element with over 60 type 
styles. Available interfaces include IBM, 
Apple II and III, Commodore PET, and 
TRS-80I,II,andIII.$1450. 

Metaframe Computer Corporation, 
Riverside St., Nashua, NH 06301. (603) 
880-3005. 

CIRCLE 368 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Versatile Daisy Printer 

Daisywriter 2000 is an intelligent letter- 
quality daisy wheel printer, from Com- 
puters International. The printer features 
a 16K data buffer with an optional 48K 
buffer available. It also features a univer- 
sal interface which makes it plug- 
compatible with all computer systems. 




Daisywriter 2000 features: automatic 
proportional spacing, automatic center- 
ing, subscript, superscript, true automatic 
margin justification, 16 protocol selec- 
tions, and automatic baud rate selections. 

There are 12 different type fonts avail- 
able in five different languages. The 
printer uses standard cartridge film ribbon 
such as used on IBM Selectric II and III. 
Controls allow for selection of 10, 12, or 
15 characters per inch and 1, 1-1/2, or 2 
line spacing. Baud rates are DlP-switch- 
selectable or automatic from 50 to 
19,200. 

Computers International, 3540 Wilshire 
Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90010. (213) 386- 
3111. 

CIRCLE 359 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

GE Heavy duty Printer 

General Electric introduced the 200 
Document Handler Printer, designed for 
high-speed, heavy duty business use. The 
printer has a throughput of 200 cps, but 
still meets ISO NR-60 acoustic noise 
standards. Four software or switch select- 
able fonts are available, as well as switch 
selectable six or eight lines per inch 
modes. 

General Electric, Data Communica- 
tions Products, Waynesboro, VA 22980. 
(703) 949-1000. 

CIRCLE 360 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
168 



Two New Anadex Units 

Anadex. Inc., introduced the DP-9620A 
printer, a member of the "Silent Scribe" 
line, which features acoustic noise levels 
below 55 dBa. 

The DP-9620A is a stand-alone printer 
capable of alphanumerics and graphics. 
Alphanumeric printing speeds range from 
200 cps at 10 cpi for a 7 x 9 dot matrix to 
100 cps for a 13 x 9 dot matrix. The 
character repertoire includes the 96- 
character ASCII set with lower case 
descenders. S1025. 




With multiple operational modes and 
speed ranges, the WP-6000 "Word Scribe" 
single pass printer provides letter quality, 
correspondence quality, draft quality, 
data processing and graphics printing for 
the office environment. 

For word processing, letter quality 
printing of 10-pitch, 12-pitch. or propor- 
tional spacing can be produced at 150 to 
180 cps. Speeds of 250 and 330 cps are 
obtained in a correspondence quality 
mode, with 10 and 12-pitch and propor- 
tional spacing. In both modes, character 
fonts include Serifa, Helvetica, and a 
complete scientific set. The price of the 
WP-6000 is $1825. 

Anadex. Inc.. 9825 De Sota Ave.. 
Chatsworth, CA 91311. (213) 998-8010. 

CIRCLE 361 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Two from Apple 



The Apple Computer Accessory Prod- 
ucts Division announced two printers, the 
Apple dot-matrix printer and the Apple 
letter quality printer, as part of the com- 
pany's plan to provide dealers and cum 
omers with fully supported systems. Both 
printers use the features of the Apple II 
and the Apple III. 

The Apple dot-matrix printer has high- 
resolution graphics output (7x9 dot 
matrix) and a bi-directional speed of 120 
characters per second. The Apple letter- 
quality printer is a 40 cps daisy wheel 
printer with graphics capability. It prints 
bi-directionally on individual sheets or 
continuous forms. Multiple fonts are 
selected by changing daisy wheels. 

Apple Computer, Inc., 10260 Bandley 
Dr.. Cupertino, CA 95014. (408) 996- 
1010. 

CIRCLE 362 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 

ADVENTURES FOR OSI, TRS-80, TRS-80 COLOR, SINCLAIR, PET, VIC-20 



ADVENTURES Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. Thev let vou spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world vou have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 



DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander- PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen This is one of 
son For Wealth and Glory, you have to ran- our toughest Adventures. Average ^ time 

" . . . ,k:„ v„..-ii through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 

sack a thousand year old space ship. You M Q|d boys wno boi |, thjs p vramid did not mean 
have to learn to speak their language and f or ;, to be rans acked by people like you. 
operate the machinery they left behind. The Authors note to players This is a very 

hardest problem of all is to live through it. entertaining and very tough adventure. I left 

Authors note to players This adventure clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure genous problems, 1 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes 



..ZSZZXZZgSZZZvtt ^ a V mU N ew^L.fnd C a^d^a^^ 

quired so everyone enioys them -even people prob | em j n writing the adventure was to keep h | earv e ' ved people who are stuck in the 

who do not like computers it | ogica | an d realistic. There are no irrational p vram id a nd desperate for more clues. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- senseless deaths in Derelict. . _ , _ 



traps and sudden senseless deaths 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 



venture games, Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic 
They are full featured, fully plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
80 and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. 

TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one - The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck . 

Authors note to players - I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
- and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

CIRCLE WORLD by Bob Anderson - The 

Alien culture has built a huge world in the 

shape of a ring circling their sun. They left NUCLEAR SUB by Bob Retelle - You start 

behind some strange creatures and a lot of ad- at the bottom of the ocean in a wrecked Nu- 

vanced technology. Unfortunately, the world clear Sub. There is literally no way to go but 

is headed for destruction and it is your job to up. Save the ship, raise her, or get out of her 

save it before it plunges into the sun! before she blows or start WWII I 

Editors note to players - In keeping with Editors note to players 

the large scale of Circle World, the author plotted by Rodger Olsen, 

wrote a very large adventure. It has a lot of someone you don't know 

rooms and a lot of objects in them. It is a very tiest minds in adventure writing It is devious, 

convoluted, very complex adventure. One of wicked.and kills vouoften. The TRS-80 Color 
our largest. Not available on OSI 




QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 
MARS by Rodger Olsen Your ship crashed 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home. 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. .•..., 

Authors note to players This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple- playing time normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours - but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 



This was actually 
Bob Retelle, and 
Three of the nas- 




HAUNTEO HOUSE by Bob Anderson - This 
one is for the kids. The house has ghosts, gob- 
lins, vampires and treasures - and problems 
designed for the 8 to 13 year old. This 



version has nice sound and special effects. 
EARTHQUAKE by Bob Anderson and Rodger 
Olsen A second kids adventure. You are 
trapped in a shopping center during an earth- 
quake. There is a way out, but you need help 



real adventure and does require some thinking To save yourself, you have to be a hero and 



and problem solving - but only for kids 

Authors note to players -This one was fun 
to write. The vocabulary and characters were 
designed for younger players and lots of things 
happen when they give the computer com 



save others first. 

Authors note to players - This one feels 
good. Not only is it designed for the younger 
set (see note on Haunted House), but it also 
plays nicely. Instead of killing, you have to 



man*. This one teaches logical thought, map- save lives to win this one. The player must 
ping skills, and creativity while keeping their help others fi 



interest 



that. 



ADVENTURE WRITING/DEATHSHIP by 
Rodger Olsen This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire text of Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of OSI, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY : 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape except 
Earthquake and Haunted House which are 
$9.95. Disk versions are available on OSI and 
TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. 



Please specify system on all orders 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK - This is only a partial list of whet we carry. We have * lot of other games (particularly for the 

TRS*0 Color end OSI I. business programs, blank tapes end disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 



^^» 



AARDVARK - 80 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313)669-3110 

Phono Orders Accoptod 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



TRS-80 COLOR 



SINCLAIR OSI 

CIRCLE 101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VIC-20 



_...„— mmm vn ncwcH SERVICE CARD 



CES/NCC continued. 



DISPLAYS 




quality mode at 100 cps. Modes are 
software selectable. The print head is a 
24 pin, overlapping design, capable of 
producing high quality dot matrix text, as 
well as graphics. The P1350 accepts 
friction, pin, or tractor feed paper, as 
well as offering an optional automatic 
sheet feeder. Paper may be 5" to 15" 
wide. 

Toshiba America, Inc., Information 
Systems Division, 2441 Michelle Dr., 
Tustin, CA 92680. (714) 730-5000. 

CIRCLE 368 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

High-speed Compact Unit 

The C. Itoh Citizen 300 Line Printer, a 
desktop-size, variable speed dot matrix 
line printer designed for sophisticated 
printing capabilities in distributed data 
processing and minicomputer system 
applications, was introduced by C. Itoh 
Electronics, Inc. 




81/2x11 Page Display 

Micro Display Systems announced The 
Genius full page display terminal for mini 
and microcomputers. The Genius displays 
57 lines (73 optional) of 80 characters, or 
a full 8 1/2" x 1 1" page. Each character is 
composed of dots in a 7 x 12 format 
within a 9 x 14 field, giving outstanding 
resolution. 

A raster video generator is located in 
an enclosure with the CRT and a separate 
power supply. An interface card plugs 
into an Apple II slot. The video generator 
has its own 8K memory so no load is 
presented to the Apple CPU for refresh. 

WordStar software is available for The 
Genius. In addition, it can emulate other 
80-column cards. 






It features print speeds of 72-300 lines 
per minute, and allows users to generate 
near letter quality correspondence, data 
processing reports and tables, and high 
resolution graphics for bar codes, OCR, 
labels, charts, forms generation and multi- 
part formsets. The 300 Line Printer 
includes dual microprocessors with RAM 
and ROM for character selection and 
generation, three boards and a two-digit 
alphanumeric fault identification display. 
The C. Itoh Citizen 300 printer is priced 
under $5000. 

C. Itoh Electronics, Inc., 5301 
Beethoven St., Los Angeles, CA 90066. 
(213) 3066700. 

CIRCLE 369 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Also announced were three compatible 
interfaces for The Genius full page display 
CRT: the RS-232, S-100 and Apple III 
versions. 

The Genius is compatible with Soft- 
Card WordStar, and other CP/M based 
software programs. The 36 lb. display has 
an 87 MHz bandwidth and 8K high-speed 
buffer memory. An Apple II interface 
card is standard with The Genius, which 
costs $1795. RS-232, S-100 or Apple HI 
interfaces may be selected at no addition- 
al charge. 

Micro Display Systems, Inc., 1310 Ver- 
million St., P.O. Box 455, Hastings, MN 
55033. (612) 437-2233. 

CIRCLE 370 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Neat NEC Monitor 

A 12" green phosphor monitor was 
announced by NEC Home Electronics. 
The JB-120M has 600-line resolution and 
display stability during power supply 
fluctuations. Input is via a standard RCA 
jack. 



NEC Home Electronics (U.S.A.) Inc.. 
1401 Estes Ave., Elk Grove Village. IL 
60007. (312) 228-5900. 

CIRCLE 371 ON RE ADER SERVICE CARD 

Amdek RGB Monitors 

Designed with RGB video input and 
using a commercial grade CRT. the por- 
table 13" Color III professional monitor 
from Amdek Corporation provides high- 
plus resolution graphics display for Apple 
III and Apple II computers. The Amdek 
Color III Monitor features 26 x 300 line 
resolution and 80 x 24 character display 
capability. 

To allow the Apple II and III to be 
used with an RGB monitor. Amdek has 
an interface called Digital Video Multi- 
plexor. The Color III retails at $569. 

The Digital Video Multiplexor (DVM) 
is an interface for Apple II personal 
computers that obtains high resolution 
color graphics and an 80 x 24 character 
display. The DVM is basically a four- 
channel multiplexor— three color chan- 
nels (under software control) for low and 
high resolution images and a fourth chan- 
nel which allows use of an 80-character 
video board. $199. 

A low cost Digital Video Multiplexor 
for interfacing the Apple II computer to 
an RGB color monitor for high resolution 
graphics and 80 x 24 text display was also 
introduced by Amdek. The Combo-DVM 
is software color-channel programmable, 
permitting computer control of the RGB 




172 



October 1982* Creative Computing 



n* 



*B 







^ht 



Completely Redesigned. 
Now, the Grappler + . 
The original Grappler was the 
first graphics interface to give 
you hi-res screen dumps from 
your keyboard. The new 
Grappler + with Dual Hl-Res 
Graphics adds flexibility with a 
side-by-side printout of page 1 
and page 2 graphics. 
Interfacing the Grappler + to a 
wide range of printers is easy 
as changing a dip switch. 4K of 
exclusive firmware makes the 
Grappler + the most intelligent, 
full-featured Apple' Printer 
Interface made. And, the 
Grappler + is Apple III compatible.' 

The imitations are many, so 
insist on the #1 Apple Graphics 
Interface on the market. Insist 
on the Grappler + . Available 
now at most Apple dealers. 

-Require* additional aoftwara driver 
" Require! graphic » upgrade 

Orange Micro, Inc. 1982 




ACTUAL APPLE II PRINTOUT USING GRAPPLER AND EPSON MX100 

_WithThe. 

Grappler + 

Printer Interface 




CIRCLE 255 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





The Grappler + Features: 

• Dual Hi-Res Graphics • Printer 
Selector Dip Switch • Apple III 
Compatible* • Graphics Screen 
Dump • Inverse Graphics 

• Emphasized Graphics • Double Size 
Picture • 90° Rotation • Center 
Graphics • Chart Recorder 

Mode • Block Graphics • Bell 
Control • Skip-over-pert • Left and 
Right Margins • Variable Line 
Length • Text Screen Dumps. 

The Grappler + works with Pascal 
and CPM. 

The Grappler + interfaces with 
the following printers: 

• Anadex • Centronics • Datasouth 

• Epson* * • IDS • NEC • C-ltoh • Okidata* * 

jj£ Orange micro 

31 SO E. L» Palma. Suit* O 
Anaheim. California 92806 
(714) 630-3620 

CPM is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc 

Foreign Dealer Inquiries Welcome TX183S1 1 CSMA 



CES/NCC continued... 

inputs. Four computer-controlled, multi- 
plexed video channels include: Apple II 
40 character line text. Apple II low 
resolution color graphics. Apple II high 
resolution color graphics. 80 character 
line text from a vendor board such as the 
Videx Video term, or the Advance Logic's 
Smart term. 

Amdek Corporation. 2420 E. Oakton 
St.. Suite E. Arlington Heights. IL 60005. 
(312)364-1180. 

CIRCLE 372 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

DISK DRIVES 

Amdek 3" Microfloppy 

A 3" Micro-Floppydisk dual disk drive, 
introduced by Amdek Corporation, offers 
1 megabyte capacity and is plug compat- 
ible with standard 5" floppy disk drives. 
The drive has a built-in power supply and 
accomodates two 3" Micro-Floppydisk 
cartridges. The approximately 3" x 4" 
cartridge has a hinged cover to protect 
the disk. 






The single-side recording capacity is 
125K bytes or 2S0K bytes for both sides 
with double density (500K byte) capa- 
bility. $899. 

Amdek Corporation, Marketing Dept., 
2420 E. Oakton St., Suite E, Arlington 
Heights, IL 60005. (312) 364-1 180. 

CIRCLE 373 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Lobo CP/M, IBM Drives 

Lobo Drives International has a full 
line of disk drives which support CP/M 
on the NEC PC-8000 computer system. 
Lobo software enhancements support the 
standard NEC PC-8031A Mini-Disk Unit; 
Lobo 8", single or double sided, double 
density floppy systems; and Lobo 5 1/4" 
or 8" hard disk systems. 

All of these drive types can be on line 
at once; the simple hardware set up and 
software start up procedures allow the 
user to designate the boot drive. When a 
Lobo dual drive 8" floppy system is in 



use. the Lobo floppy is able to write in 
either single or double density format, 
thus allowing compatibility with standard 
CP/M systems and package CP/M soft- 
ware. 

Lobo also announced high capacity 
add-on 8" floppy disk systems for the IBM 
Personal Computer. The Lobo add-on 
system can be configured with the user's 
choice of two or four 8" drives, each of 
which may be single or double sided. With 
630 kilobytes per side (double density 
format), a system of four double sided 
drives makes available over 5 megabytes 
of on-line storage. Connection to the 
computer is made via a Lobo interface 
board. A minimum system with two single 
sided drives is $1625. A maximum of four 
double-sided drives is $3774. 

Lobo also offers a 60K compatible 
version of the CP/M support software for 
the Apple II. These BIOS modifications 
are upward compatible with existing Lobo 
CP/M support and are usable with either 
the 56K or 60K versions of Microsoft 
CP/M. Both versions require a Microsoft 
SoftCard and 16K RAM card. Dual 8" 
floppy systems are available in single or 
double sided models and come with the 
LCA-22 controller interface which can be 
plugged into either slot 5 or 7. The Lobo 
software allows these floppy drives to read 
and write in double density format. Model 
950A is $3663. Model 1850A is $4459. 
Model 5202CA is $2025, and Model 
8202CA is $1625. 

The Pack allows eight personal com- 
puters to share a single Winchester disk. 
The Pack is a compact hardware multi- 
plexor which attaches to any Lobo Win- 
chester disk unit, and contains interfaces 
for up to eight computers (any combina- 
tion of Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I or 
III, and/or Lobo's new Max-80). 

Lobo Drives International. 358 S. Fair- 
view Ave.. Goleta, CA 93117. (805) 683- 
1576. 

CIRCLE 374 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Axlon Atari Add-ons 

The Axlon RAMdisk 320K Memory 
System, developed by Axlon Inc., is for 
the Apple II. Offering 320K bytes of RAM 
memory, the system functions like two 
35-track floppy disk drives. It is compat- 
ible with Apple DOS 3.3 and Apple Pascal 
1.1, and the CP/M and Flex operating 
systems. 

The Axlon RAMdisk 320K Memory 
System includes software for diagnostics, 
fast load and copy routines, and business 
applications. The system draws no power 
from the Apple, has memory refresh when 
the Apple is off, and has a built-in 
rechargeable battery (good for 3 hours). 

Axlon also announced the Atari 800 
users' modification called the RAMcram 
32K Memory Module. The RAMcram 
can be used with Axlon 's RAMdisk 128K 

174 




Memory System. Together, RAMcram 
and RAMdisk provide a total of 160K 
RAM memory while leaving the third 
RAM slot open for future expansion. 

When the RAMdisk is used as an addi- 
tional disk device in conjunction with the 
Atari 810 disk drive, it is compatible with 
software using Atari DOS 2. OS. The 
RAMdisk 128K Memory System includes 
the 128K RAMdisk module, operating 
manual. Memory Management Software 
and utility software. 

Axlon Inc., 170 N. Wolfe Rd., Sunny- 
vale, CA 94086. (408) 730-0216. 

CIRCLE 37S ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SONY 3.5" Microfloppy 

Sony Corporation was showing their 
3.5 micro floppy disk system. Sony's micro 
floppy disk is 3.5" in diameter and can 
record 437. 5K bytes of information 
(unformatted) on one side, a density much 
higher than existing systems. The disks 
are housed in rigid plastic cases which 
provide good protection from dust and 
dirt. 

Sony Corporation of America, Cor- 
porate Communications Department, 9 
West 57th St., New York, NY 10019. (212) 
371-5800. 

CIRCLE 376 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Trak Expandable Drives 

MEC (Modular, Expandable, Compact) 
is a new approach to packaged disk drive 
systems for desktop computers developed 
by Trak Microcomputer Corporation. 

MEC floppy master modules include a 
single trimline Trak drive, built-in diskette 
storage compartment and a fan-cooled 
dual drive power supply. Trak's floppy 
MEC systems are compatible with stand- 
ard Trak 5 1/2" and 8" drives for Apple, 
IBM, TRS-80, Heath/Zenith, S-100 and 
other micros and minis. 

Trak also has a line of 5 1/4" Win- 
chester based MEC systems with a total 
of 14 models offered including master 
modules with single hard disks, intelligent 
controllers and host computer adapters, 
hard disks or floppy disk back-ups, expan- 
sion hard disk or floppy disk modules and 
add-on modules without controllers and 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 






Space Pirates 

PRIVATEERS BATTLE FOR SUPREMACY IN SPACE 3000 



ton 








c & c 


SOFTWARE 




or pr 











CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MARKET MAVERICK 

A new stock market program from FSIfor the serious investor 



Introducing 

the 

SERIES900 



Used with the Apple II.* the Series !HH» "Market Maverick" 
provides immediate investment counsel and is not just another 
device thai raises more questions than it answers. I'tilizinK 
shorter forecast time horizons. Series !MHI has a lony history 
of excellent performance even under extreme market condi- 
tions With fewer inputs, it is user friendly— yet it answers 
questions asked from many 
angles and points of view- 
Series !MHI "Market Maverick" 
is not a game. It is not theo- 
retical. It is for the serious 
investor or stock broker Send 
for yours today Requires 
U8K Apple lilll Plus, DOS 
3.3 ana / 



* ( )ver 10 years of excellent performance 

* Stock data provided for immediate use on over 900 stocks 

* Logic is hased on precisely-read variables 

* Fantastic results in / _ 
up or down markets / O 



antastic results in / 

p or down markets / 



' Applesoft in ROM 
or 16K RAM expansion. 

Save $30... Limited Time 
Offer. If you order now. we 
will ship your Series !hhi 
"Market Maverick" for just 
(145.00 and that's $30.00 off 
the regular price! MasterCard 
Visa welcome, as are dealer 
inquiries. 



SAVE $30 FREE BROCHURE 

Please send me the Series !hki Market Maverick for just $l45.oo. 



□ 



(<ihi.. residents add 8% sales tax) 

Please send me the free brochure which contains additional 
specific information on the "Market Maverick." 



Paid by: r I Check to Financial Software, Inc. 
□ MasterCard Visa 

Card* Exp 

Name 

Address 

City State 



Zip 



FINANCIAL SOFTWARE, INC. 



•Apple II isa registered ""' , Wsstridge Circle, Chardon. OH M024 '(28)3384811 

trademark of Apple Computer. Inc L___> _ _— _ _ — __ _ _ _ _ ^ _ _ _ _ _ 



INTRODUCTORY 

PRICE 

SAVE $30 



saaaaal 



OUR PRICES, SELECTION 

AND SAME- DAY SHIPPING 

MAKE US COMPETITIVE. 



Red Baron. Home of the Nation's 



NEC 8023 

Outstanding Graphics, Print 
Quality & Performance 




144 x 160 dots/inch • Proportional Spacing 

• Lower case descenders • N x 9 dot matrix 

• 8 character sizes • 5 unique alphabets 

• Greek character set • Graphic symbols 

• 100 CPS print speed • Bi-directional logic- 
seeking • Adjustable tractors • Single-sheet 
friction feed • Vertical & horizontal tabbing 
NEC 8023 CPoll 
Dot Matrix Llat $795 ^trdll 



IDS Paper Tiger 
Prism 80/132 

Affordable Color, Speed 




Dot Resolution Graphics • 9-wire staggered 
printhead • Lowercase decenders • Over 
150 CPS • Bi-directional, logic-seeking 

• 8 character sizes • 80-132 columns 

• Proportional spacing • Optional Color 

• Text justifications 

Priam 80 Base List SSSS (Pill 

Priam 132 (Color) Base List S1.2S9 Plrdll 



NEC Splnwriter 
7700 & 3500 

Daisy Wheel Quality Leader 




High speed, letter quality • 55/35 CPS 
• Typewriter quality • Bi-directional printing 
A proportional spacing • Quiet • OCR quality 
print • Hi-res plotting/graphing • Quick change 
ribbon • Optional cut-sheet feeder, horizontal 
or bidirectional tractors • Prints up to 8 copies. 
NEC Splnwriter RO 

Serial Parallel 77xx Llat $3055 $257 5 

35xx List $2290 $1900 



Smith Corona TP-1 

Daisy Wheel Printer For Under $900 




The Epson Series 

High-Quality Printers 
at a Low Price. 



Letter quality • Standard serial or parallel data 
interface • Drop-in ribbon • 144 WPM • Various 
fonts available • Loads paper like typewriter • 
Handles single sheets for forms ^m, 

Smith Corona TP-1 List $895 §Cdll 




Brothers HR-1 Daisy Wheel 

Perfect for quality, 
quiet word processing. 



■<jjS 


"1 


1 otaaal 


— **6\* 




-5ala.akana.laW 



Anadex Silent Scribe 

The Quiet Serial Matrix 
impact Printer 



Epson MX80 List M4W <■»#», 

Epson MX80FT Ust $748 SCSlI 

Epson MX-100 List $995 w 

Full Una of Epson Accessories 

Televideo CRT's 

Price, Performance & Reliability 




Up to 200 CPS • Dot addressable graphics • 
Parallel and serial interfaces standard • Switch 
selectable protocol • Cartridge ribbon • Foreign 
character sets • Underlining • 1.5K to 3.5K buffer 
• Correspondence quality print 

Anadex DP-9500A Ust $1,725 ' 

Anadex DP-9620A. Ust $1,845 CPoll 

Anadex DP-6000 List $3,250 vUOll 




910 List $699 $C3|| 

925 List $995 Forlow 

950 List $1195 Prices 



• 16 CPS • Prints up to 6 copies • Bidirectional • 
Cloth or carbon quick-change cassette ribbon • 
QuigJ, efficient operation for word processing • 

Brothers HR-1 (Parallel) List $1,100 CPoll 
Brothers HR-1 (Serial)- ■ List $1 ,200 Qudll 



Interface Equipment 

Complete Stock ot Options. 
Cables and Accessories. 



CCS APPLE SERIAL Interface & Cable 
ORANGE INTERFACE lor Apple II 

Parallel Interlace Board & Cable 
NOVATION CAT Acoustic Coupler 
NOVATION D-CAT 

direct connect modem . 
COMPLETE STOCK OF EPSON 

ACCESSORIES I 

CUSTOM PRINTER CABLES FOR Apple, 

Atari. IBM. TRS-80 (all models) 
HAYES MICROMODEM 
PRINTER STANDS: Large 
Small 
PRINTER RIBBONS— Most Types 



OUR PEOPLE 
MAKE US EXPERTS, 



largest Computer Printer Inventory. 



The Grappler+ - 

Apple Graphics Interface 




• Graphic and text screen dumps • Dual Hi-Res 
Graphics • Printer Selector Dip Switch • Apple III 
compatible' • Inverse Graphics • Emphasized 
Graphics • Double Size Picture 90° Rotation 

• Center Graphics • Works with Pascal and CPM * 

• No software needed 



* n «qulm » o*l w re drive 

Apple is a registered Trademark of Apple. Inc 



$175 



The Okidata Series 

Hi-Res or TRS 80 Block Graphics 



120 CPS • 9x9 Matrix • Bidirectional logic 
seeking printing • Lower case descenders 
• four print styles • Optional Hi-Res Graphics 

Okad»ti82A Ust S649£p || 

Okadata 83A (w/Tractor) . . List $995 plrdll 



IDS Microprism 480 

Prints like a daisy, 
priced like a matrix! 




• Correspondence Quality in a Single Pass • 
Dual Speed 75, 110cps • Proportional Spacing • 
Bidirectional Logic Seeking Head • Platen pin or 
pressure feed • 24x9 dot matrix • 10, 12, 16.8 
Characters per inch • Double width Characters 



IDS Microprism 480 .. . List $799 



SCall 



Our People, Our Product: Both Are Specialized. 

Because our salespeople are printer specialists, they know the capabilities of 
each printer — and how to match one to your exact need. Red Baron's volume 
stocking assures a low, low price on a wide array of major brands. We're sure 
you'll like the product and services you get from Red Baron, and we know you'll 
love our Customer Benefit Package; an exclusive at Red Baron. 

Customer Benefit Package 

1 . Free Expert Consultation. Before you buy, after you buy. 2. Technical Staff. Even your most involved 
questions get quick, helpful answers from our staff of printer technicians. 3. Free Catalog. Get your inform- 
ative catalog with printer comparison chart and print samples today! 4. Warranty. The manufacturer's war- 
ranty applies where applicable. 5. Same-Day Shipping. Your order is shipped the same day when you call 
before 11:00 a.m. 6. Free MasterCard and Visa. Call us toll-free and charge your printer to your credit card. 
7. We Stock What We Sell. No bait and switch, no hassle. We make every effort to keep a large stock of our 
advertised products. 8. APO/FPO Orders Welcome. 




Other Quality Printers 
at Red Baron 



Here's How To Order: 

Phone orders are welcome; same-day ship- 
ment on orders placed before 11:00 am Free 
use of MasterCard and Visa. COD's accepted. 
Personal checks require 2 weeks clearance. 
Manufacturer's warranty included on all 
equipment. Prices subject to revision. 



Cell Toll Free For Catalog: 

(800) 854-8275 

CA, AK, HI (714) 630-3322 



C. Itoh 8510 
Prowriter .... 


. . . $795 


SCall 


C. Itoh F-10 . . 


. . S1995 


SCall 


Diablo 630/6 . 


. S2995 


$2570 



Red Baton 




COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



1100 N.TUSTIN #207, ANAHEIM, CA 92807 
CIRCLE 256 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



) Red Baron Cor 



CES/NCC continued. 




adapters. Trak MEC hard disk systems 
are available for the Apple II. IBM, TRS- 
80, NEC. Heath/Zenith. S-100 bus. LSI-II 
and other minis and micros. Representa- 
tive prices are $429 for a MEC 5 1/4" 40- 
track single sided drive and $325 for an 
additional drive. An 8" 77-track double 
sided drive system sells for $1 189; a two- 
drive system for $2129. 

Trak Microcomputer Corporation, 
1511 Ogden Ave., Downers Grove. IL 
60515.(312)968-1716. 

CIRCLE 377 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

IBM Shared Winchester 

Tecmar Incorporated announced 
shared Winchester capability for the IBM 
Personal Computer. This Shared Disk 
Facility allows up to four IBM Personal 
Computers to share a single PC -Mate 
Winchester disk. It features a 5 or 10 
megabyte shared disk, two to four IBM 
Personal Computers sharing one disk, 
CP/M-86 and PC-DOS support, and file 
level lockout. It comes with backup and 
c( py utilities. The suggested retail price 
for a 5 megabyte shared Winchester 
$2995, the 10 megabyte version is $3995. 

Tecmar, Inc.. 23600 Mercantile Rd.. 
Cleveland, OH 44122. (216) 464-7410. 

CIRCLE 37S ON READER SERVICE CARD 

3.9" Winchester Cartridge 

SyQuest Technology has announced 
the SQ306, a 3.9" removable cartridge 
Winchester disk drive which provides 6.38 
megabytes of mass storage. 

The SyQuest SQ306 is compatible with 
the Seagate Technology ST506/406 5.25" 
fixed disk Winchester drive. With iden- 
tical storage capacities (6.38 megabytes 
unformatted/5 megabytes formatted), 
performance and data transfer specifica- 
tions, track and sector formats, and con- 
trol interfaces, the SyQuest SQ306 can 
utilize the controller interfaces designed 




for ST506/406, such as the DTC 510A. 
XEBEX 1410 and Western Digital WD 
1000. 400. The digital closed-loop embed- 
ded servo control design. DigiLok, ex- 
tends the SQ306 metal band positioner to 
100 micro inches. 

SyQuest Technology, 44160 Warm 
Springs Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538. (415) 
490-7511. 

CIRCLE 379 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



UP Winchester Drive 

United Peripherals announced the UP- 
9705 hard disk system. The UP-9705 has 5 
megabytes of data storage, which is the 
equivalent of four double sided, double 
density 8" floppy disk drives. The UP- 
9705 contains a single 5 1/4" Winchester 
drive, a power supply, and a Xebec S1410 
single-board controller that features an 
SASI interface, error detection and cor- 
rection, multi-sector transfers, and data 
buffer. It is directly compatible with 
Apple, IBM and other small computers. 

United Peripherals, 432 Lakeside Dr.. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086. (408) 730-4440. 

CIRCLE 380 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISC. HARDWARE 



Datallnk Terminal 

Axlon Incorporated released Datalink 
Series 1000, a portable Communication 
Terminal for multiple markets. It can be 
used to transmit and retrieve information 
from databases. 

The Datalink has rechargeable batter- 
ies and built-in direct connect modem. It 
measures 1 5/8" x 3 9/16" x 6 3/4" 
Character speeds of 1 10 and 300 baud are 
available through a keyboard selection. 




Datalink can use output devices such 
as RS-232 serial printers and personal 
computer systems with communications 
modems. Optional output devices for the 
Datalink include a 40 character-per-line 
printer, and a television video display 
interface. $400. 

Axlon Inc., 170 N. Wolfe Rd.. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086. (408) 7300216. 

CIRCLE 381 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printer Buffer for Apple 

Practical Peripherals introduced Micro- 
buffer, a device designed to allow micro- 
computers to continue processing while 
printing takes place. Microbuffer models 
have been designed to fit virtually all 
microcomputers and printers. 

Text is spooled to the memory of 
Microbuffer . which in some models can 
be expanded from a minimum of 16K to 
256K. The printer is then driven by 
Microbuffer, freeing the computer for 
other use. 

Microbuffer is available for inboard 
installation in the Apple II. in parallel or 
serial versions. It is also available in 
models designed specifically for Epson 
printers, as well as "in-line" design to fit 
other micro/printer or micro/modem 
combinations. 

Practical Peripherals. Inc.. 31245 La 
Baya Dr., Westlake Village. CA 91362. 
(213) 991-8200. 

CIRCLE 382 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Amdek 4 Color Plotter 

The Model DXY four-color Plotter was 
introduced by Amdek Corporation. It has 
a 10" x 14" effective plotting range, and 
allows figures to be drawn using the 
Control Command or Basic Command. 
Its functions may be expanded by adding 
additional ROM. 




178 



Maximum plotting speed is 2.73" per 
second and step size is .003" ■ step. A 
Centronics interface is furnished. $949. 

Amdek Corp.. Marketing Dept.. 2420 
E. Oakton St.. Suite E. Arlington Heights. 
IL 60005. (312)364-1180. 
CIRCLE 383 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE 



Apple Software 

Apple Computer, Inc. announced 
Quick File HI, a filing system for man- 
aging small to medium size collections of 
information on the Apple III. Quick File 
III arranges records in alphabetical, num- 
eric, date, or time order. The program 
requires an Apple III system with at least 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 




HUNT II NCY'DN C CMDIJT IN© 





NCW ITEMS 




• 8800 


AdH"i a F ve Paddles (Tech Designs t 


HI •» 




Apple Mechanic (Bead*- B 
Assembler Teacher icompu Works ( 


Saa ee 


«HhM, 


*M.I* 


• 1077 


Bandits (Sinus) 


Sl»4« 


• 3109 


Bookkeepinq 






• 


saas.ee 


*nia 


Cannonba* Buz lO" i 


Sae.ee 


• 1457 




aai.ia 


• 2563 


i -si i ,.ss vh t onbnafitail 


aaa aa 


• 745 


•rnmiKlovalionl 


aaa se 


• 8?07 


Format Rom (Soil Control! 


Ml.» 


• 1456 




$ii.i* 


»l?07 


Gloh.il P' -iSynergis 


)l!l» 


• 4403 


GokJP 


»!«.»» 


• 800? 


: pson) 


IUM 


• 1409 


omboPkg (S: ■ 


$1*1. 79 


• '078 




111 J» 




Kabul Spv 


*!•.•* 


• 11 48 




»H.»» 






*H.»» 


• 1111 




sasae 






«lt4lt 


• 7558 


' 


Sea ee 


• 1018 




Sseee 


• 1164 




aiai.se 


• 1163 




aiaT.se 












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Pseudop - 


I11M 






$a*.a* 






IHIH 












in n 






$«i j« 






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• 8700 


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• 8640 


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-mmietCL) 


aaa.aa 




SPECIAL 


Sea ee 


Wit* ' S49 00 (COI 




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• 1664 

• lf.G6 

• 1668 

• 1671 

• 1681 

• 168? 

• 1678 



•.M-rfl 

• 2057 

• ?063 

• ?056 

• ?060 

• ?059 

• 2055 

• 2058 

• 2051 

• 2052 

• 2053 

• 2054 

• 206? 

• ?061 



• 7003 

• 7000 

• 7005 

• 7004 

• 7008 

• 7006 

• 7010 
#70" 

• 7009 

• 7015 

• -016 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 
Advr-n!,. 11*« 

aaa.ae 

aaa.ae 
aas.aa 

Apple Spice saa ee 

l.Mjrnament SIT se 

A • i Advenlureiand sas.se 

SAGA #? Pirate Adv. sas.ae 

aas.aa 

AVALONWLL 
6 (Nuclear Bomber (Ci aia.aa 

MMf 

Computer Storks a Bond-. Sia.se 

Cnnr(Kt?SO0.( . Jll *» 

Emp»eolrr«-. "ttel SSS. aa 

aaa.aa 
aia.aa 
aas.aa 

Midway Campaign iC.i aia.aa 

aia.aa 

Nuke War (Cassette! $ll.»a 

Planet Miners K.i aia.aa 

-nei aaa.aa 

IMkM 

AVANT GARDE 
Chambers ot Xenobra aia.a>a 

Creativity Too) Bo« aaa.ia 

Fivec.' aaa.aa 

aaa.aa 
RacatorMdmgli aaa.aa 

Sentence Diagrammrng aai.ia 

Sounds A Scrolling a»**» 

Super Draw 1 Write f 1 a.T» 

Super Shape Draw J!* - !! 

Word Scrambler ai**a 

Zero Gravity Pinbaii aaa.aa 



Softlights 

By Fred Huntington 

It's an exciting time around the Huntington 
household this month We're very proud to 
announce the birth of our seven-pound five- 
ounce baby boy. Dale, born on June 6. 1982 
in Visalia. California. Baby and Mama are 
doing |ust great and Melody (our three-year- 
old) loves him and calls him My baby 

The other big news is that I have resigned 
my position as school principal so thai I may 
devote full time to Huntington Computing. 

We re instituting lots of changes to improve 
efficiency and speed. Our goal is to get every- 
thing out of the door within twenty-four hours 
with no backorders. 

To celebrale the excitement, we're offering 
the following specials: (Always an excuse to 
run a sale ) 



#9010 Wurst of Huntington 

List $19 99. iaa>w $9.9* 

#4403 Gold Rush (Sentient) 

List $34 95. asaaw $2S.a>* 

# 1 967 Arcade Machine ( Broderbund) 

List $44.95. aaeaw $34.49 

# 1 970 Chop Lifter (Broderbund) 

List $34 95. mw $13.4* 

# 4002 Verbatim Oatalife Disks 

(w/plastic box & hub rings) 

List $45 00. aae»w $33.94 

# 9 1 40 Great Grandma Huntington 

T-Shirt - $S.OO 



GREAT GRANDMA SAYS 

Great Grandma Huntington once told me 
about a computer the Russians invented that 
was so smart it defected to the West 1 

Great Grandma also said. "Please buy little 
Freddy s Wurst of Huntington, because he 
personally gets two dollars for every one he 
sells. And. it's good Just read the review in 
October 1981 issue of Softalk. 

Watch next month s Softlights for the win- 
ners of the Great Grandma Huntington con- 
test. There were some fantastic entries 



• I960 


Alien Typhoon 
Apple Pane 


aai.ia 


#1963 


aaa.aa 


#1967 


Arcade Machtne 


Sae.ae 


#1966 


David s Midnight Magic 


aaa.at 


#195? 


3aMCaC 1 mp.r*> 


aaa.ae 


#1954 


Galactic Revolution 


aaa.aa 


#1953 


Galactic Trader 


aaa.aa 


#1951 


Galaxy Wars 


aaa.aa 


#2000 


Genetic Drill 


aaa.aa 


#1957 


Golden Mountain 


aiaaa 


#1950 


Hyper Head on 


aai. aa 


#1962 


Labyrinth 


aas.aa 


#1961 


Payroll 


aaaa aa 


#1968 


Star Blazer 


aaa.aa 


#1956 


Tank Command 


»ia aa 


#1955 


Tawala s Last Redoubt 


aaa.aa 


#1959 


Track Att..rk 

MISCELLANEOUS 


aaa.aa 


•8800 


Adam a Eve Paddles ( Tech Designs) 


saa.ee 


• 7890 


Apple dim II IXPSI 


sas.ae 


• 3000 


Bookkeeper (Delta) 


ate.ae 


•9700 


Castles ol Darkness (Logic an 


aaa.aa 


• 3001 


Checkwnter (Delta) 


a*a.ea 


• 9640 


Colorblind (Energy) 


Sae.ae 


#9014 


Computer Almanac (Huntington 




•6300 


Computing) 
Crossword MagK. 


saa.ee 
aaa.aa 


• 4401 


Cyborg (Sentient) 


aaa.aa 


•9660 


Deadline (Infocom) 


aaa.ae 


#9742 


Electric Semicolon 


aaa.aa 


agaoo 


Financial Facts (Hanson) 


aaa.aa 


#9600 


The Game Show 


ssa.ae 


#6870 


Handwriting Analysis 1 Micro Lipp) 


sis aa 


#9640 


Jabbenalky (Mind Toys) 


aaa.aa 


#9580 


The Menu II IC a H Video) 


aaa.aa 


#9380 


The Menu Generator 


taa.aa 


#4400 


OO Topos (Sentient! 


sar.ee 


#6240 


Paddle Adapple i Southern Calrlormal 


aaa.aa 


#7650 
#7920 


Pornopory(CCI| 
Properly Management 
Raster Blaster (Budgecoi 
Recrpe Handler (Soli Touch! 


aas.aa 

mm 


• 1400 
#9500 


aaa.aa 

aaa.aa 


#9841 


Ricochet (Mmd Toys) 


aia.aa 


#6600 


Rul>k s Cube (Software Alter nan vesi 


Sie.ee 


#9620 


Shadow Hawk One 1 Horizon | 


aas.aa 


#3380 


Space War 1 if.aU.y I 


sai.ee 


• 4252 


Star Blaster IPiccaxMy) 


aaa.aa 


#9180 


Starship Commander . Voyager ) 


aas.aa 


#4251 


Swode iPKcacMy i 


aaa.aa 


#9680 


Taxman (Hal Labs! 


Sie.ee 


• 4850 


Time Lord (Ramware) 


aas.aa 


#9012 


Understand Voursert (Huntington! 


aaa.aa 


#9740 


Volcanoes lEantiware) 


aaa.aa 


#9741 


Volcanoes Educational 






version (Earthware) 


aaa.aa 


ftSM 


Zork ( (Inlocomi 


aaa.aa 


#9681 


2ork ll ilntocoml 

ON-LINE 


aaa aa 


#1120 


Cranston Manor 


aaa.aa 


• 1104 


Crossfire 


aaa.aa 


• 1126 


The Dictionary 


ssy.ee 


#1125 


MMSK 


aaa aa 


#ttl5 


Maraud* 


aaa.aa 


#1101 


Mission Asleroid 


aia.aa 


• 1113 


M.ss.l*. r^lr"isr> 


aai.ia 


• 1102 


Mystery House 


aai.ia 


• 1149 


P**gasus II 


aaa.aa 


• 1117 


Sabotage 


aai.ia 


• 1105 


Screenwriter II 


%**.** 


• ll?l 


Soil Porn Adventure 


aas.aa 


#1122 


Threshold 


aaa.aa 


#1114 


Ultima II 


aaa.ae 


#111? 


uSymi 


aaa.aa 


#1100 


The Wizard and the Princess 


aaeee 


#1058 


Autobahn 


aas.aa 


#1077 


Bandits 


Sae.ae 


#1073 


Bom 


aaa.aa 


#1065 


Copb ^ Wobftaii 


saa ee 


#1053 


Cydod 


aas.aa 


#106? 


Epoch 


aaa.aa 


#1070 


Joypoti 


aaa.aa 


#1052 


Mmonui 


aaa.aa 


#1066 


Outpost 


aaa.aa 


#1057 


Pulsar II 


aaa.aa 


#1071 


Snake Byte 


aas.aa 


#1064 


Snaahara 


aaa.aa 


#1056 


Space Eggs 


aia.aa 


#107? 


Twerps 


aia aa 



Call TOH-Free 800-344-5106 (outside California) 



HUNTINGTON C 

Post Office Box 1297 
Corcoran. California 93212 

Foreign Orders 209-992-4481 
In California 800-692-4146 



We take MasterCard. American Express or VISA (Include card # and 
App*e- .s » re«>5iefaKj I'aioe^dfh oi Appae Computet i»x expiration dale) California residents add 6% lax Include $2 00 for postage 

Foreign and hardware extra Foreign (excluding Canada) remit U S cur- 
rency, checks on u S banks use listed charge cards, or make direct wire 
transfers through Security Pacific Bank Corcoran, for a S6 00 charge AH 
overseas orders shipped by air Send tor tree catalog Prices subject to 
change without notice 



Patt * is a •eqisie'eo irademar* ol Commodore 
TRS 60" is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp 
Atar' " <s a registered trademark of Atari, inc 

Outaioe Cahl 800-344-5106 



CIRCLE 176 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CES/NCC continued... 

128K RAM. $100. 

Apple II Senior Analyst and Apple II 
Business Graphics are business software 
for financial modeling and graphics. Both 
programs require a 48K Apple II or Apple 
II Plus with a language or memory card. 
Apple III Business Graphics requires a 
I28K Apple III. The suggested retail 
prices are $225 for Senior Analyst, and 
$175 for Apple II or Apple III Business 
Graphics. 

Apple III Cobol, is a Cobol language 
capable of executing mainframe applica- 
tions. Apple III Cobol features Animator, 
a screen-oriented, source-level debugger 
and Forms-2, a Cobol source code gener- 
ator which creates data entry screens and 
generates Cobol source for use in a 
program. Apple III Cobol requires a 128K 
Apple III system, a video display device, 
and at least one external floppy or hard 
disk drive. Full use of the Animator 
requires 256K. $500. 

Record Processing Services, designed 
for Apple III Pascal software developers, 
provides file management services for 
programs handling large quantities of 
data. The multi-key file access method 
allows files to be readily interchanged 
among programs built on RPS. RPS 
supports the Apple ProFile hard disk and 
any other SOS block device, allows a 
maximum file size of 16 megabytes, per- 
mits up to eight keys per file and multi- 
field keys, and permits multiple simulta- 
neous file scans, optional concurrency 
control and file locking. It also features 
six access modes, eleven data types, and 
duplicate and/or null key values. $150. 

SuperPilot is a versatile extension of 
Apple Pilot. Also announced were two 
support products in the Apple Pilot 
family, Co-Pilot and SuperPilot Log. Co- 
Pilot is a self-contained, self -paced inter- 
active tutorial on two diskettes which 
teaches how to program in Apple Pilot. 
SuperPilot Log works with SuperPilot as 
an administrative record keeping pro- 
gram. SuperPilot requires an Apple II or 
Apple II Plus with 64K RAM. $200. Co- 
Pilot is $35. and SuperPilot Log is $50. 

Apple Logo is an implementation of 
the Logo computer language for the 
Apple II. It requires an Apple II or Apple 
II Plus with 64K RAM. The software 
package, priced at $175, includes a pro- 
gram diskette, a backup diskette, a 
graphics manual, and a language refer- 
ence manual. 

Eight independently developed soft- 
ware programs for business, education, 
and the home were also offered by Apple 
Computer. Comm-Pac is a data commun- 
ications program that enables an Apple II 
to communicate with other computers, 
timesharing systems, networks, news- 
wires, and other subscription services. 
$85. 



Paralax is a collection of graphics 
utilities which lets the user develop and 
manipulate high-resolution shapes for 
Applesoft Basic programs. $85. 

Designer's Toolkit is a program for the 
Apple II that computerizes the drafting 
table to let the user generate graphics for 
mapping, architecture, and drafting. 
$225. 

Magic Spells is a learning game that 
transforms the memorization of spelling 
lists into an adventure complete with 
castles, treasures, demons, and a sage 
wizard. $45. 

Math Strategy and Spelling Strategy 
are two programs that teach youngsters 
how to use the mind's eye to sharpen 
math and spelling skills. It uses Neuro- 
Linguistic Programming. $45 each. 

Moptown is a collection of logic games 
for children aged four and up. $50. 

Speed Reader is a reading development 
course designed to increase reading speed 
while increasing comprehension. $70. 

Apple Computer, Inc., 10260 Bandley 
Dr., Cupertino, CA 95014. (408) 996- 
1010. 

CIRCLE 384 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Atari Software 

Four new Atari Home Computer pro- 
grams, a telecommunications kit and 
several computer programs were 
announced by Atari, Inc. Atari also 
announced a reduction in the suggested 
retail price of the Atari 400 to $349. 

Atari Speed Reading, which combines 
computer programs and the Speedway 
reading course includes five cassettes and 
a manual, and is recommended for users 
1 5 years old and up. $74.95. 

Atari Music Tutor I teaches music 
fundamentals such as note reading, the C 
Major scale, and key signatures. Both 
programs are available in both cassette 
and diskette versions. 

Juggles' House and Juggles' Rainbow 
teach pre-reading skills to children aged 
three to six at home or in a school 
environment. Juggles ' House teaches the 
concepts of upper, lower, inside and 
outside, while Juggles' Rainbow teaches 
above, below, left and right. It's available 
in both cassette and diskette versions. 

The Communicator II is a kit that 
allows the user to explore the wide range 
of information, education and entertain- 
ment available through computer ser- 
vices, and to communicate with other 
computers. The Atari 835 Direct Connect 
Modem (DCM), the TeleLink II cartridge, 
and a manual are included. $279.95. 

The Atari 835 DCM connects the com- 
puter directly to a phone line without the 
need for an acoustic coupler, although it 
must be used with TeleLink II. The DCM 
is only available with the Communicator 
II kit. The TeleLink II cartridge is priced 
at $79.95. 

180 



Other programs include Asteroids. 
Computer Chess. Missile Command, 
Space Invaders and Super Breakout for 
$34.95 each; Star Raiders for $44.95: and 
Music Composer for $39.95. 

Atari Inc., 1265 Borregas Ave.. P.O. 
Box 427. Sunnyvale. CA 94086. (4081 745- 
5227. 

CIRCLE 385 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

1X0 Software & Peripherals 

IXO. Inc. announced six applications 
for its telecomputing system— field sales, 
electronic mail and banking, public data 
base access, airline reservations and 
remote personal computing. The telecom- 
puter is a hand-held system with the 
capability to remotely access and com- 
municate with host computers via plain 
English prompts and responses. It consists 
of a full typewriter-style keyboard, LCD 
display, telephone modem and sophis- 
ticated security system, and plugs into 
any modular telephone jack. 




Four optional peripherals are available 
for the telecomputing system. These are 
a 20-column, 30 cps thermal dot matrix 
printer; a 32-character x 16-line video 
interface that works with video monitors 
and television receivers; a serial/parallel 
printer interface to enable the tele- 
computing system to be used with most 
80-column plus printers; and, for those 
instances where no modular phone jack 
is available, an acoustic interface. $300. 

IXO, Inc. 6041 Bristol Parkway, Culver 
City, CA 90230. (213) 417-8080. 
CIRCLE 386 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

VIC 20 Software 

Source Marketing, Inc. has announced 
eight software programs designed to run 
on the Commodore VIC-20 home com- 
puter. Programs are on cassette tape. 
Offerings include five games, a home and 
small business management program, one 
educational program and an entertain- 
ment program. Suggested retail price of 
cassettes is $19.95. 

Source Marketing, 50 West Brokaw 
Rd., Suite 64, San Jose, CA 951 10. 

CIRCLE 387 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



SEARCHING FOR RECORDS 
CAN BE A REAL HASSLE. 






IT'S 



It always seems 
to happen at the 
wrong time. A file 
cabinet or two 

filled with records that are not 
quite in alphabetical order. In 
there somewhere is the right 
record, but there's just fto way 
to find it without leafing through the whole mess. 
Sound familiar? 

With DB MASTER finding the right record takes 
about three seconds. You just call up the name, say 
"Mark Piper," or invoice number "38965," and there 
it is in front of you. No worries. No misfiling. 
No anxiety. Think what it means for a business where 
you constantly need to check product inventories or 
customer billing status. 

But what if you don't know the whole name or the 
exact number you're after? No problem. DB 
MASTER'S "Search" method makes it simple to find 
what you're after. For example, you can call up all the 
"Pipers" and stop when you recognize the right one. 
And there's more. You don't even have to know the 
name at all. If all you really know is that it begins 
with a "P", for instance, you can use DB MASTER'S 
"Wild Card" feature. It'll give you every name in your 
file that begins with "P". The same goes for a range 
of numbers. Punch in the range of digits you know, 
and you'll get a series to choose from. Try that with 
your filing-cabinet system. 

We designed DB MASTER to make your life easier. 
Sure, there are other data base systems available for 



MASTER 
EASY. 



I™ your Apple II. But, 
if you're not using 
DB MASTER 
you're simply 
not getting all you could from 
your data base manager. 

Want more capability? DB 
MASTER provides it with the 
expanded-capacity Special Edition for Hard Disk to 
complement the popular floppy diskette version. 
And there are three powerful accessory programs. 
UTILITY PAK #1, for example, allows you to access 
other standard Apple files (including VisiCalc), and 
even change the way you've structured your files. 
UTILITY PAK #2 allows you to edit or change up to 
five "fields" in a single pass through your files. And 
STAT PAK performs statistical analyses on data in 
your DB MASTER files. Of course, there's 
considerably more capability in each of our accessory 
paks than we have room to talk about here. Ask your 
dealer for the full details. 

Stoneware backs up DB MASTER with a support 
staff second to none. Just give us a call. We can help 
solve your problems. After all, that's what Stoneware 
and DB MASTER are all about. 




c 1962 Stoneware Incorporated 



TELEX II 910-304-2016 STONEWARE SflFl 



DB MASTER is a rt-Kisu-red trademark of t>B MASTER Apple II Plus is a registered trademark of Apple Computer VisiCalc is a registered trademark <>\ Visitorp 

CIRCLE 278 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CES/NCC continued. 



VlslCalc Consolidation 

Abacus Associates introduced Viz.A. 
Con, a consolidation system for the Visi- 
Calc user. It automatically combines 
stored data files and prints copies of the 
results. Viz. A. Con runs on the Radio 
Shack TRS-80 Model HI. $89.95. 

Abacus Associates, Suite 240, 6565 
West Loop South. Houston. TX 77401. 
(713) 666-8146. 

CIRCLE 388 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Apple Plotting Packages 

T & W Systems has expanded their 
product line to include the Cadapple, a 
version of the T-Square Cad software 
which runs on a standard Apple config- 
uration. Hardware required includes a 
48K Apple II with Apple Pascal 1.1, two 
standard 5 1/4" drives, the CCS asynchro- 
nous serial interface model 7710, monitor, 
joystick, or HiPad digitizer and the 
Houston Instruments DMP-7 plotter. 

The program allows the designer to 
create, erase, change, store and retrieve 
drawings consisting of graphics and text. 
The Cadapple provides generation of 
arcs, circles, rectangles, ellipses, regular 
polygons, arbitrary curves and user 
defined shapes. 

The Cadapple is available as a turnkey 
system, or the software and/or plotter 
can be purchased separately. The turnkey 
system including, software and hardware 
with joystick is $9985. The turnkey system 
including software and hardware with 
HiPad is $10,775. The Cadapple software 
is $2495. 

T & W Systems. Inc., 18437 Mt. Lang- 
ley #B, Fountain Valley. CA 92708. (714) 
963-3913. 

CIRCLE 309 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Microsoft languages— MS-Basic inter- 
preter and MS-Fortran, MS-Basic, MS- 
Pascal and MS-Cobol compilers— on their 
16-bit microcomputers. 

Microsoft Corporation, 10700 Northup 
Way, Bellevue. WA 98004. (206) 828- 
8080. 

CIRCLE 390 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Accounting Packages 

Three major manufacturers of personal 
microcomputer systems— Toshiba. Sony, 
and Xerox — will offer Structured Systems 
Group (SSG) accounting software (Ver- 
sion 2.0). The complete line of SSG 
accounting software (Version 2.0)— 
General Ledger, Accounts Receivable. 
Accounts Payable, Order Entry, Inven- 
tory, and Payroll — run on the Toshiba T- 
200250. the Xerox 820. and the Sony SMC 
70 personal computer. 

Structured Systems Group, 5204 Clare- 
mont, Oakland, CA 94618. (415) 547- 
1567. 

CIRCLE 391 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Robot Programmer 

Savvy is an information handling system 
for microcomputers. It has a natural 
programming language, its own operating 
system automatic database management, 
and applications programs. 

Savvy learns your own language and 
translates it into a simple language. The 
Robot Programmmer has been trained to 
write programs needed to input, output, 
add, change, and delete database infor- 
mation. Savvy comes as a combination of 
hardware and software— a co-processor 
with firmware, and additional software 
on a disk. It will boot and run on all 
Apple DOS versions and Z80 versions of 
CP/M. 

Excalibur of America, 1176 Franklin 
Rd., S.E.. Marietta, GA 30067. (404) 953- 
6870. 



Japan, Inc. goes Microsoft circle 392 on reader service card 



Four Japanese manufacturers 
announced support of Microsoft's MS- 
DOS operating system, a 16-bit operating 
system developed by Microsoft for the 
IBM Personal Computer. Hitachi offers 
the MB-16001, a general purpose personal 
computer running Microsoft Graphics 
Basic. NEC offers the NEC 5200 which is 
designed as a high-end business machine. 
Panasonic supports MS-DOS on their JB- 
3000 microcomputer, a low-end machine 
with a color graphics capability. Pana- 
sonic also supports both Multiplan and 
Microsoft's Graphics Basic. Wang will 
also support MS-DOS. 

Users of MS-DOS systems can run the 
applications programs available for the 
IBM Personal Computer as well as all 



NEC Software 

NEC Home Electronics USA intro- 
duced an orientation to the basics of 
computer operating and programming. 
Called Creative Programming, the begin- 
ning software program and guidebook is 
designed to help early users learn micro- 
computer operation in four short lessons. 
The lessons cover computer language 
introductions and the significance of the 
basic functions, how to write a program, 
and how to load a program. The course is 
for use on the PC -8000 Series Micro- 
computer System. The first Creative 
Programming manual retails for $12.95. 
The remaining five volumes retail for 
$9.95 each. 

182 



The Basic Language Learning Guide 
program concentrates on the features, 
commands and functions of Microsoft N- 
Basic. Included are discussions of The 
Concept of a Variable, Math and the 
Computer, Format Notation, and Elemen- 
tary Statements. In addition, there are six 
appendices devoted to special keys and 
control characters, reserved words, 
ASCII Character set, error messages, disk 
files and N-Basic statements. It is best 
suited for use with the NEC PC-8000. 
$19.95. 

NEC also has a color word processing 
system with a self-teaching program and 
12.000 word dictionary for the PC-8000. 

NEC also has a Job Costing system 
which allows users to keep easier and 
more accurate track of internal costs by 
category. The Job Cost System is mar- 
keted with the PC-8000, and can interface 
with the NEC General Accounting System 
and Payroll System programs. It features 
a Skeleton General Ledger, Work Codes/ 
Cost Centers, Estimates, Labor/Nonlabor 
Journals, Income and Expense Statement, 
and Job Status Report. 

The General Accounting System for 
the PC-8000 can be operated by people 
without prior computer experience. Each 
Accounts Receivable diskette allows for 
500 or more entries. Additional features 
include an 80-column data entry screen, 
multiple bank account capability, and 
capacity for eight separate payroll 
accounts with payroll summaries by 
month, quarter and year-to-date. The 
General Accounting System retails for 
$395. 

Report Manager is a CP/M based pro- 
gram that creates and updates a variety 
of reports for financial, accounting, engi- 
neering and scientific applications. It 
features editing commands, multiple 
report pages, the ability to copy portions 
of rows, columns, or pages: and the ability 
to reform calculations on calendar and 
time entries. 

Money Decisions provides a collection 
of business and financial problem-solving 
tools. Programs on the disk include 34 of 
the most frequently used business and 
financial problem-solvers. Among the 
financial tools included are Future Value 
of an Investment. Net Present Value. 
Internal Rate of Return. Term of a Loan. 
Regular Payment on a Loan. Mortgage 
Amortization Table, Lease/Purchase 
Analysis, Depreciation Rate, Tax Depre- 
ciation Schedule, Optimal Production 
Quantity and Breakeven Analysis. 

The Term 11 program connects the PC- 
8000 to the world of telecommunications. 
Users may talk via their computer 
screens, transmit files to or receive files 
from a general purpose time sharing host 
system such as CompuServe or The 
Source. 

File-Fax is a database and information 
management system for the PC-8000. It 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



assures user flexibility and eliminates any 
requirement for following a certain pat- 
tern or structure. 

NEC Home Electronics (U.S.A.) Inc.. 
1401 Estes Ave., Elk Grove Village, IL 
60007. (312) 228-5900. 

CIRCLE 393 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Fortune Business Software 

Fortune Systems Corporation intro- 
duced for its desktop computer a package 
of business accounting software that has 
been transported to the Fortune 32:16. 
the company's Motorola MC68000-based 
microcomputer. The menu-driven 
accounting system consists of seven 
modules: order processing, accounts 
receivable, purchase orders, accounts 
payable, payroll, fixed assets and general 
ledger. The business system also features 
file protection, a password security system 
and user-selected formatting and report 
generation capabilities. The Fortune 
32: 16 supports Cobol. Fortran, Pascal and 
C as well as Basic. The system is based on 
the Motorola MC68000 32/16-bit chip and 
uses the Unix operating system. The 32: 16 
also has Ethernet communications cap- 
ability. Price is $4,995. 

Fortune Systems has signed a license 
agreement with the IMI Software Center 
that provides the Fingraph graphic 
management information system. This 
package is used to provide graphic dis- 
plays of sales management, accounts 
receivable, income statements and 
balance sheets. More than 100 standard 
information charts can be produced 
directly from the computerized data 
sheets. 

Fortune Systems Corporation has 
entered into a licensing agreement with 
Microsoft Corporation to enhancee the 
Unix operating system. The agreement 
calls for a technical exchange and makes 
Fortune Systems the master distributor 
for the finished product. Microsoft will 
initially supply Microsoft-developed sys- 
tem enhancements that Fortune Systems 
can add to its version of Unix. The 
company will also provide ongoing sup- 
port and maintenance to Fortune Systems 
for the operating system. 

Fortune Systems Corporation. San 
Carlos, CA (213) 557-1331. 

CIRCLE 394 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

>— >: 

•03* — * -a- 

October 1982° Creative Computing 




Offers Discounts on All 

TRS-8CT 

COMPUTERS 



We Have What You Are Looking For 

• Free Shipping Within United States 

• 26-/006 Mod III 48K S2.0fm.m 

• 26-3001 4K Color 310.00 

• 26-3002 16* Color 455.00 

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• Vn Tax On Out of State Shipments 

For Additional Prices and 

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N.M. Residents Call 257-7865 

or write 

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POWER LINE 
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CIRCLE 174 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SPIKE SPIKERS 
THE SOLUTION 



Protects, organizes, controls computers & 
sensitive electronic equipment. Helps prevent 
software "glitches", unexplained memory loss, 
and equipment damage. Filter models attenuate 
conducted RF interference. 



DHUXE P0WIR CONSOU 

$79.95 

Trowwnt absorber oW 5 stoge 
filttr 8 inoWiduoJiy switched 
sockets, fused 

quad ii $59.95 

Transient absorber Duot 3 stage 
filter. 4 sockets 

QUAD I $49.95 

Transient absorber. 4 sockets 

mini ii $44.95 

Transient absorber. 3 stage filter. 
7 sockets 

mini i $34.95 

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CIRCLE 186 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




apple cart 



Heavy July metal w 

25"d. x 38-48"h. with optional 3S 

tahle lop ($16.00 extra! 




$ 199 oo 

apple locker 

A neurit* locking device, with locks, 
connectors, cahles. and full installa- 
tion instructions. 

$ 78 50 . 



apple sack 

Transport your AIM'I.K.oneur 
two disk drives, accessories. 
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MN Wats 800/442 3006 • NAT Watt 800/328-3072 



CIRCLE 289 ON READER SERVICE CARD 











H 



ATARI 



400 

16K ... $ 269 
32K . . . s 389 
48K . . . s 489 

410 Recorder *76 00 

810 Disc Drive $449.00 

822 Printer J 269 00 

825 Printer $588.00 

I 830 Modem $158.00 

820 Printer $259.00 

850 Interlace $189.00 

J CX40 Joy SIM* $18.00 

CX853 16* RAM $77.95 



A HOT ATARI - 
. GAMES JK 

PAC MAN $35.00 

Centipede $35.00 

Cavern* ot Mart $32.00 

Asteroid* $29.00 

Muni. Command $29.00 

Slar Raider* $39.00 

I Canyon Climber $25.00 

I Protector $24.00 

Mouskattack $31.00 

Jawbreaker $27.00 

Ohoal Hunter $24.00 



Telecommunications 

Modems 

Hayaa 

Smart $239.00 

Chronograph $199.00 

Micromodam II $279 00 

Micromodem 100 $309.00 

Novation Auto $239.00 

OCat $169 00 

Cat $159.00 

Anchor Modem $79 00 




800 

16K... s 649 
32K . . . s 724 
48K . . . $ 769 



18K RAM $74.95 

Microtek 32K. RAM $119.95 

Ramdlak (128K) $429.95 

intec 48K Board $219.95 

kitec 32K $119.95 

One year extended warranty $70.00 

481 Entertainer $89.00 

482 Educator $130.00 

483 Programmer $49.00 

484 Communicator $344.00 



KBYTE 

ROM CARTRIDGE GAMES 
FOR YOUR ATARI 

Kraiy Shoot Out $39.00 

Kraiy Krtttere $39.00 

Kraiy Antic* $39.00 

Kslar Patrol $39.00 

STICK STAND «L 

ARCADE ACTION FROM YOUR (V 

ATARI JOYSTICK Vi*B- 



AMDEK 
MONITORS 

3000 $169.00 

Color I $339 00 

Color II $699 00 

Color III $429.00 

OTHERS 

Zenith 9 (Green) $119.00 

BMC 12" Qreen $85.00 



VISICORP 

VTSICALC 

Apple II ♦ $188.00 

Atari $188.00 

Commodore $189.00 

IBM $189 00 

Alto available ere: 

VISIDEX VISIPLOT 

VtSIFILE VISITERM 

VtSIPACK VISITREND 



SOFTWARE 

We slock manufacturer'* and third party software 
tor mo*t all computers on the market! Call today 
tor a copy ot our new 

CATALOG 

You'll find program* by Atari. APX. Data Soft 
Crystal Software. EPYX. Synapse. OnLin*. Arcade 
Plus. KBYTE. Magis. Canadian Micro Professional 
Software. Creative Software. BPI. VISICORP. Com. 
modore. NEC and of course our own! 



FRANKLIN 
ACE 1000 




64K Personal Computer 

Hardware, software and 

peripheral compatable with the 
Apple II and even has some fea- 
tures not found on the Apple. 

Call now for best price!! 




Finally, a dual disk drive for 
the Atari 800/400. Both single 
and dual drive models read 
both sides ol the disk! Will 
read all disks written for Atari 
810. CALL FOR INTRODUCT 
ORY PRICE! 



NEC 

COMPUTERS 

8001 A $749.00 

8031 $749.00 

8012 $549.00 

PRINTERS 

8023 $549 00 

7710/7730 $2399.00 

3510/3530 $1789.00 

MONITORS 

JB-1201 $179.00 

JC 1201 $349.00 

JC1202 $89900 



Maxell Disks 

MO I (boi of 10) $36.00 

MD II (boa of 10) $46.00 

MFD I (8") $44 00 

MFD II (8~ Double Demily) $54 00 

Syncom (boi of 10) $29 00 

Computer Covers 

Commodore VIC 20 $6.99 

Atari 400 $6.99 Commodore 8032 $14.99 

Atari 800 $6.99 Commodore 

Atari 810 $699 805014040 $10.99 



west 



800- 648-33 1 1 



In Nevada 

CALL 

(702)588-5654 



P.O. Box 6689 1 
Stateline. [ 
NV. 89449 1 



ra 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 




HP»85 s 1969 

HP«87 $1799.00 

HP025 $1999 00 

HP*SS 16K Memory Module $169 00 

5' . " Ou*l Master Disc Drive $1799.00 

Hard Disk ml Floppy $4349.00 

Hard Disk $3549.00 

"SMtl Lips" Plotter $1199.00 

80 Column Prlntar $649 00 



What HEWLETT 

mL'KM PACKARD, 

HP41CV 

CALCULATOR 

s 239 



HP 41C $189.00 

HP11C $79.00 

HP 12C $114.00 

NEW 15C $1 19.00 

NEW 16C $125.00 

HPIL PERIPHERALS IN STOCK! 




.AA**** 6 - 




EPSON 



PRINTERS 

MX 80 w/Graltrai $449 

MX 80 FT III CALL 

MX 100 CALL 

ADA 1600 Parallel Printer to CBM $1 19.00 

ATC 1 Parallel Printer to Atari $29.00 

AP SO Apple Parallel Card 8 Cable $88.00 

IBM 1 Parallel Printer to IBM $32.00 



In-stock items shipped same day 
you call. No risk, no deposit on 
C.O.D. orders. Pre-paid orders 
receive free shipping within the 
continental United States with no 
waiting period for certified checks 
or money orders. All prices shown 
are cash prices. Add 3% for 
Mastercard and Visa. NV and PA 
residents add sales tax. All items 
subject to availability and price 
change. 




CBM 8032 

$999 



t> 



Word Pro 5 + $319.00 

Word Pro 4 ♦ $299.00 

Word Pro 3 ♦ $199.00 

The Administrator $379.00 

InloPro Plus $219.00 

$79.00 



Commodore 

Business Machines 

CBM 64 CALL 

4032 $969.00 

8098 Upgrade KH $369.00 

Super Pel $1599.00 

2031 $529.00 

8250 Doubled Sided Disk Drive $1699.00 

D9060 5 Megabyte Hard Dlak $2399.00 

D9090 7 5 Megabyte Hard Disk $2699.00 

8050 $1299.00 

4040 $989.00 

8300 (Letter Quality) $1799.00 

8023 $769.00 

4022 $499.00 

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IEEE to IEEE Cable $46.00 

Tractor Feed lor 8300 $240 00 



Televideo 
Terminals 




910 $579 

912C $699 

920C $749 

925C $749 

960 $939 

802 $Call 

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816 $Call 

808 $Call 




VIC 20 
$ 239 



VIC 1530 Commodore Oatassette $69.00 

VIC 1540 Disk Drive $499 00 

VIC 1515 VIC Graphic Printer $339 00 

VIC 1210 3K Memory Eipander $32.00 

VIC 110 8K Memory Eipander $53 00 

16K VIC Expansion $94.00 

VIC 1011 RS232C Terminal Interlace $43 00 

VIC 112 VIC IEEE 488 Interlace $8600 

VIC 1211 VIC 20 Super Eipander $53.00 I 

VTC Mother Board $99.00 | 



PRINTERS 

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F10-55CPS CALL 

Piowriter $499.00 

ADA 1450 Serial Printer to CBM $139.00 

ATC 2 Serial Printer to Atari $29.00 

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TP-I 



5649 





Letter Quality 

Daisy Wheel 

12 CPS Text Printer 



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PRINTERS 

739-1 $519 

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PRINTERS 

S2A $489.00 

83A $729 00 

84 $1099.00 



NOTE 

AH of the above OKIDATA Printers come equiped 
with both parallel porta & RS232 Serial porta. 



800233-8950 



477 E. 
THIRD ST. 

Wilhamsport 
PA 17701 



IN PA 

CALL 

(717)327.9575 



CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Handicapple 
A Low Cost Braille Printer 



Barry McConnell 



One of the most valuable features of 
the home computer is its versatility. Home 
computers have found a place in the 
laboratory, the classroom, and in the 
office. Most recently, they have found a 
place with the handicapped. 

The low cost and easy adaptability of 
the home computer makes it an ideal tool 
for serving the needs of the handicapped, 
both on the job and in the home. 

At Florida State University, handi- 
capped students are competing with non- 
handicapped students on an equal basis 
and are finding new career opportunities 
through the use of home computers. This 
article outlines one of several ways in 
which microcomputers have been 
adapted to the needs of the handicapped. 

One of the first things anyone working 
with a computer needs is a printed copy 
of his work. A multitude of printers can 
be found in the marketplace, but what of 
the blind individual? How does he read 
what comes out of the computer? There 
are very few braille terminals on the 
market and they tend to be prohibitively 
expensive for the average person. Addi- 
tionally, braille terminals, since their 
design is similar to that of a line printer, 
are not well suited to word processing or 
other forms of formatted output. A low 
cost alternative is available. 

Often promoted as the "poor man's 
printer," the Dynatyper by Rochester 

Barry McConnell. P.O. Box 2676. Tallahassee. FL 
32.104. 



Data. Inc. provides the key to low cost 
braille. The Dynatyper is a solenoid 
driven array of plastic plungers which sits 
above the keyboard of a standard type- 
writer. When coupled with an IBM 
Braillewriter and a home computer, it 
gives blind people access to hard-copy 
braille at an affordable price. 



Our emphasis at FSU has been on the 
use of off-the-shelf components to keep 
costs down and application simple. This 
configuration fits well in both the home 
and in the workplace at a minimal price. 

Our system consists of an Apple II. a 
Dynatyper. and a Braillewriter (see Figure 
1). Set-up of the system is reasonably 




186 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 




OWER PRICES, 
COME HELL OR 





a 



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GOTAOl/EST/OrV? 
CALL OUR HOT LINE: 213-837-5141 
THE DISCOUNT SOFTWARE GROUP 

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• (213)837-5141 • In t TELEX 499-0446 DISCSOFT LSA 

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• TWX 910-321-3597 (Attn 499-0446) 



THE ULTIMATE SOFTWARE PLAN 
CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Handicapple, continued 



simple and well described in the Dyna- 
typer manual, which is fairly straight- 
forward though not always easy reading. 
The only alterations required to the 
standard configuration consist of a modi- 
fication of the braille typewriter and a 
change in the driving software for the 
Dynatyper. 

The Braillewriter is an IBM office 
typewriter which is converted to type in 
braille, and has a keyboard consisting of 
the standard letters, numbers, and punc- 
tuation found on an ordinary typewriter. 

The shifted keys provide the Grade II 
contractions used as a form of Braille 
shorthand. The paper is embossed from 
the front by raised dots on the typeface 
and rolls backwards so that the finished 
paper comes out the rear of the machine. 

The modification necessary to operate 
as a braille printer is a result of the 
Braillewriter being designed for the blind. 
The tension springs on the keys are 
deliberately stiff so as to provide a positive 
keystroke for a blind individual. 

These springs must be stretched as the 
Dynatyper was designed to operate princi- 
pally with electric typewriters. Initially, 
the keys were so stiff that the Dynatyper 
plungers literally bounced off the keys. 
The service representative from IBM was 
very helpful in diagnosing the problem 
and remedying it. 

The modification to the Dynatyper 
software consisted of designing an alter- 
nate character set for braille. Anyone 
familiar with braille will tell you that it 
was definitely not designed by a mathe- 
matician, as the same dot pattern may 
mean two entirely different things, 
depending on the context. For example, 
the period and dollar sign have the same 
dot pattern, but a dollar sign is never 
found at the end of a sentence. 



Table I. 




Because we were committed to low com 
and easy implementation, we altered the 
braille character set rather than devel- 
oping a context analyzing driving routine, 
which would have required many man- 
hours in development and would have 
increased drastically the time necessary 
to print even the simplest document. 



One of the first things 

anyone working with a 

computer needs is a 

printed copy of 

his work. 



The availability of the Grade II con- 
tractions on the Braillewriter provided a 
source of extra dot patterns for redefining 
characters. By converting lower case 
letters to upper case and assigning a 
Grade II symbol to each of the special 
characters, e.g. comma, period, etc.. a 
one-to-one correspondence between the 
computer keyboard and a braille char- 
acter was obtained. Special care was 
taken in redefining characters to make 
the dot pattern resemble the actual shape 
of the character whenever possible (see 
Table 1 ), in order to facilitate learning of 
the new character set. 

Implementation of the new character 
set was greatly enhanced by the manner 
in which the driving routine is loaded; it 
is loaded from DATA statements by a 
Basic program. The manual provided for 
the Dynatyper gives excellent instructions 



Uppercase A - Z: Standard Braille 






Digits - 9 : Standard Braille lowered one dot 


position (e.g 


1 = dot 2 2 = dots 2,3 


3 = dots 2,5) 








Special Characters: ! 


= dots 4,5,6 




. =dot5 


" 


= dots 4,5 




. = dot 6 


n 


= TH 




/ =/ 


$ 


= BLE 




< =ING 


% 


= ED 




> =SH 


& 


= THE 




? =ER 


■ 


= ' 




; = dots 5,6 


< 


= GH 




+ =OU 


) 


■ AR 




@ =CH 




= dots 4,6 




| =OF 


• 


= OW 




] = WITH 


- 


= COM 




/\ = dot 4 


(=> 


= AND 







on modifying the existing character set 
by changing the DATA statements. 

Listing 1 shows the line numbers and 
the data necessary to implement the new 
character set in Applesoft. Integer appli- 
cations would modify the array D located 
in lines 4350 through 4460. using assign- 
ment statements rather than DATA state- 
ments. The TRS-80 version requires modi- 
fication of lines 1 190 through 1300. start- 
ing with the second DATA value (209) on 
line 1 190. 

In 18 months of operation, this system 
has proven to be remarkably durable. It 
has survived two changes of offices, more 
than fifty conferences and demonstra- 
tions, and a tremendous number of tink- 
ering sessions, with the most serious 
problem being an occasional key jam. 
The system is operating at the maximum 
recommended speed for the Dynatyper 
with a manual typewriter; slowing the 
speed would eliminate even those rare 
key jams. 

This system has been coupled with a 
Control Data Corporation mainframe as 
a remote terminal providing braille copy 
to computer science students, and with 
two different word processing programs 
for the Apple. Professional Easy writer «aA 
Applewriter, though the carriage width 
and the size of a braille character allow 
only 40 characters on a line. It has also 
proven to be an excellent tool for pro- 
gramming the Apple itself, providing pro- 
gram listings in braille for blind pro- 
grammers. 

Many other applications are possible, 
and if the spark and enthusiasm of the 
blind individuals who have worked with 
this system thus far is any indication, they 
will soon be demanded. As one blind 
student said. "Don't give me a handout, 
give me the tools and I'll build you a 
world! □ 

Listing I. 

5360 DATA 234,251,240,157,238, 

246, 160 
5370 DATA 221,250,239,244,28,15 

4, 187, 159 
5380 DATA 208,209,210,211,212,2 

13,214,215 
5390 DATA 216,217,30,218,245,24 

9,237,241 
5400 DATA 235,161,162,163,164,1 

65,166,167 
5410 DATA 168,169,170,171,172,1 

73,174,175 
5420 DATA 176,177,178,179,180,1 

81,182,183 
5430 DATA 184,185,186,242,214,2 

47,224,218 
5440 DATA 214,161,162,163,164,1 

65,166,167 
5450 DATA 168,169,170,171,172,1 

73,174,175 
5460 DATA 176,177,178,179,180,1 

81 ,182,183 
5470 DATA 184,185,186,217,251,2 

08,187,0 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



...-•• o 



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/ 



Who Really Invented the Video Game? 



The Space Age had just been birthed. 
Sputnik was a new and somewhat omi- 
nous presence in the evening sky — my 
father tells me he carried me to the roof 
of our apartment building to see it. I 
don't remember. The year was 1958, and 
I was two years old. 

Dave Ahl. my boss, was a high school 
student. He had won a scholarship, one 
benefit of which was a tour of Brookhaven 
National Laboratory in Upton. NY. Some- 
thing he saw on an oscilloscope there 
remained fixed in his mind for many years. 
and caused, among other things, a recent 
pilgrimage of my own. 

Nearly 25 years after the fact. I found 
myself on the Long Island Expressway. I 
was trying to pass an eighteen-wheeler 
spewing gravel off its trailer, while I 
looked for the Brookhaven exit. It 
occurred to me that the Lab was hardly a 
stone's throw from Shoreham Nuclear 
Power Station, that controversial patch 
of multibillion-dollar poured concrete. I 
wondered if the proximity was mere coin- 
cidence. 

Brookhaven is a government installa- 
tion, and I get nervous at checkpoints. 
The guard at the gate had a familiar kind 
of hypertensive bearing. I wished then I 
had shaved that morning. I proffered my 
press card with clammy claw. He told me 
to pull my car off to the side; I knew the 
jig was up. I was a spy, an agent, a 
saboteur, and it was all over. 

He handed me a piece of paper and 
said those chilling words: "Have a nice 
day." Upon inspection, the paper seemed 
to be a visitor's map. My adrenalin level 
began to subside. 

It's really very simple to get to the 



John Anderson 

Department of Nuclear Energy. You 
make a right near the linear accelerator, 
and pull into the lot next to the alternating 
gradient synchotron. If you see the tan- 
dem Van de Graff, you've gone too far. 

From there, only one flight of stairs 
separates you from one of the great, 
unsung heroes of our time, Willy 
Higinbotham. 

There was Bell, there was Edison, there 
was Fermi. And then there was 
Higinbotham. 

Willy was responsible for the display 



There was Bell, there 

was Edison, there 

was Fermi. And then 

there was 

Higinbotham. 



Dave saw on that fateful day in 1958. 
Willy, you see, invented the video game. 

We've received several manuscripts 
which attempt to set the record straight 
on the history of the video game. If you 
claim and can document a video game 
predating 1958, let us know. 

Otherwise, give Willy Higinbotham his 
profound and historic due. Much to the 
chagrin of large corporations involved in 
current litigation, he did it first, and he 
has proved it. 

190 



Though he stands about five feet four 
inches tall, Mr. Higinbotham commands 
quite a stature. He very nearly chain- 
smokes unfiltered cigarettes, which he 
wolfs down with great voracity for a man 
of 72 years. His eyeglasses magnify to the 
point where his corneas seem as large as 
quarters. He laughs easily and likes to 
play the accordian, though he admits it's 
been a while since he's played at a party. 

And, as a physicist in the Manhattan 
Project, he witnessed the detonation of 
the first atomic bomb. 

Before we sat down to speak in earnest, 
Willy called an old friend, Dave Potter, 
and asked him to join us. Dave had 
worked with Willy on the original game 
designs. We adjourned to a conference 
room. As Willy got started, other scien- 
tists would wander into the room, find a 
perch, and listen along. "Isn't he some- 
thing?" one of the scientists whispered as 
an aside. He sure is. 

Back in the 1950's, when tours of the 
Laboratory were first instituted, they were 
rather static affairs, usually consisting of 
a group of photographs to depict some 
facet of research at the facility. Willy, 
who discovered his penchant for physics 
at Cornell and electronics at MIT, 
explained that he wanted to make his 
display more dynamic. Give it a little 
punch. Wouldn't it fill the, bill, he thought, 
if we got some sort of little game going on 
a CRT, so visitors could have some 
"hands-on" interaction with the hardware? 
He and his associates fashioned a tennis 
game, played on the five-inch screen of 
an oscilloscope. 

Digital computers were coming into 
their own in 1958; in fact, Willy's own 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 




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CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Who Really Invented the Video Game?, continued. 







A few miles up the road. Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. 




This must be the place. 



Instrumentation Division was building one 
at the time. However his game contrap- 
tion made use of an analog computer, 
one that used variable voltages rather 
than on-off pulses to represent informa- 
tion. To this was hardwired a nonpro- 
grammable assemblage of electro- 
mechanical relays, potentiometers, resis- 
tors, capacitors, and "op-amps," short for 
operational amplifiers. 

Willy himself is the first to admit that 
the arrangement was rather inelegant. But 
he also points out that it worked. He did 
make use of some recently invented 
transistors as flip-flop switches— a 
harbinger of things to come. Willy simply 
did the job in the shortest time with 
whatever parts were handy. The result 
was a video game, something no com- 
puter, digital or analog, had been har- 
nessed to do before. 

The screen display was a side view of a 
tennis court. It looked like an upside- 
down "T." with a shortened stem. This 
was the "net." Each player held a proto- 
typical paddle, a small box with a knob 
and button on it. The knob controlled the 
angle of the player's return, and the 
button chose the moment of the hit. A 
player could hit the ball at any time, 
providing it was on his side of the net. 
Gravity, windspeed. and bounce were all 
portrayed. For example, if you hit a ball 
into the net. it would bounce lower than a 
bounce off the "ground,"* and would 
eventually die. 

The game was simple, but fun to play. 



and its charm was infectious. Potter 
remembers the popularity of the game: 
"The high schoolers liked it best. You 
couldn't pull them away from it." He's 
probably remembering young Dave Ahl, 
staring at the screen with a little voice 
inside him saying "this could be impor- 
tant." 

The ball and court lines were drawn 
and redrawn sequentially, at a rate that 
made for a flicker-free view of ground, 
net. and ball. This is an approach still 
used in game play field display. However 
the method of ball manipulation was and 
remains unique. 



The game was simple, 

but fun to play, 

and its charm was 

infectious. 



Without becoming too bogged down in 
explanation, consider the following. An 
oscilloscope is capable of generating 
cartesian coordinate displays. That is to 
say, a dynamic "graph" can be drawn, 
plotting the deflection of x or y propor- 
tionally to the voltages input as x or y. 

Higinbotham rigged up a circuit where- 
in the plot of these functions simulated 
the trajectory of a bouncing ball. Op- 



amps from a Donner Labs analog com- 
puter were used to generate this trajec- 
tory and to sense when the ball had struck 
the ground. When this occurred, a relay 
would be thrown, reversing the polarity 
of another op-amp. so that the ball would 
reflect its path and "take a bounce." 
Primitive, but effective. 

Other op-amps and relays were used to 
determine whether or not the ball had hit 
the net. As mentioned earlier, rebound 
velocity from the net was lower than from 
the ground, providing an extra bit of real- 
ism. 

Velocity, slowed continually by wind- 
speed, was simulated straightforwardly 
with a 10 meg. resistor. 

A toggle switch allowed players to 
choose which side to serve from, and net 
height, as well as court length, were 
adjustable. There was no way a player 
could "miss" the ball, as a push of the 
paddle button would always result in a hit 
when the ball was on that player's side of 
the net. Unless the player chose the 
correct angle and timing for a return, 
however, the shot would not make it back 
to the opponent's side. 

The implementation was very much 
more sophisticated than the first "Pong" 
games. It was the hit of the Brookhaven 
"visitors' days" for two years running. 
Eventually, however, it was dismantled. 

I asked Willy why he hadn't patented 
the thing at the time. He is responsible 
for over 20 patents, each of which 
reverted to the U.S. Government. 




r :T3S( *S 



Dave Potter (left) and Willy worked on the original design. 




192 



Willy describes the innards of his electronic tennis game. His 
rendering of the screen appears at right. 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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Who Really Invented the Video Game?, continued. 




The oscilloscope on which the game appeared. 



"We knew it was fun, and saw some 
potential in it at the time, but it wasn't 
something the government was interested 
in. It's a good thing, too. Today all video 
game designers would have to license 
their games from the federal govern- 
ment!" The idea somehow pleased Willy, 
and his laughter signalled it. 

To Magnavox, however, the rights to 
video games are no laughing matter; they 
could mean millions. The corporation 
seeks a patent on video games using 
bouncing balls, and has taken sworn 
depositions from Higinbotham concerning 
his own invention. Though Willy stands 
to make no monetary gain whatsoever, 
he has a personal stake in the contest. 

One must take a broader view of Willy's 
career to see the tennis game from the 
perspective that he himself does. 

Higinbotham was a graduate student in 
Physics at Cornell University at the out- 
break of World War II. He was invited to 
join research at the MIT Radiation Labo- 
ratory, where he worked on an advanced 
and important technique known as radio 
detecting and ranging, later shortened to 
RADAR. 

From there he joined the Manhattan 
District Project, working as a physicist on 



another exotic and potentially important 
technology. He became head of the Elec- 
tronics Division there in 1945. Higin- 
botham devised the timing circuits that 
took the first atomic bomb through the 
last few milliseconds preceding deto- 
nation. 



"We knew it was fun, 

and saw some potential 

in it at the time, but it 

wasn't something the 

government was 

interested in. " 



He worked with and knew J. Robert 
Oppenheimer quite well. "He was a charis- 
matic man." says Willy. "People tended 
either to worship or detest him. I did 
neither. He was brilliant, though. There's 
no doubt of that." 

At the time of the blast at Los Alamos. 
Willy was 24 miles from ground zero. 



able to watch the entire detonation 
through welder's glass so thick, he 
couldn't see an illuminated headlight 
through it. 

I asked him what it had been like. He 
grew quiet. He said that he and the other 
observers got into the trucks and made 
the long trip back to the compound in 
utter silence. No one had anything to say. 

Willy spent the next two years as exec- 
utive secretary of the Federation of Amer- 
ican Scientists, in Washington, D.C. He 
acted as a liaison between Congress and 
scientists, lobbying for the nonprolifera- 
tion of nuclear weapons. 

"It's taken over thirty years," Willy 
observes, "but the message is finally 
beginning to get through." His face 
brightens. Today, as a senior scientist at 
Brook haven Laboratory, he and his col- 
leagues have amassed the largest and most 
comprehensive library in the world con- 
cerning nuclear safeguards. 

I was warming up the car for the long 
trip home, staring across a field at the 
building housing the cyclotron. He's not 
only something. I thought to myself. He's 
a walking bit of history. He also invented 
the video game! □ 





Note the date of the blueprint: Oct. 1958. This date has 
been verified. 



196 



Willy describes the sight at Alamogordo in 1945. 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 




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Add a Joystick to Your TRS-80! 



Marc B. Stanis 

and 

David H.Ahl 




Are your fingers as uncoordinated as 
mine when you try to play Scarfman or 
Robot Attack'! Somehow. I just don't 
seem to be able to remember which 
fingers are controlling up and down 
movement and which are controlling right 
and left. And then remembering to fire 
with my thumb; by this time I'm all 
thumbs. 

This article describes how to add a 
joystick to a TRS-80 Model I or III in an 
hour or so for the bargain price of around 
$15. The joystick is completely compat- 
ible with all software (Basic and machine 
language) that uses the four arrow keys 
to move and the space bar to shoot. 

Since the joystick parallels the 
keyboard, it doesn't require a power 
supply. It need not be disconnected after 
use. nor does it contain any electronic- 
parts. If. for some reason the joystick 
malfunctions, your computer isn't in 
danger. At worst, you might have to 
replace the joystick. 

Before you begin construction, read 
through this entire procedure and be sure 
you understand it. You will need the parts 
listed in the table. You should also be 
aware that this installation will void the 
warranty on your computer and that it 
will have to be removed if the computer 
ever needs servicing by Radio Shack. 
Even if the modification has been remov- 
ed the warranty is still void. 

Atari joysticks which connect to the 
ribbon PC connector at the back of the 
TRS-80 are available from Big Five and 
Alpha. These do not void the warranty 
and work with many, but not all games. If 
you are leery about voiding your war- 
ranty we strongly recommend one of 
these products even though they arc- 
slightly less versatile than the one 
described in this article. 



Marc B. Slanis. 14930 S. Springfield Ave.. 
Midlothian. IL 60445. 



Examine the Joystick 

The first step is to remove the four 
Phillips head screws from the bottom of 
the Atari joystick case. Remove the stick 
mechanism. Be careful not to lose the 
small spring on the firing button. Examine 
the printed circuit board. The six con- 
nectors on the right side should have wires 
of the following colors connected to 
them: 

Joystick Wire 

Position Location Color 
Right Top Brown 

Up 2 White 

Common 3 Black 

Down 4 Blue 

Left 5 Green 

Button Bottom Orange 

If the wire colors do not correspond to 
this list, change the connectors so they 
do. Reassemble the joystick taking care 
that the firing button spring is back in 
place and that no wires are pinched— ei- 
ther between the edges of the case or 
between the edge of the case and the PC 
board. 

Cut the DE-9 connector off the end of 
the Atari joystick cable. Starting from 
that end of the cable, carefully remove 10 
to 12 inches of the outer plastic cable 
sheath with a sharp knife or electrical 
scissors. Take it slowly and be careful not 
to damage the six fine wires. 

After removing the cable sheath, ex- 
amine each of the six wires over its entire 
length to make sure it has not been 
damaged. If one or more have been 
damaged, you will have to replace them 
with fine (24 gauge) flexible wire or 
remove more of the cable sheath to get 
10 to 12 inches of intact wire. 

Next, strip off the insulation from the 
end 1/8" of each wire. Tin the ends of 
each wire, i.e.. with a hot pencil soldering 
iron, apply a small amount of solder to 
the tip of each wire. This will make them 
easier to solder to the PC board in the 

198 



next step. Apply heat and solder quickly 
so you do not melt any of the insulation. 
Inspect your work and set the joystick 
aside. 

Into the Computer 

Next you are going to open the com- 
puter. Be sure you are working in a static- 
free location, no rugs, cats, etc. Ground 
yourself out before starting work by 
grabbing a water pipe, grounded case of 
a three-wire power tool, etc. 

Remove the screws from the bottom of 
your computer and remember which 
screw came from which hole. Label them 
if necessary. (Note: Opening your com- 
puter voids the warranty.) If you have a 
Model I, lift off the bottom of the case 
and set it aside. Carefully flop the PC 
board in the direction of the wire con- 
nector. This exposes the bottom of the 
printed circuit board of the keyboard. 

If you have a Model III, after removing 
all the screws, turn the computer right 
side up. Lift the top off and tip it onto the 
left side leaving all the wires connected. 
Remove the six screws holding the key- 
board cover and set the cover aside. Tip 
the keyboard forward. 

Look at the etching on this PC board. 
Near each pair of connections (represent- 
ing each key) is a small silver etching of 
the name of the key (Model I) or a 
number (Model III). On the Model I, the 
second row down on the left, you should 
find the right and left arrow keys while 
the rightmost keys in the second and third 
rows are the up and down arrow keys. Of 
course, the spacebar is at the bottom. On 
the Model III everything will be reversed 
since the keyboard is effectively upside 
down. 

Figures 1 and 2 show the three portions 
of the etchings on the PC board around 
the keys of interest. Match this with your 
keyboard. Solder the colored wires to the 
connections indicated on Figures 1 or 2. 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 112 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Add A Joystick, continu«d. 





Figure I. Portions of the TRS-80 Model I keyboard by the arrow keys and spacebar. 



Right 
arrow 



Left 
arrow 




53 



Spacebar 



r*~T 




Figure 2. Portions of the TRS-80 Model III keyboard by the arrow keys and 
spacebar. 

Make connections as indicated: 
A Brown D Blue 
B Green E Orange 
C White F Black 



Solder these connections by touching the 
tip of the soldering pencil to the solder 
blob until it starts to melt (two seconds or 
so), inserting the tinned end of the wire 
and quickly removing the soldering 
pencil. Blow on the connection imme- 
diately. Following this procedure should 
insure that none of the wire insulation 
melts. If some insulation melts and the 
exposed wire could possibly touch anoth- 
er connection, unsolder it. cut off the 
end, tin it. and try again. 



Decide where you want the joystick 
cable to come out of your computer. 
Model I owners can snake it out through 
the rectangular ribbon connector hole on 
the back left of the case although it is 
difficult to put a strain relief on the cable 
at this point. A better choice might be the 
front or either side of the case which 
choices are also open to Model III 
owners. With a sharp knife or rat-tail file, 
cut a small 1/8" notch in the case of the 
computer. 



Back Together Again 

Tie a knot in the cable close to the end 
of the remaining sheathing. Alternatively, 
you may put a small cable clamp on at 
this point. Snake the wire to the notch 
and. with the knot or cable clamp on the 
inside, reassemble the computer case. 
When doing this, be sure all the spacers 
between the PC boards are where they 
belong, check that nothing is pinched and 
use the correct screws. 

Now comes the moment of truth. Turn 
on the computer (video display first, if a 
Model I). If you don't see the normal 
startup message, immediately turn off the 
computer; something is wrong. The prob- 
lem is probably that something is pinched 
since even gross mistakes in soldering or 
a shorted connection on the keyboard 
will not cause a non-startup condition. 
Re-check everything (keyboard connec- 
tions, damaged insulation, stray solder 
blobs, pinched wires, etc.) and reassem- 
ble. 

After a proper start, try the joystick. 
Pressing the fire button should print 
spaces. The up position should print up 
arrows (Model I) or left brackets (Model 
III). The left position should print back- 
spaces. The right position should print 
tabs while the down position should 
produce a carriage return/line feed. If 
you get any but these results, open the 
case and check the connection(s) to the 
keys which are not responding correctly. 
Reassemble and try again. 

The cable on the Atari joystick is about 
40" long; we have used about 12" of it 
inside the computer which leaves a 28- 
inch cable. If you feel that this is long 
enough (it should be for most purposes) 
and you don't mind having the joystick 
permanently connected to the computer, 
then just stop here. You are finished. 

On the other hand, if you want a 
removable joystick or a longer cable, you 
will have to cut the cable and install male 
and female connectors and, if you wish, a 
longer cable. You can choose any one of 
many in-line connector sets (Cinch-Jones. 
D.I.N.. etc.). Flexible six-conductor cable 
isn't so readily available and you might 
have to settle for ribbon cable. Some 
electronics outlets carry coiled six-con- 
ductor microphone cables (for CB and 
ham replacement use) which is perfect. 

Obviously the rule to follow when 
installing an in-line connector set or 
longer cable is to maintain the integrity 
of each wire. When you are done, pushing 
the joystick left should still act as a left 
arrow keystroke, the fire button should 
be a spacebar stroke, and so on. 

All done? Load in Scarfman or Robot 
Attack or your favorite shoot-'em-up 
game and you will be amazed. Never 
thought you could score that high, eh? □ 



200 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 259 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







Joytricks 



John Anderson 



Ever stare at the controller jacks in the 
front of your Atari computer and imagine 
all sorts of exotic hardware to connect up 
to it? I have, and while my work on a fully 
articulated robot arm is progressing quite 
slowly, there are a few modification 
projects I've undertaken that require little 
time, cost very few dollars, and provide 
nice results. 

End Discrimination Against Leflies 

As a left-handed gamesman. I've long 
suspected that my scores have been held 
down by the fact that joysticks are 
designed for righties. It's a very simple 
matter to turn a standard issue Atari 
joystick (fire button top left) into a lefty 
stick (fire button top right). 

When you disassemble the joystick, be 
careful not to lose any of the screws or 
the little spring that sits in the trigger 
button. Hold the circuit board so it 
resembles the configuration in Figure 1. 
Note: newer Atari joysticks have all the 
connectors on one side of the PC board 
while older ones have three connectors 
on each side. 

The leads must be removed from the 
board (grasp the collars: do not pull on 
the wires themselves) and reattached as 
shown. That's all there is to it— except to 
prominently label your new lefty joystick 



so that it does not drive some poor righty 
mad. The stick is now "referenced" with 
the trigger to the upper right. 

A Pushbutton Peripheral For Under $8 

I've been thinking about a homebrew 
controller jack peripheral for quite some 
time now. but the genesis of this idea 
really belongs to Rick Rowland. Though 
the controller is at its best when playing a 



The idea is simple: 

create a panel of 

pushbuttons to control 

all joystick functions. 



limited number of games, you can do 
quite a bit with it. If you have a joystick 
that has seen better days and is ready for 
retirement, you can reincarnate it as a 
pushbutton peripheral. 

The idea is simple: create a panel of 
pushbuttons to control all joystick func- 
tions. The Asteroids you'll find in arcades. 

202 



as well as Space Invaders. Galaxian. and 
other games, use button rather than 
joystick input. You can open up this realm 
at home with a few parts readily available 
at Radio Shack, and the cord from an old 
slick lyou may try finding a DE-9 plug at 
an electronics store, and making a cord 
yourself). 

You need only a few short snips of 
wire, some switches, and a box to mount 
it all in. I used three packages of push 
button switches (Radio Shack catalog 
#275-609). These are momentary contact 
switches, packed two to a package. I 
mounted five of them in a deluxe project 
case (Radio Shack #270-222). The total 
cost of these items was under 58.00. and 
created a new and enjoyable input 
device. 

Probably the toughest thing about the 
whole project is putting the mounting 
holes into the project case. If you don't 
have access to a drill with a suitably sized 
bit or hole cutter, you can do what 1 did: 
use your soldering iron to start the hole, 
and then ream it to size using the blade of 
a scissors. The two tricks to this technique 
are to work slowly, constantly checking 
the diameter of the hole against the switch 
collar, and not burning and/or cutting 
yourself. It can be done, and that's an 
advantage of a plastic project case 

October 1982 c Creative Computing 



Professional Software Introduces 
POWER 

by Brad Templeton 





*]* 



POWER TO YOUR s *9.** 
COMMODORE COMPUTER 



POWER produces a dramatic improvement in the 
ease of editing BASIC on Commodore's computers. 
POWER is a programmer's utility package (in a 4K 
ROM) that contains a series of new commands and 
utilities which are added to the Screen Editor and the 
BASIC Interpreter. Designed for the CBM BASIC 
user, POWER contains special editing, programming, 
and software debugging tools not found in any other 
microcomputer BASIC. POWER is easy to use and is 
sold complete with a full operator's manual written by 
Jim Butterfield. 

POWER'S special keyboard 'instant action' features 
and additional commands make up for, and go beyond 
the limitations of CBM BASIC. The added features 
include auto line numbering, tracing, single stepping 
through programs, line renumbering, and definition 
of keys as BASIC keywords. POWER even includes 



new "stick-on" keycap labels. The cursor movement 
keys are enhanced by the addition of auto-repeat and 
text searching functions are added to help ease pro- 
gram modification. Cursor UP and cursor DOWN 
produce previous and next lines of source code. 
COMPLETE BASIC program listings in memory can 
be displayed on the screen and scrolled in either direc- 
tion. POWER is a must for every serious CBM user. 

Call us today, for the name of the Professional 
Software dealer nearest you. 

Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Road 

Needham, MA 02194 

Tel: (617) 444-5224 Telex #951579 

CIRCLE 243 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Figure I. 




ORANGE 
WHITE 
GREEN 



O 

WHT 
SGRN 



BRN 

obssei 

BLU 



BROWN 
BLUE 
BLKffi^j BLACK 




— ORANGE 

— BROWN felgggg WHT 

— WHITE ^^^GRN 



BRN 
OBBBJBLUE- 

BLU Bg^ GREEN — 



BLK^^ BLACK — 



ORIGINAL WIRING 



T = Trigger 
L = Left 
R = Right 
D = Down 
U = Up 



LEFTY" MODIFICATION 



Figure I A. New Style Joystick. 




BROWN 

WHITE 

BLACK 

BLUE 

GREEN 

ORANGE 




BLUE 
BROWN 
BLACK 
GREEN 
WHITE 
| ORANGE 



ORIGINAL WIRING 



LEFTY" MODIFICATION 



204 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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(617)444-5224 
TELEX 95 1579 

CIRCLE 244 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



iellu 




Computing 



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275A 



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CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Joytricks, continued... 








Figure 1 


> 










f 

o 

o 

o 


© 
© 


o 



o 

J 




© 

© © 
• © 




• Style 


o 

o 

J 








"Arcade" Style 


"Clock-Directional' 

T = Trigger 

L = Left 

R - Right 

D = Down (Hyperspace) 

U = Up (Thrust) 







(another is its low price). 

Refer to Figure 2 for possible button 
configurations. The first is the "classic" 
Asteroids format. If you're building a 
peripheral just to play Asteroids, this is 
the way to go. The second is what we 
might call a "clock-directional" format, 
which in the long run proves to be a more 
versatile set-up. I made up one of each, 
and prefer the clock-directional arrange- 
ment for a variety of games. 

You will need a groove in the box 
portion of the case to allow the cord to 



pass through. You may again use the 
soldering iron to do this, making the 
groove only wide enough to push the 
retaining collar in. This way it won't be 
easy to yank the wire out by its roots. 

In order to wire up the new peripheral, 
refer to Figure 3. As far as I know, this 
color scheme is standard. In order to 
attach connectors to the pushbuttons, 
you'll want to press each connector lightly 
between the jaws of a pliers. If you are 
careful about this, you will create a good 
connection without losing the ability to 



remove the cable later. Those of you who 
wish to make your own cord will 
have to find a DE-9 connector, (which 
may not be easy), and wire it as shown in 
Figure 4. 

Necessarily, diagonal motion is tough 
with this configuration, as it requires two 
buttons to be pressed simultaneously. As 
a result, games in which the player moves 
in one dimension are especially suited for 
pushbutton input (Asteroids is a notable 
exception). If you feel really brave, try it 
with a maze game, like Jawbreaker. 



Figure .?. Flip-Side Wiring Diagram. 



o 

C T ) 

• \ 


( d J ac ( r ) 






f QWHITE ^\ 
\ — BLUE ^/ 




"Arcade" Style 






"Clock-Directioral" Style 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



207 







oytricks, continue 




(T) TRIGGER ■ ORANGE 
/T) UP -WHITE 
(T) DOWN - BLUE 



Figure 4. Atari Controller Jack Pin 
Configuration and Color Code. 



(T) LEFT - GREEN 
(T) RIGHT- BROWN 



This is the jack — the plug wires up 
"mirror-image" 

5 4 3 2 1 




6 6 6 6 




COMMON - BLACK 



Double Your Fire Power 

If you construct a pushbutton peri- 
pheral with the parts I've listed above, 
you will have an extra button left over. It 
is a relatively simple matter to attach this 
button to the handle of an existing joy- 
stick, thereby adding a second trigger in a 
very handy place. It's nice to be able to 
fire with the same hand that steers, and 
because the conventional trigger remains 
enabled, you can easily squeeze off more 
shots this way. 

Use a blade of your trusty (and by this 



time, quite dull) scissors to press a hole 
through the top of the stick. Next, dis- 
assemble the stick, following the instruc- 
tions given above for the "lefty" modifi- 
cation. Remove the white plastic stem 
from inside the handle. Using a saw or 
serrated kitchen knife, cut off about a 
half an inch from the top of the stem. 
This will provide the needed room for the 
switch. 

Unscrew all collars and retainers from 
the neck of the button. Solder two 12- 
inch lengths of wire to the switch con- 



tacts, braiding these leads together. Pass 
them through the hole you made on top 
of the stick, and through the white plastic- 
stem. Then screw the pushbutton directly 
into the top of the joystick handle. The 
other ends of the leads attach as shown in 
Figure 5. Reassemble the stick, remaining 
mindful of that little spring that sits on 
the original trigger button. You will 
effectively have doubled your firing abil- 
ity. Remember, however, some games do 
not allow for excessively rapid fire play. 




ORANGE gg^O 

|WHT 



BRN 



BLU^O 



^^GRN 



BLK^^ 



BLACK — 




BLACK — 



ORANGE — 



Figure 5. Second Trigger Wiring. 



Figure SA. New Style Stick. 



208 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Atari Game Controllers 



If you like the idea of a pushbutton 
controller, but lack the time, talent, or 
inclination to construct one. you may 
want to purchase one of the ready- 
made controllers described below. 



would have to withstand a few bounces 
off the floor. It is very large, and can 
be cradled or used on a tabletop by 
even the tiniest kids. The buttons 
themselves sit in raised collars, and. 




though not as fast as the buttons or 
the Starplex unit, appear to be the 
"regulation" coin-op standard. They 
are large and easy to control. 

The KY Enterprises controller is 
priced at $26.95. and is available in 
left- or right-handed models. They also 
manufacture controllers for the 
handicapped. 

KY Enterprises. 3039 East Second 
St.. Long Beach, CA 90803. 

Accu-Play 

A third pushbutton controller, the 
Accu-Play Control Board, we did not 
have an opportunity to test. It sells for 
$29.95 from Accu-Tech Products. 
10572 Swinden Ct.. Cincinnati, OH 
45241. 



Starplex Controller 

The Starplex controller from Star- 
plex Electronics, offers an authentic 
"Asteroids-style" button configuration, 
as well as the fastest set of pushbuttons 
I have ever seen. In addition, an 
optional AA battery powers a "rapid- 
fire" mode, automatically repeating 
fire faster than you can do it by hand. 

Because the pushbutton array is 
large and has a light touch, the con- 
troller takes a bit of getting used to. 
Eventually, however, I found that the 
lightning fast direction changes pos- 
sible with Starplex resulted in higher 
scores. 

It should be mentioned that because 
many games do not allow a new shot 
to be fired until an old one leaves the 
screen, the "rapid-fire" option will not 
always work optimally. Still, you can 
fire continuously merely by holding 
the button down, rather than having 
to re-press the trigger for each shot (or 
battery of shots). Over the long haul 
this reduces fatigue, and the incidence 
of "joystick elbow." 

The unit lists for $29.95, which is a 
bargain for the most authentic game 
of Asteroids this side of the coin-op. It 
improved my score on several other 
games as well. 

Starplex Electronics, Inc.. E23301. 
Liberty Lake. WA 99019. (509) 924- 
3654. 



KY Enterprises 

The controller offered by K Y Enter- 
prises uses a directional-style configu- 
ration, less suitable for Asteroids but 
more versatile overall. For those unfa- 
miliar with the arcade configuration, 
it is much easier to master this logical 
layout. 

The unit exhibits extra sturdy con- 
struction—as if its makers knew it 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



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Part 2 



Searching Techniques 



Edward Mitchell 



An Introduction to Data Structures 

Part 1 of this four-part series introduced the concepts of 
algorithms and data structures. In this section we will explore 
several data structures in detail — lists, stacks, queues, and 
trees— and demonstrate their use in table searches, arithmetic 
expression evaluation, subroutine calls, simulations, process 
waiting areas in computer operating systems and in a typical 
application program. By choosing the correct form for the 
data in a problem, both memory requirements and execution 
time may be reduced. 

This article introduces each of the data structures and 
illustrates some possible uses. A simple genealogical database 
is designed showing how tree structures and stacks are used 
in a real application. The program source listing for the 
genealogical database appears next month in Part 3. Also in 
Part 3, methods of programming the data structures in Basic 
are presented. 

Data Structure Definition 

A data structure is an organized collection of data. For our 
purposes, the smallest piece of data to be used is a simple 
character or integer, each made from some number of hits of 
storage. The bit, or binary or 1 , is the basic unit of computer 
memory. An integer in this article, and in many real computing 
systems, occupies 16 bits of storage. Most computers define a 
byte (usually equivalent to a single character such as A or B) 
as a sequence of eight bits. For example, a bit, a byte and an 
integer might be depicted as 



Ibit 

8 bits = 1 byte 

16 bits = 1 integer 



Typically, these are the fundamental storage units that the 
computer circuitry recognizes. The software manipulates the 
basic building blocks to develop more complex data struc- 
tures. For example, a character string is little more than a 
sequence of characters strung together. 



s 


m| i 


LB 



Similarly, an array of integers is just a sequence of integer 
storage locations. 



101 1 .S|73|67|l3|a 



The building blocks of characters and integers can be 
combined and referenced in numerous ways to form new 
data types. By treating the value of an integer as the address 
of another integer, a new type, called the pointer is created. 
For example, in the small section of memory shown below, 
the value of memory cell 101 is interpreted as the location or 
address of another cell. 



99 


10 


100 


20 


101 


105 


102 


110 


103 


236 


104 


17 


105 


-1 



In this case, we say that cell 101 
the name "pointer." 



"points" to cell 105, hence 



By combining groups 

of characters, integers 

and pointers, new 

and complex data 

types are created. 



Edward Mitchell. 813 West Stevens Ave., n I. 
Santa Ana. CA 92707. 



By combining groups of characters, integers and pointers, 
new and complex data types are created. When collections of 
data types are brought together, they are called a record. 
Many languages, including Pascal, PL/1, Cobol, and Ada 
provide language support for record structures: Basic does 
not. 



210 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



Nat Even These Guys Can 
Promise Complete Protection 



Does your insurance? 

It's a startling fact, but most 
homeowners insurance doesn't 
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Intro to Data Structure, continued. 



Lists 

A list is a sequence of memory cells linked together by 
pointers. The first group has a pointer to the second group, 
which in turn has a pointer to the third, and so on. The basic 
list structure is illustrated in Figure 1 . The first element of the 
list is called the head and the last element is called the tail. 
New elements are inserted into the list by setting the 
appropriate pointers. 

In Figure 1, much of memory is used for pointers and 
doesn't hold any data. However, by enlarging the data area, 
memory usage is improved. For example, a data type made 
from 16 characters and a pointer appears in Figure 2, where 
the ratio of useful data memory to pointer memory is much 
higher. 

In Figure 1 , the only way to get to element d is to start at 
the head of the list at a and traverse the pointers until arriving 
at d. As shown, the list is only traversed in the direction of the 
pointers. But by adding a new pointer to each list element, 
called a backpointer, the list can be traversed in either 
direction. Element c can then be reached by starting at the 
tail and traversing the list in the reverse direction. 



I I I I I I I I I ~l 



c 



Q 



I I l l l I l l I I 1— l 



i i i i i i i i i I 1 I l l l l 1 



Figure 2. A problem with the list structure shown in Figure I 
is that much of the memory is used to hold pointers, rather 
than real data. However, if the data area for each element is 
enlarged, memory utilization can be improved. As shown 
here, when the data area per element is increased, the ratio of 
useful data memory to pointer memory is much higher. Of 
course, if the data area is not completely used, then memory 
utilization may still be poor. 











■ 


1 " 

Head 


Ibl I |c| 
— t I T L 


i Ni i 


i«i i 

Tail 

(a) 






i 


"1 1 




1 . 


l a l 1 

i 


M 1 Id 

t i t i 


Id 




l_r 


1 T 








(b) 


I a 
Head 


Tb i 


Tail 

\l« 1 


(c) 



Figure J. A list is a sequence of memory cells that are linked 
together. The first element is connected to the second, the 
second to the third, and so on, through the use of a pointer, 
la) identifies the parts of a list structure. The first element is 
called the head while the last element is called the tail. New 
elements are easily inserted or deleted simply by changing 
the pointer connections, as shown at (b). tc) shows the addition 
of "backpointer" so that the list can be traversed in both 
directions. 



Self-Organizing Lists 

Lists are useful for tables that are subject to frequent 
changes. In Part 1, a self-organizing list structure was 
described as a way of sequentially searching a table ordered 
by the frequency of occurrence of each name. The list 
structure is well suited to constructing a self organizing table. 
As names are added, they are attached at the head of the list. 
For example, when the name PAUL is added to a list already 
containing the names GEORGE, LISA, and BERNADETTE, 
the following list is produced. 




To search the list for LISA, the names are examined in the 
sequence. PAUL. GEORGE, and finally LISA. Once LISA is 
found, the algorithm puts the name at the head of the list, 
giving. 




Every time a name is found, it is relocated to the head of the 
list. Names that are accessed frequently stay near the front of 
the list, while seldom referenced names remain at the rear. 

Stacks 

Like the list, the stack is a structure that may grow and 
contract dynamically. Stacks are used for subroutine calls, 
recursive subroutine calls (recursive routines call themselves), 
arithmetic expression evaluation, sorting and searching 
algorithms and in many other applications. In some cases, the 
stack is like an array that grows in size at one end (See Figure 
3). Data are always added to and removed from the top of the 
stack. Consequently, the most recent datum placed on the 
stack is also the first to be removed. 



212 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



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Diablo 630 2095.00 

Epson MX-80 w/Graftrax 439.00 

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Epson MX-100 FT Printer 695.00 

Hayes Smartmodem 225.00 

IDS 560 Paper Tiger 1099.00 

IDS Prism 80 (Color) 1379.00 

IDS Prism 132 (Color) 1559.00 

Mannesmann Tally MT 1802 1499.00 

Microtek 32K Ramboard for Atari 400 & 800 . . 1 19.00 

Microsoft Soft Card (Z-80) 279.00 

Microsoft Soft Card Premium System for Apple 579.00 

Microsoft Ramcard 64K for IBM-PC 369.00 

NEC 3510 or 3530 Spinwriter 1675.00 

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NEC PC-8023 Printer 489.00 

NEC GREEN JB1 201 M— 12 Monitor 169.00 

Okidata Microline — 80 Matrix Printer 329.00 

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Okidata Microline — 84 Parallel 1095.00 

Sharp PC-1500 Pocket Computer 239.95 

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Smith-Corona TP-1 649.00 

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An Intro to Data Structure, continued. 

Data are added by pushing a new element onto the stack. 
For example, 

TOP OF STACK- 
TOP OF STACK- 
TOP OF STACK-* r 







7 


5 




5 


1 




l 


3 




3 



Initial Stack Pushing a 5 Pushing a 7 
Data are removed by popping them off the top of the stack. 



T 
5 

l 
3 




c 

5 

l 
3 



^m 



^s 



Initial Stack 



7 is popped 5 is popped 
from the stack from the stack 



Stack Top- 



Stack Top- 



Stack Base 



\y 



n 



Stack 
Base- 



Stack Top- 
Stack Base- 



Stack with Stacks grow Stacks shrink by removing 
3 numbers on the top Data from the top 



Figure 3. The stack in operation. Data are added by pushing 
them on to the top of the stack. When data are removed they 
are popped off the top. Consequently the last number put on 
the stack is also the first to be removed. 

Stacks and Subroutine Calls 

Figure 4 shows how stacks are used in subroutine calls. The 
Basic program shown in 4(a) calls a subroutine, which in turn 
calls another subroutine and so on. The output from this 
program is shown in 4(b). 

When the program runs, the statement at line 10 calls the 
subroutine at line 100. When the subroutine at line 100 is 
completed, the program returns to line 20. Internally, the 
computer uses a stack to remember the return location. 
When it executes the GOSUB statement at line 10, it places 
line 20 on the stack as shown below: 



20 



The subroutine at line 100, in turn, calls the subroutine at line 
200, placing the return location of 120 onto the stack. 



120 



20 



By the time the program reaches line 600, the stack 
contains. 



520 



420 



320 



220 



120 



20 



At line 610, the RETURN statement causes the subroutine to 
return to the line where it was called. So Basic pops the 
return address from the stack, yielding line 520. At line 520 
another RETURN statement is executed, and again, the return 
address is popped. The program continues popping return 
addresses until it reaches the STOP at line 30. 



to gosub too 

20 PRINT "ALL DONL" 

50 STOP 

100 PRINT "Al SUBROUTINE lOO" 

110 GQSUB 200 

120 PRINT "BAO FROM SUBROUTINE 200" 

130 RETURN 

■ MNT "AT SUBROUTINE 200" 
210 GOSUb 

PRINT "BACt FROM SUBROUTINE .'. 

RETURN 

500 PRINT "AT SUBROUTINE X 

1" OOSUB 4-X> 

PRINT "BALI FRUM SUBRUU1INL ■• 

RE TURN 
400 PRINT "Al SUBROUTINE 4W 
4lo GOSUB BOO 

42'.' PRINT "BACK FROM SUBROUTINE 500" 
I." RETURN 

300 PRINT "AT SUBROUTINE ■■ 
510 GOSUB faOO 
520 PRINT "boCt FROM SUBROUIINL faOO" 

RETURN 
600 PRINT "A! SUBROUTINE faOO" 
fa 10 RETURN 



Ma) 



AT SUBROUT 
AT SUBROUT 
AT SUBROUT 
AT SUBROUT 
AT SUBROUT 
AT SUBROUT 
BACt FROM 
BACK FROM 
BACK FROM 
BACK FROM 
BACK FROM 
ALL DONE 



INE loo 
INE 2O0 
INE 300 
INE 400 

INE 5'."' 
INE 400 

SUBROUTINE 600 
SUBROUTINE 5O0 
SUBROUTINE 400 
SUBROUTINE 300 
SUBROUTINE 20O 



Mb) 



520 



420 



320 



220 



120 



20 



Top of Stack 



4(c) 



214 



Figure 4. Using a stack for subroutines. When the program in 
(a) runs, it produces the output shown in (b). When the 
program reaches line 600 the stacks looks as in (c). The line 
numbers on the stack are the lines that Basic will go to after 
executing a RETURN statement. The stack allows the Basic 
program to jump to subroutines within subroutines without 
losing track of who called whom. 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 




LET YOUR APPLE SEE THE WORLD! 

The DS-65 Digisector' opens up a whole new world for your Apple II. Your computer 
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The DS-65 is an intelligent peripheral card with on -board software in 2708 EPROM 
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An Intro to Data Structure, continued... 

Stacks and Expression Evaluation 

Stacks are used during arithmetic expression evaluation to 
store temporary results. Users of reverse polish notation (RPN) 
calculators are familiar with the notion of stacks and their use 
to evaluate expressions. Pressing the ENTER key is 
synonymous with a push onto the stack. 

Consider the expression (3+5)/(2+2). To solve, we add 3 
and 5, giving 8, and then 2 and 2 giving 4. Then we divide 8 by 
4 to give 2. During evaluation, two temporary solutions are 
obtained: (3+5) = 8 and (2+2) = 4. The expression might be 
expressed as 

Tl = (3+5) 

T2 = (2+2) 

Answer = T1/T2 
When the computer evaluates this expression, it uses a stack 
to store the temporary results. 

Evaluating expressions by computer is quite complicated 
and is not described here (See Aho and Ullman |1977|, 
Grappel, or Maurer). A parser must be constructed that 
distinguishes the precedence of arithmetic operations (e.g. 
multiply before adding). Because parsers are difficult to 
construct, we treat the parser as a black box that does the 
evaluation for us. Given the expression (3+5)/(2+2), the 
parser begins its work at the leftmost parenthesis. Seeing the 
number 3, the parser places 3 on the stack to give, 







Next, it sees the "+" symbol and temporarily saves it as the 
arithmetic operator. Then the 5 is placed on the stack. 



The operator "+" is applied to the top two elements of the 
stack to give. 







tie tront or head of the line, and 
advances to the teller window. In computer terms, a queue is 
a list in which new elements are always added to the tail and 
always removed from the head. A queue is shown in Figure 5. 
Elements are added to the queue as in 5(b) and removed as in 
5(c). 



rAnTBTrcTTbTcET^ 



1 

Head 



/ 
Tail 



! 



(a) 



to cm 



Head 



Tail 



J 

(b) 



nn rl^rrcnTblTEnn^Fnn^lTfe 



Head 



J 



1 



Tail 



(c) 



Figure 5. A queue is Just like the line that customers form 
when waiting for service in a store. New customers wait at the 
end of the line while customers who have waited longest are 
served at the front. As a data structure, a queue is a list for 
which new items are always added at the tail and removed 
from the head. A queue is shown in (a), with A as the first 
element and Fas the last. New elements are added at the tail, 
as illustrated in (b) showing the addition of two new elements 
G and H. Elements are always removed from the head of the 
queue and the head pointer is adjusted to point to the next 
element in the queue, as shown in (c). 



(For those with RPN calculators, this is equivalent to the 
sequence 3, Enter, 5, +). 

Recognizing that expressions within parentheses must be 
evaluated first, the parser scans to the next subexpression. 
Both 2s are placed onto the stack, giving 



and then added together to give, 



Finally, the second number from the top of the stack is 
divided by the number on the top to produce the answer. 



m 



Qu 

The line created by bank customers waiting for a teller is a 
queue. New customers (assuming that they are polite and do 
not cut in) arrive at the rear or tail of the line. When a teller is 



Queues are often used in simulations to keep track of 
events. For example, in an airport simulation, aircraft are 
waiting for clearance to taxi to the runway, to take off, and to 
land. In a simulation, each of the holding points is represented 
by a queue structure (See Gorney 11979]) for more infor- 
mation about queues and simulations). 



A queue is a list 

In which new elements 

are always added 

to the tail and 

always removed from 

the head. 



In a multi-user computer system, several users may wish to 
print simultaneously on the single line printer attached to the 
system. Since the printer can only print one data file at a 
time, additional print requests are placed into a queue where 
they wait for processing by the printer. 



216 



October 1 082 e Creative Computing 



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An Intro to Data Structure, continued 



Trees 

Trees are used to organize data for searching, to represent 
the syntactic structure of program inside compilers, and in 
database management systems. A family tree, illustrated in 
Figure 6(a) is a tree structure showing relationships among 
family members. 

Each of the parts of the tree has a name, as shown in 6(b). 
Since the tree is upside down, the top point is called the root, 
and the lines issuing downward from the root are brunches. 

Each of the branching points is called a node while leaves 
are found at the extreme ends of the branches. A tree with 
two or fewer branches at each node is called a binary tree. 
Trees containing more than two branches do exist, but are 
not discussed here. 

An ordered table could be represented as the tree shown 
below: 




Traversing the branches of the tree as shown by the arrows, 
traces the table entries in alphabetical order: A, B, C, D, E, F, 
G. The symbol D at the root position is at the alphabetic 
center of the table. Referring to Algorithm 2 in Part 1, the 
ordered table binary search begins at the name in the middle 
of the table. Similarly, the root of the tree corresponds to the 
middle of the table and is used as the starting position for the 
binary tree search. 



FFF FFM FMF FMM MFF MFM MMF MMM 




FF FM 




MF MM 








F 




M 






(a) 
(b)/ 


\ Famil 
branch 

A 

i Data J 


1 
y Tree c 

root 

./-~\ 

y< node 

"A X ' 

leaves 
itructure Tree 


X 


h 



Figure (6t- The family tree in fa) shows the relationships 
among family members. The child. C. is at the root of the 
tree, with his parents just above. The child's father's father's 
father is shown at the extreme upper left. Similar relationships 
are shown elsewhere in the tree. In data structures, a tree is 
usually represented upside down, so that C would be on the 
top with his father and mother just beneath. At fb) the parts 
of a tree are labelled using data structure terminology. 



Placing the names from Part 1, Figure 3 into a tree gives 
the structure shown in Figure 7. In Part 1 , a detailed example 
was given to search for the name ERIC within an ordered 
table. That search began with the name F.RIKA at the 



midpoint of the ordered table. Since ERIC was alphabetically 
less than ERIKA, all names greater than or equal to ERIKA 
could be removed from further consideration. 





Eratej 


(rhariiT) 


(^Mike) 


f Alvm j \\ Darlene) 


C John ) C Feier J 


( Alan ) C Barbara) f Danwon) f Fric 


)C < ** ur l t OC |_jva ) (Nathan) C Richard J 



Figure 7. Searching a binary tree for ERIC. Starting at the 
root, ERIC is less than ERIKA so the name must lie along the 
left branch. But since ERIKA is greater than CHARLIE it 
must be to the right of CHARLIE. Eventually the search finds 
ERIC to the right ofDARLENE in just four tries. 



When the table is a tree structure, the binary search begins 
at the root of the tree, where ERIKA appears. Since the 
names appearing on the right branch from ERIKA are all 
alphabetically greater than ERIC, that entire branch may be 
removed from further consideration. The search then 
descends down the left branch to CHARLIE. Comparing 
CHARLIE to ERIC, the algorithm chooses the right sub- 
branch as the only possibility, so it descends to DARLENE. 
But since ERIC is greater than DARLENE, the search 
descends to the right where ERIC is found. The branches 
within the tree lead directly to the next guess, just as arithmetic 
is used to select the next guess when using the binary ordered 
table search. 

Let's see what happens when we search for EDWARD, a 
name which does not appear in the tree. The search starts in 
the same way as does the search for ERIC, descending down 
the left branch from ERIKA to CHARLIE, from CHARLIE 
to DARLENE, and from DARLENE to ERIC. At ERIC the 
search tries the left but since the left branch doesn't exist, the 
algorithm concludes that EDWARD is not in the table. 

Adding a name to the tree is simple. Since the algorithm 
expects to find EDWARD to the left of ERIC, it attaches a 
new leaf and places EDWARD at that point. If the names are 
entered into the tree in a bad order, such as alphabetical 
order, the tree can become extremely lopsided, taking on the 
appearance of a list: 
.A 




Fortunately, Knuth has shown that if we assume the names 
to be entered in random order, the tree will probably organize 
into a structure that is close to being optimum. 

A Practical Application 

Genealogists often need to find the name, birth date, or 
place of birth of a distant ancestor. A question such as, "Who 



218 



October 1982 • Creative Computing 



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MSM-104500 $34995 ea 2 tot $329.95 ea 

Tendon TM100-3 single sided double-density 98 TPI 
MSM 551003 $324 95 ea 2 lor S2M.9S ea 

Tandon TM100-4 double-sided double-density 96 7Pi 

MSM 551004 $448 95 ea 2 tor $41* 95 ea 

MPI B-51 single-sided double-density 40 track 

MSM 155100 $234 95ea 2 tor $224 95 ea 

MPI B-S2 double-sided double-density 40 track 

MSM 155200 S344 9Sea 2 lor $334.95 ee 

MPI B-91 single-sided double density T7 track 

MSM 155300 $369 95 ea 2 lor $35*95 ea 

MPI B-92 double-sided double-density 77 track 

MSM- 155400 $469 95ea 2 tor $459*5 ea 

5' , Cabinets with Powar Supply 
END-000216 Single cab w power supply $69.95 

END-000226 Dual cab w power supply $94.95 



8" Disk Drives 



Shugart SA810 halt-sue single sided double-density 

MSF-106100 $424 95 ea 2 for $394.95 ea 

Shugart SA860 halt-sue double-sided double density 
MSF-108600 $574 95 ea 2 for $549.95 M 

Shugart SA801R smgie-sided double-density 
MSF-10801R $394 95 ea 2 for $399.95 em 

Shugart SA8S1R double- sided double-density 
MSF-10851R $55495 ea 2 lor $539.95 ea 

Tandon TM848-1 single sided double den thm-lme 
MSF-S59481 $424 95 ea 2 for $394 95 M 

Tandon TM848-2 double-sided double den thm-lme 
MSF -556482 $574 95 ea 2 for $549.95 M 

Qume DT-8 double-sided double -density 

MSF 750060 $524 95 ea 2 for $499.95 ee 

Mitsubishi M2894-63 double-sided double-density 
MSF 289463 $549 95 ea 2 for $524.95 ea 

Slamans FDD 100-8 single sided double-density 
MSF 201120 $334 95 ea 2 for $349.95 M 

Prices may be slightly higher at our retail locations. Pleas 
contact the store In your area tor exact pricing. 



Hard Disk Drives 



12 MEGABYTE SUB-SYSTEM - DayStar 

12 Megabyte Winchester sub-system lor most CP M based 
microcomputers including Apple II. S- 100. IBM PC. NEC. 
Xerox. TRS-80 II. Heath H 89 and others Subsystem 
includes interlace controller, cabinet power supply. CPM 
soltwere peich. A cables ■ reedy to lust plug in and run A 1 
Megebyte beck- up drive is elso available 
MSH 531010 S 100 subsystem $20*5.00 

MSH 531020 Apple II sub-system $20*5.00 

MSH-531030 NEC subsystem $20*5.00 

MSH 531040 Xerox sub-system $20*5.00 

MSH-531050 7flS 80 II subsystem $20*5.00 

MSH 5310*0 IBM PC sub-system $20*5.00 

MSH 531099 I Megabyte back-up $***.*S 

12 MEGABYTE WINCHESTER - Tandon 

S' t hard disk drive tor hi speed mass storage 

MSH 550*03 Bare 5', drive $10*4*5 1 



Letter Quality Printers 



TP-1 LETTER QUALITY - SCM 

10 CPS daisy wheel printer from Smith Corona 
PRD-45101 Centronics parallel $699 95 

PRD-45102 Rs 232C senel $749 95 

LETTER QUALITY PRINTER - Jade 

Uses standard daisy wheels and ribbon cartridges. 16 CPS I 
bidirectional printing, semi-automatic paper loader (single 
sheet or fan fold). 10 12 IS pitch, up to 16" paper, built-in | 
noise suppression cover 
PRO- 11001 Centronics parallel $959.95 I 

PRD-11002 RS-232C serial model $999.95 | 

STARWRITER F-10 - C. Itoh 
New 40 CPS daisy wheel printer with full 15" carriage, uses 
standard Diablo print wheels and ribbons, both parallel and ' 
serial interfaces included 
PRO 22010 Star writer F-fO $1495.95 

80 CPS LETTER QUALITY - Fujitsu 
High speed daisy wheel printer with both RS-232C serial A 
Centronics parallel interfaces, emulates NEC 5510. Diablo \ 
630. Qume. and will inter face to the IBM Personal Computer 
features include Z 80 CPU. 16K butter I48K optional,, bi- 
directional printing. & baud rates up to 19 2K 
PRD-96100 Fuiitsu with 16K $289500 I 

PRO 86200 Fuiitsu with 48K $3195.00 

PRA-86000 Adtustabie tractor $19000 



Software 



PLANNER CALC - Target Software 

Spread sheet (what it ">) program designed with the user in 
mind, user oriented I simple engtish) commands allow you lo 
quickly master this powerful software peckege. supplied on 
disk tor most CP M besed systems 
SFA-122S1052M Apple II S'V CP M $4* 95 

SFC-122S1050F SS SO 8 CP M $4**5 

SFC-12251053F Xerox 8 CP M $4**5 

SFC 122510S3M Xeros 5/ CP M $49*5 

SFX-12251051M NEC S'V CP M $49 95 

PAC MAN - Atari 

Aten's best selling geme for your 800 or 400 computer 
SFI-312S4022E Pec Man cartridge $37*5 I 



Place Orders Toll Free 



Continental I ' S 

800-421-5500 



Inside California 

800-202-1710 



n/ Intjui ■■ 

213-973-7707 



Computer Products 

mil W Roatcrane, Hun thorn,-. Ca M250 

TKHMS ..f BALE: Caah, checks. credit cards, or 

leri (mm qualified firms and institutions 
Minimum Order SI 5. 00. California raaidenta add 6% 
taut Minimum shipping & handling charge $.UM) 
Pricing 4 avaiiibilitv subject to change 



CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



•IH.It 



rive for Apple $ 319. 95 



Diskettes 



Single User System Single Board Computer 



PREMIUM DISKETTES - Jade 

We proudly put our name on these high quality diskettes • 

S%" Ok**!—. Bom of Ten 

MMD 51 10103 SS SO 01 S (29 00 

MMD 51 1 1003 SS SD I OS ... $29.00 

MMD 51 11(03 SS. SO. t6S $29 00 

MMD 5120103 SS. DO OtS $31.00 

MMD-S121003 SS. DO. 010 (31.00 

MMD 5121(03 SS 00 t«S (31.00 

r Diskettes. Bom of Tan 

MMD (110103 SS SO OIS (31.00 

MMD-9120103 SS. DO OtS (3*00 

MMD (220103 OS. CD. D>$ S4S.O0 

BARGAIN DISKETTES 

MMD 5110105 57." SS. 00. OtS (19 95 

MMD 5220105 5', OS. DO. OIS (32 95 

MMD (110105 8 SS. SO. OtS (24 95 

MMD (120105 8 SS. OO. OIS (32 95 

MMP-9220105 8" SS. 00. OIS (35 95 



Video Monitors 



HI-RES 12" GREEN - Zenith 

IS MHi bmndwith 700 lines inch. P3t green phosphor 
switcheble 40 or BO columns, small, light weight A portable 
VDM-201201 List price (189 95 (129 95 

12" GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

20 MHl bandwidth. P3t phosphor ultrahigh rasolutron 
I video monitor with audio 
I VDM-M1M0 List price (789 95 (199 95 

12" COLOR MONITOR - NEC 

High resolution color monitor with audio 

I VOC-SS1212 Color monitor (3(9.95 

! NEC-1202D RGB color monitor (999 95 

13" COLOR MONITORS - BMC 

18 MHl RGB A composite video color monitors 

I VDC-421320 13" RGB Color (329 95 

VOC-421310 IT Composite video (299 95 

| VOX-420090 RGB card tor Apple (149 95 

COLOR MONITORS - Amdek 

Reasonably priced color video monitors 

I VOC 90130 13 Color I (379 95 

VOC-901320 13 Color II (194.95 

| IOV-2300A DVM board lor Apple (199.9$ 

AMBER or GREEN MONITORS - Jade 

High resolution IB MHi compact video monitors 
VDM 751210 1} Amber phosphor (149.95 

VDM 751220 12 Green phosphor (139.9$ 

VDM-750910 9" Amber phosphor $149.9$ 

VDM 750920 9" Green phosphor $139.9$ 



Modems 



SIGNALMAN - Anchor 

Direct connect automatic answer originate selection 300 
| Baud full duplex. Bell 103. includes RS 232 cable 
1 IOM-M00A Signalman tM SO 

SMARTMOOEM - Hayes 

Sophisticated direct connect autoanswer autodial 

modem, touch-tone or pulse dialing. RS-232C interface. 

programmable 

IOM-5400A Smartmodem $249 95 

IOK-1S00A Hayes Chronograph $219.95 

IOM-2010A Micromodem II 1328 95 

IOM-11Q0A Micrpmodem 100 $344 95 



EPROM Erasers 



ULTRA-VIOLET EPROM ERASERS 

inexpensive erasers tor industry or home 

XME-3100A Spoctromcs wo timer $49.50 

XME-3101A Spectromcs with timer $94 SO 

XME-3200A Economy model $39. 95 



THREE BOARD SET - SD Systems 

4MHiZ-B0A CPU. 64K RAM I optional 256K) serial I Oporl. 
parallel I O port, double density disk controller. CP M 2 2 A 
manual set. system monitor, control A diagnostic sottware 
Includes SBC 200. 64K ExpandoRAM II. Versalloppy II. & 
CP M 2 2 all boards are assembled A tested 
Board Ml with 64K ol RAM $1095 00 

Board HI with 256K ol RAM $1295 00 



Apple II Accessories 



16K RAM CARD - lor Apple II 

Expand your Apple to 64K. I year warranty 
MEX-K700A Save $125 00 '" 



ADD-ON DISK DRIVE - for Apple II 

Inexpensive direct replacement tor Apple Disk II. works with 
Apple II controller as first or second drive 

MSM-123200 Add On Drive $319 95 

MSM123100 Controller $94 95 



Z-80 CPU CARD - for Apple II 

Two computers m one. Z-80 & 6502. more than doubles the 
power and potential of your Apple, includes Z 80 CPU card 
CP'M and complete manual set 
CPX-42900A A & T with software $249.99 



8 DISK CONTROLLER * Vista 

New from Vista Computer, single or double sided, single or 
double density, compatible with DOS 3 2 3 3. Pascal. A 
CP M 2 2. Shugart A Qume compatible 
IOD-2700A AST (4(9.95 



2 MEGABYTES for Apple II 

Complete package includes Two 8" double-density disk 

drives. Vista double-density 8" disk controller, cabinet. 

power supply. A cables. DOS 32 33 CP M 2 2 A Pascal 

compatible 

1 MagaByte Package Kit $1495 00 

1 MegaByte Package A & T $1(95.00 

2 MegaByta Package KM $1795 00 
2 MegaByte Package A A T $1995 95 



APPLE-CAT - Novation 

Software seiectebie 1200 or 300 beud. direct connect, auto- 
answer autodial auxiliary 3-wire RS232C serial port tor 

printer 

IOM-S232A Save $50 00'" $325 95 



VISION 80 - Vista Computer 

80 column i 24 tine video card lor Apple II. 126 ASCII 
characters, upper end lower case. 9 k 10 dot matrix with 3 dot 
descenders, standard data media terminal control codes. 
CP kit Pascal « Fortran compatible 50 60 Hi 
IOV-24O0A Visle Vision BO $2(9.95 



CPS MULTICARD - Mtn. Computer 

Three cards in one* Real lime clock/calendar, serial 
interlace. A parallel interface ■ ell on one cerd 
IOX-23O0A A 4 T $17(95 



HI-RES GRAPHICS CARD - Genie 

Intelligent printer interface and control card allows full high 
resolution grephrcs and screen dumps 
IOP-240SA Genie lor Epson (119.95 

IOP-2410A Genie tor Okidata (11(95 

IOP-241SA Genie lot NECIC Itoh (119.9$ 



Power Strips 



ISOBAR - GSC 

Isolates A protects your valuable equipment from high 
voltage spikes A AC line noise, inductive isolated ground 15 
amp circuit breaker, u L listed 

EME 115103 3soc»af $39 50 

EME 115105 4 socket $49.50 

EME 115100 B socket (54.50 

EME 115110 9 socket reckmounl (74 50 



SUPERQUAD - Adv. Micro Digital 

Single board, standard sue S-tOO computer system. 4 MHz I 
Z-80A. single or double density disk controller for 5 ' ." or 8" 
drives. 64K RAM. extended eddressing. up to 4K of EPROM. 
2 serial A 2 parallel I/O ports, real time interrupt clock. CPIM | 
compatible 

CPC-30900A Ul (724 95 I 

IOX-4232A Serial I O adapter (29.95 | 



Z-80 STARTER KIT - SD Systems 

Complete Z 80 microcomputer with RAM. ROM. I/O. 
keyboard display kludge eree. manual. A workbook 
CPS-30100K Kit with workbook $299.9$ I 

CPS-30100A AIT wrth workbook $44)9.9$ 



AIM-65 - Rockwell International 

Complete 6502 microcomputer wrth alphanumeric display, 
printer, keyboerd. A instruction manual. 
CPK-50KSA IK AIM 65 $424.(4 I 

CPK-S04SSA 4K AIM-65 (474.*$ 

SFK-749O0O09E 8K Basic ROM $64.9$ 

SFK-M900004E 4K assembler ROM (43.9$ | 

SFK-74400020E PI 65 ROM $84. 

SFK-74S00010E forth ROM (S4.9S I 

SFK-74MO03OE Instent Pascal (99.95 

PSX-030A Power supply ((4.95 

ENX-000002 Enclosure (54.9$ | 

SPECIAL PACKAGE 

4K AIM 65. 8K Basic, power supply. A enclosure 

Special Package Price $(49.9$ | 



S-100 EPROM Boards 



PROM-100 - SD Systems 

2708. 2716 2732 EPROM programmer with software 
MEM-99S20K KM with software (1(9.95 I 

MEM-99S20A A A T with software (249.95 | 

PB-1 - SSM Microcomputer 

2708. 2716 EPROM board with on board programmer 
MEM-99510K Kit with manual ... (154.95 I 

MEM-99S10A A A 7 with manual (219.95 

EPROM BOARD - Jade 

I6K or 32K uses 2708 or 2716 EPROMs. IK boundary 
MEM-1S230K Kit w o EPROMs (79.9$ 

MEM 16230A A & T w o EPROMs $119.9$ 



S-100 Video Boards 



SPECTRUM COLOR - CompuPro 

Full-function color graphics board, up to 8 colors. 256 x 192 
graphics, parallel I O port. 8K RAM 

IOV-K70A A A T $349.9$ 

IOV-1S70C CSC (39995 

MICROANGELO - Scion 

Ultra-high resolution 512 ■ 480. 256 color or black A white S- 

100 video board 

IOV-1S00A A 6 T $99995 



S-100 MotherBoards 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple and on sale - a better motherboard 

« Stol (SV,~ a *r,") 

MBS-OS1B Bare board (19.95 I 

MBS-OS1K Kit $39.9$ 

MBS-0S1A A A I (59 95 | 

12 Stol (*>/, • »%-) 

MBS 121 B Bare board $29.9$ I 

MBS-121K KM $(995 | 

MBS-121A A A I $99.1 

ll*oi|MV"«-| 

M6S Ilia Sere board (4(1 

MBS-1S1K KM (99.95 I 

MBS-191A A A T (139.9$ | 

ACTIVE TERMINATOR - CompuPro 

A true mother's helper 

TSX-100A A & J 15945 



Prices may he slightly higher at our retail location/!. I'leane call the store nearest you for Irxal price and availability 



S-100 CPU Boards 



8086/8087 - CompuPro 

16 tut. 8 or 10 MHz 8006 CPU with provisions tor 8087 4 

80)30 

CPU-70520A 8 UN; 8086 4 4 7 M24.M 

CPU-70520C 8 MHz 8086 CSC (7M.M 

CPU-70530A with 8087 4 4 7 $1224 95 

CPU-70530C with 8087 CSC $1455 »5 

8085/8086 - CompuPro 

Both 8 4 16 oil CPUs, standard 8 bit S- 100 bus up to 8 MHz 
accesses 16 Megabytes of memory 

CPU 20510A 6 MHi 4 4 7 S3M »S 

CPU-20S10C 6 8 MHi CSC $497 »5 

CPU-Z - CompuPro 

2 4 MHi Z80A CPU. 24 bit addressing 
CPU 30500A 2 4 MHz 4 4 7 $279*5 

CPU 30500C 3 6 MHz CSC $374 95 

SBC-200 - SD Systems 

4 MHz Z 80A CPU with serial 4 parallel I O IK RAM 8X 

ROM space, monitor PROM included 

CPC-3O200A 4 4 7 $399 95 



THE BIG Z - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchable Z 80 CPU board with serial I O 
accomodates 2708. 2716 or 2732 EPROM baud rates trom 
75 to 9600 

CPU 30201B Bere board w manual $35 00 

CPU 30201K Kit with manual $149 95 

CPU 302 IDA A 4 7 with manual $199 95 

CB-2 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 or 4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with provision lor up to 8K ot 
ROM or 4K o» HAW on board emended eddressmg. IEEE S- 
100. front panel compatible 

CPU 303OOK Kir with manual $229 95 

CPU 30J00A A 4 7 with manual $274 95 

2810 Z-80 CPU - CCS. 

2 or 4 MHZ Z-80 CPU with serial I O port 4 onboard monitor 

PROM front panel compatible 

CPU-30400A A 4 7 with PROM $289 95 

2820 Z-80 DMA CPU - CCS. 

4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with 2 seriel I O ports 4 Csnnonics 
parallel I O port separate data 4 status pons DMA daisy 
chain compatible 
CPU 30420A A 4 7 »i>n manual $569 95 



S-100 Disk Controllers 



DISK 1 - CompuPro 

8" or 5V DMA disk controller, single or double density, 
single or double sided, to MHz 

IOD-K10A A 4 7 $44995 

K5DK10C CSC $55495 

SEC 52S06S*0f 8 CP M 2 2 lor Z 80 $174*5 

SFC-525065MF 8 CP M 2 2 tor 8086 $299 95 

SF0-54158000F Oasis single user MM.M 

I SFO-5415M02F O4S1S multiuser $(49 95 

VERSAFLOPPY II - SD Systems 

Double density disk controller tor any combination ot 5' 4 
and 8" single or double sided, analog phase-locked loop 
data separator, vectored interrupts. CP M 2 2 4 Oears 
compatible, control/diagnostic software PROM included 
IO0-11MA A 4 7 with PROM $359.95 

SFC-5500M47F CP M 2 2 with VF II $99 95 

2242 DISK CONTROLLER - CCS. 

5' 4 or 8" double density disk controller with on-boerd boot 
loader ROM. tree CP M 22 8. manual set 
IOO-1300A A 4 7 with CP M 2 2 



DOUBLE D - Jade 

High reliablity double density disk controller with onboard 

Z 80A auxiliary printer port. IEEE S-100. can function in 
multi-user interrupt driven bus 

1001200a Bare board 4 hdwr man $59 95 

IOO-1200K KM w hdwr 4 sflwr man $2M.M 

IOD 1200A 4 4 7 w hdwr 4 sftwr man $35**5 

SEC 5*002001 F CP M 2 2 with Double D $99 95 



S-100 Memory Boards 



256K RAMDISK - SD Systems 

ExpandoRAM III expandable from 64K to 256K usmg64K x t 
RAM chips, compatible with CP M MP M. Oasis. 
Cromemco. 4 most other Z-80 based systems, functions as 
ultra-high speed disk drive when used with optional 
RAMDISK software 

MEM 65064A 64X A 4 7 $474 95 

MEM «512(A 728X A 4 7 $574 95 

MEM-65192A I92K A 4 7 $674 95 

MEM-652S6A ?56X A 4 7 $774 95 

SFC-SSOOMOOF RAMDISK sftwr CPM 2 2 $44*5 

SFC-550O9OOOF RAMDISK with EXRAM III $24.95 

128K RAM 21 - CompuPro 

I28K » 8 Oif or 64K x 16 bit static RAM board 12 MHz. 24 bit 

addressing 

MEM-12I10A A 4 7 $1609 95 

MEM-12810C CSC $17*4*5 



64K RAM 17 - CompuPro 

64K CMOS static RAM board. 10 MHz. low power less than 4 
watts. DMA compatible. 24 bit addressing 
MEM-64K0A 64K A 4 7 $549 95 

MEMMIIOC 64K CSC $698 95 



64K RAM 16 - CompuPro 

3?K » 16 6if or 64K x 8 tut low power static RAM board. tO 
MHz 24 bit addressing 

MEM-321S0A RAM 16 A 4 7 $59t 95 

MEM-321SOC RAM 16 CSC $6*6 95 



64K STATIC RAM - SSM 

IEEE696 S 100 standard up to 6MHz 8BH 12MHz !6Bit.24 
Bit extended addressing, disable able in 2K increments 
MEM (4300 A A 6 7 MM.M 

64K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

64K static S-100 RAM card. 4 to I6K banks up to 8 MHz 
MEM S4400A 64* 4 4 7 MM.M 

2065 64K RAM - CCS. 

4 MHz bank port bank byte selectable, extended eddressmg. 

16K bank selectable, trom panel compatible 

MEM 6456SA 64K A 4 7 $349 95 

2066 64K RAM - CCS. 

64* RAM board with bank and block select switching 
functions tor Cromemeco Cromis 4 Alpha Micro 
MEM-64566A 64k A & T M24.M 

64K EXPANDORAM II - SD Systems 

Expandable RAM board trom 16K to 64K using 4116 RAM 

chips 

MEM-1M30A I6K A 4 7 M44.M 

MEM 32631 A 32K A 4 7 MM.M 

MEM 4(6324 48K A 4 7 MM.M 

MEM64633A 64K 4 4 7 $3*9 *5 

MEMORY BANK • Jade 

4 MHz S-100 bank selectable expandable to 64K 
MEM 9*7308 Bere board w manual Mt.M 

MEM-M730K Kit with no RAM $17**5 

MEM-32731K 32K kit SIMM 

MEM-64733K 64* kit $24**5 

Attwmbtod • Twi.d add $50 00 

32K RAM 20 - CompuPro 

32K static RAM. up to 10 MHz. disable able m4K banks bank 
select or 24 bit addressing 

MEM-K1MA 16X4 4 7 (Mt.M 

MEM-KKOC I6X CSC M24.*5 

MEM-241MA 24X A 4 7 M24.M 

MEM-24KOC 24X CSC $3*4 »5 

MEM-32K5A 32K A 4 7 MM.tS 

MEM32K5C 32K CSC $449 95 

16K STATIC RAM - Mam Merchant 

4MHz lopower static RAM board. IEEE S-100. bank 
selectable addressable in 4K blocks, disableable in IK 
segments extended addressing 
MEMK171A 16X4 4 7 $14**5 



S-100 I/O Boards 



SYSTEM SUPPORT 1 - CompuPro 

Real time clock, three 16 bit interval timers, dual interrupt I 
controllers! 15 levels) up to 4K EPROM RAM. RS232C] 
serial channel, provision tor 9511A'9512 meth chip 
IOX-K50A SSI A 4 7 $35**5 I 

IOX-K50C SSI CSC MM.M 

IOX-1MSA with 9511 A 4 7 MS4.M 

IOX-K5SC »ifn95MCSC MM.M 

IOX-1M0A with 9512 A 4 7 MM.M 

IOX-1M0C with 9512 CSC MS4 *5 



INTERFACER 1 - CompuPro 

2 serial 10 ports 50-19 2K baud 
IOI-K10A A 4 7 
IOI-K10C CSC 



$21» 95 
(2M.M 



INTERFACER 2 - CompuPro 

3 parallel. 1 seriel. 4 interrupt timer 
IO I 1(20 A A 4 7 M1S.M I 

IOIK20C CSC MM.M 



INTERFACER 3 - CompuPro 

5 or 6 channel serial I O board tor interrupt driven multi-user \ 
systems up to 250K baud 

IOI-K3SA S port A 4 7 MM.M I 

IOI-1M5C 5 porl CSC M2( 95 

IOI-KMA 8 porr A 4 7 M2( 95 

IOI-1SMC 8 port CSC $74* »5 I 



INTERFACER 4 - CompuPro 

3 serial. 1 parallel. 1 Centronics parallel 

IOI-1M0A 4 4 7 M14 *S 

IOI-1M0C CSC $414 95 



MPX - CompuPro 

Multi-user I O multiplexer 4 interrupt controller with on- 
board 80854 2 CPU 8 4K or I6K ot RAM 

IOI-K75A 4K MPX A 4 7 $444 95 

IOI-K7SC 4K MPX CSC MM.M | 

IOI-1M0A I6K MPX A 4 7 MM.I 

IOI-1M0C r6X MPX CSC M74 95 I 



l/O-S - SSM Microcomputer 

Eight software programmable serial I O ports. 110 -192K 

Baud ideal lor multiuser systems 

IOI-101SA A 4 7 MM.M I 



l/O-S - SSM Microcomputer 

7 wo s»n»( 4 3 parallel 10 ports. 110-19 2K Baud 
IOM01SA A 4 7 MM.M I 



MPC-4 - SD Systems 

Intelligent 4 port serial I O card, onboard Z-80A. 2K RAM. 
4K PROM area, onboard firmware, fully buttered, vectored I 
interrupts, tour CTC channels, add to SD Boerd set tor | 
powerful multi-user system 
IOI-1504A 4 4 7* software MM.00 I 



I/0-4 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 serial I O ports plus 2 parallel IO ports 

IOI-1010B Bare board w manual MS.M I 

IOI-1010K Kir wirrt manual $179 95 

IOI1010A A 4 7 w,th manual $249 95 



2830 6 PORT SERIAL - CCS. 

Six asynchronous RS-232C serial I O ports with I 

progremmabie baud rates 

IOI-1040A A 4 7 with manual $52* 95 

2710 4 PORT SERIAL - CCS. 

Four RS-232C seriel 10 ports with lull handshekmg 
IOI10MA A 4 7 with manual M1S.M | 

2719 2 SER A 2 PAR • CCS. 

Two RS-232C serial l O ports plus two 8 bit parallel I O ports 
IOI-10MA A 4 7 with manual $34* M 



tlightly higher at our retail location*. I'leane call the nlnre 



An Intro to Data Structure, contini 

is this person's great-great-great grandfather and where was 
he born?" may need answering. Actually, that question is 
ambiguous because each person has 16 ancestors who qualify 
as 'great-great-great grandfather.*' The same question could 
be phrased as "one's father's father's father's lather's lather." 
Using that notation, each of the 16 ancestors can be uniquely 
identified. For example, "mother's father's lather's lather's 
father's father." or "father's lathers mother's mother's 
father." 

Questions such as these are easily answered by using a tree- 
structured genealogical database such as a pedigree chart. 

Figures 6(a) and 8(a) show what one family tree might look 
like. Three functions are needed to use the database. "Add" 
adds a new ancestor to the tree. "Print - ' displays the 
information on one or several ancestors. "Change" modifies 
the information in the database. For example, you may 
discover that a name is misspelled or the date of birth is 
incorrect. A delete function is not needed; deleting your 
ancestors would have fatal consequences for all subsequent 
offspring. 



A tree 

is a logical 

representation for 

the data. 




(a) 



Born: 



John Smith. Jr. 
Born: .1 Apr I9«2. Seattle. WA 




Jane Doe 
13 Jan. i*«i. NY. NY 



John Smith. Sr. 
Born: S Mar. IV.Vt. Boston. MA 



/ \ / \ 



George Doe 
17 Aug. 1905. 
I oronttv ON 



Lisa Fox. 
19 Feb. 1909 
Hamilton. ON 

(bi 



Record number 

1 John Smith, Jr. 

2 John Smith. Sr. 

3 Jane Doe 

4 George Doe 

5 Lisa Fox 

6 Pauline Brown 

7 Bert Smith 



Pauline Brown 
1 1 Dec. 1902 
Peterborough. NH 



Ben Smith 
7 Sep. 1902 
London. Fngland 



3 Apr. 1962. Seattle. WA * 3 
5 Mar. 1938. Boston. MA U 6 
13 Jan. 1940. NY. NY #5 

17 Aug. 1905, Toronto, ON 
19 Feb. 1909. Hamilton, ON 
II Dec. 1902, Peterborough, NH 
7 Sep. 1902. London, England 



32 

m 

#4 



Figure 8. At (a) is a small family tree showing birth date and 
place for each of the family members. At (b) is the same 
information but translated into data records for keeping on a 
disk file. The numbers at the right of records I through 4 
point to the corresponding mother and father records. 



Listing I shows the system in operation. A special notation 
references the ancestor by his or her relation to the person at 
the root of the tree. If the family tree h;s your ancestry, then 
your grandmother, or your mother's mother, is denoted 
by MM. Similarly, your mother's father is specified by MF. 

When searching back several generations, typing long 
sequences of M and F is tedious. Instead, a short hand 
notation must be provided. For example, F5 can be equivalent 
to FFFFF. A trailing digit indicates a repeat factor for the 
previous character. Some more examples: 

F = your father 

M = your mother 

FF = your grandfather 

FO or MO = your self (0th father or mother) 

F3M5F = FFFMMMMMF 

When the program is run the first time, the database is 
empty. The only name that can be added is your own (see 
Listing 1). To add other names, you must specify the 
relationship to yourself. The next name after yourself may be 
either your father or mother, identified by either F or M. 

When printing information from the tree, the program 
prompts for the relationship of the person whose data record 
you would like to see. For example, entering F2 refers to your 
grandfather. You can also see all of the ancestors for that 
particular person. Or you may wish to print the names of your 
grandfather's father and mother. 

The number of generations to display is indicated by 
appending a plus sign. For example, FFI tells the program to 
display your grandfather's record plus one additional gen- 
eration. FF2 displays two generations beyond your grand- 
father. If no digit follows the plus (FF) all generations previous 
to the one specified are shown. Several examples of the 
program in operation are presented in Listing 1. 

A tree is a logical representation for the data. The database 
is made from a series of records kept in a data file on disk. 
Each record contains a name, birth date and place, death 
date and place, and pointers to the corresponding father and 



mother records. The first record in the database always 
corresponds to the youngest person. All other records are 
linked in by their father and mother pointers. The source 
listing for the program appears next month in Part 3, written 
in MicroSoft Basic 5.21. 

Figure 8(a) shows a small family tree. When programmed 
in Basic, all of the data at each node are placed in a single 
record. Each record contains pointers to the ancestor records. 
The family tree in 8(a) appears as a data file in 8(b). Part 3 
provides additional information on representing tree struc- 
tures in Basic. 

Listing I. 



(Seneo logical Fedigree Chart Mai 


er 




Enter: A<dd FMrint Cthanqe 


Olult 


• A 


Enter your name - 






Enter name 7 JOHN SMITH. JR 






Enter birth date ? 3 Ar'R 1962 






Enter Place of Birth 7 SEATTLE 


MASH 




Enter Death Date ? 






Enter Place of Death 7 






Specify relationship <0R»E;:it> 


' M 




Enter name ? JANE DOE 






Enter birth date ? 1 :- JAN 1940 






Enter Place of Birth • Nr 






Enter Death Date ? 






Enter Place of Death 7 






Specify relationship (LR=E«it) 


7 F 




Enter name ? JOHN SMITH, SR 






Enter birth date 7 S MAR 19:8 






Enter Place of Birth 7 BOSTON 






Enter Death Date 7 






Enter Place of Death 7 






Specify relationship (CR-Exit) 


9 




Entert A(dd FMrint Hhange 


LMul t 


? P 


Print Pedigree Chart 







222 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



PGRSYST 



FOR THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER 




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^PeCTRUM 

Multifunction 

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Memory Expandable RAM 

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• Parity generate and check 

• Base address switch-selectable for any 
64K boundary 

• No wait states 

Expandable Parallel Printer Port 

• Supports Centronix, Data Products or IDS interface 

• Switch selection of printer port I/O address 

• Selectable Interrupt level 

• Adjustable flat cable clamp (strain relief) 

Two Expandable 

Asynchronous Communication Ports 

• Single or Dual Channel, RS 232-C • Selectable Interrupt levels 

• Programmable character length, 



FOUR 
FUNCTIONS 
INDEPENDENTLY 
UPGRADEABLE 



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as COMM 1 or COMM 2 



PGRSOMrUSYSTeNSTeCHNOLOGY, INC. 

22957 LA CADENA LAGUNA HILLS, CA 92653 (714) 859-8871 



•Copyright Personal Systems Technology Inc 1962 



IBM is a trademark ni International Business Machines Corp. 

CIRCLE 240 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



An Intro to Data Structure, continued... 
Listing 1, continued... 



Enter relationship <» for all, 

JOHN SMITH. SR 
JOHN SMI TH. JR 

JANE DOE 


CR'Exit) ? ♦ 


Enter relationship <♦ tor all. 


CR=E«it> ? F 


JOHN SMITH, SR 

Borni 5 Mar 1938 Placet 

Died: Placet 




Enter relationship (+ tor all. 


CR=Ex 1 1 > 


Enteri A<dd PCrint C(hange 


CKuit 7 A 


Add New Ancestor 




Specify relationship <CR»E".it) ' tn 

Enter name ? PAULINE BROWN 

Enter birth date ? 11 DEC 1^0 J 

Enter Place of birth ? PETERBOROUGH. NH 


Enter Death Date ? 
Enter Place of Death ? 




Specify relationship (CR-E>:it) 




Enter: Aidd Cirint L<hanqe 


Q<uit I 


Print Pedigree Chart 




Cnter relationship i + tor all. 

JOHN SMITH. SR 

PAULINE URUWN 
JuHN SMITH. JR 

JANE DOE 


CR-E: .t 


Enter relationship <* tor all. 


CR-Exit) 


Cntcri *Mcld F'irint Cihanae 


... , , , i . 



Summary 

By viewing the memory of a computer as an organized 
collection of data, rather than mere bits and bytes, simple 
and complex data structures are created. Many problems can 
not be solved unless the proper representation for the data is 
used. 

Lists are structures that grow and contract dynamically, 
and provide for rapid insertion, deletion, and rearranging of 
the list elements. The self-organizing list is only one example 
of how a list might be used. In fact, the entire programming 
language Lisp is based on the use of list structures. 

Stacks are necessary for subroutine calls and provide a 
direct method of evaluating RPN expressions or converting 
algebraic notation into RPN notation. Several computer 
systems have been built based on stack architectures. Among 
these are the Burroughs B5500 and the UCSD P-Machine, 
simulated on the UCSD Pascal System. In addition, the 
computer language Forth uses a stack and an RPN-like 
notation for all of its operations. 

Binary trees and other tree structures are especially 
important in database systems and file systems. They are 
often used to show relationships among members of a group 
(a family tree) and to organize data alphabetically or in some 
other collating sequence. The binary search algorithms have 
the interesting side effect of sorting their input into alpha- 
betical order, and are sometimes used for the "Insertion 
Sorts," which will be described in Part 4. 



Part 3 shows how these structures can be programmed in 
the Basic language and includes the source listing for the 
genealogical relationships program. Part 4 describes several 
sorting techniques, including Shellsort and Quicksort. 
Quicksort is an especially fast sort algorithm, well suited to 
sorting large tables of randomly distributed data. □ 



References 

Aho. Alfred V. and Jeffrey D. I'llman. Principles of 
Compiler Design. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, 
MA. 1977. 

Gotlieb, C. C. and L. R. Gotlieb, Data Typesand Structures. 
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs. NJ, 1978. 

Grappel, Robert, "The My Dear Aunt Sally Algorithm." 
Byte, Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 19. 

Knuth. Donald E., "Algorithms," Scientific American. April 
1977, Vol. 236. No. 4. p. 63. 

Knuth, Donald E., The Art of Computer Programming: 
Fundamental Algorithms. Vol. 3, Addison-Wesley Publishing 
Co., Reading. MA. 1973. 

Maurer, W. Douglas. "Processing Algebraic Expressions," 
Byte. Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 25. 

Standish, Thomas A., Data Structure Techniques, Addison- 
Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA. 1973. 

Swanson, Paul, "PDQ: A Data Manager for Beginners, 
Don't Reinvent the Wheel." Byte. Vol. 6, No. 11, Nov. 1981, 
p. 236 

Gorney. Len. "Queuing Theory, the Science of Wait 
Control, Part 1 : Queue Representation." Bvte, Vol. 4. April 
1979. p. 132. 

Gorney, Len, "Queuing Theory, the Science of Wait 
Control, Part 2: System Types." Bvte. Vol. 4, No. 5. May 
1979, p. 176. 




224 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



ARTWORX SCORES ANOTHER 
TECHNICAL KNOCKOUT 





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Scene from GOLDEN GLOVES 



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(Atari and Apple) 
NOW AVAILABLE FOR ATARI!!! This captivating 
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O PM EDITOR: by Dennis Zander (Atari. 16K) 

Create your own fast action graphics game tor the 
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(P0$(Y)=SHIP4) This program is designed to permit 
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used to create the animated characters m ARTWORK 
RINGS OF THE EMPIRE andENCOUNTER AT OUESTAR IV 
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ROCKET RAIDERS by Richard Petersen (Atari ?4K ) 
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FOREST FIRE TWO: by Richard Petersen (Atari 24K) 
FOREST FIRE has been enhanced and now offers a two 
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User input now determines landscape, wind and weather 
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FORM LETTER SYSTEM: (Atari. North Star and Apple) 
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ducmg fully lustified letters Addresses art stored in a 
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WORX MAII list lO^nrllEXtEDITORprograms 

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Pilot your small airplane to a successful landing using 
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MAIL LIST are completely compatible with ARTWORK 
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□ THE VAULTS OF ZURICH: by Fein and Greg Herlihy 

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Zurich is the banking capital of the world The rich and 
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: I BRIDGE 2 by Arthur Walsh (Atari (24K). Apple 

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Rated «1 by Creative Computing BRIDGE 2 is the 
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a ENCOUNTER AT QUESTAR IV: by Douglas McFarland 

(Atari. 24K) 
As helmsman of Rikar starship. you must defend 
Questar Sector IV from the dreaded Zentanans Using 
your plasma beam, hyperspace engines and wits to avoid 
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alive This BASIC Assembly level program has super 
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PRICE $21 95 cassette $25 95 diskette 



NEW PROGRAMS! 



GOLDEN GLOVES: by Douglas Evans (Atari 24K) 

Use your joystick to jab. block and duck as each 
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CRAZITACK: by Peter Adams (Atari 16K) 

The Crazies are at tacking us and the only defenses 
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DOMINATION: by Alan Newman (Atari 24K) 

Between one and six players compete for power via 
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POKER TOURNEY: by Edward Grau 

(Atari 32K, Northstar) 
You are entered in a high stakes Draw Poker 
Tournament facing six opponents including Lake- 
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HAZARD RUN: by Dennis Zander (Atari, 16K) 

The sheriff has spot ted you and you must make the 
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ORDERING INFORMATION 



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PlIot-to-Basic Translator 



M.R. Smith 



In the development of courseware, the instructor really 
only needs to do three things: type a message to a student, 
receive the student's answer to check whether it is right, and 
jump to different parts of the lesson depending on whether 
the student's response was what was expected. 

More complicated things are needed only about 5% of the 
time. Authoring languages, of which Pilot is an example, are 
designed to allow the instructor to develop courseware 
without bothering with the "computational details." 

This article is divided into three parts. Part 1 details the 
Pilot commands and provides examples. Part 2 gives a 
description of how each Pilot command is turned into the 
equivalent Basic commands. Modifications can be made to 
adjust the Pilot commands to the needs of each courseware 
writer if that is desired. Suggested improvements and 
extensions are given. Part 3 describes how to choose a suitable 
text editor. 

The program described here is designed to take care of 
those computational details. It takes a series of Pilot 
commands and turns them into a valid Basic program. 
Although the Basic programs that it writes are not tremen- 
dous, they perform the function of allowing the courseware 
to be effectively and simply made. If the writer of the 
courseware wants to take the Basic programs generated by 
this translator and do a little pruning, then he is welcome to 
do so and is able to do so very easily. 

For this program to operate, it is necessary for the Pilot 
lesson to be on a disk TEXT file PILOT.LESSON NAME. 
This program takes each Pilot command and generates the 
equivalent series of Basic statements stored in a program 
called LESSON NAME where LESSON NAME is any lesson 
name. 

When you are typing in this program be very careful of the 
syntax. The mixture of valid Basic statements inside 
apparently invalid PRINT statements can lead to reading and 
typing errors. 

Pilot Commands 

This section is rather terse. It is intended to show the 
simple richness of the Pilot language rather than give great 
detail on how to use the language. The tutorials that follow 
will perform that function. 

M.R. Smith. .104. 86th Ave.. SE. Canary. Alberta. Canada T2H IN7. 



T: Type a line. 

TC: Clear the page before typing. 

TV : Vertical tab down a page . TV : 5 would start at the fifth 
line. 

TI: Type this line in inverse characters. 

TH: Type this line and don't add a carriage return. 

A: Accept a student answer. 

M: Match the student's last response. M: A.B would 
compare student answer with A and B as letters or match 
against some known value. M:SN1S would compare the 
student's last answer against what is stored in IN IV 

Y and N modifiers are used to perform an instruction 
depending on whether the last month instruction (M:l was 
true or not. For example, TN: Type this line if the last match 
was not true or MY: SECOND-ITEM try a second match if 
the last one was true. 

* is used to start a lesson part. 

E is used to finish the lesson. For example: 

•: lesson 1 

T:line 1 lesson 1 

•:lesson 2 

T:line 1 lesson 2 

E:end of the lessons 

U:is used to jump to a USER routine. The USER routine 
should start after the end of the main lesson. On completing 
the user routine, the program returns to the lesson part from 
which it came. Each user routine must end with the E: 
command so that it can be identified. For example: 

*:main lesson 

T:Iine 1 

U:USER 

T:line 1 of next bit of main lesson 

U:USER 

T:etc 



226 



E:End of main lesson 

•:USER 

TH:Press return to continue 

A: 

E: 

J: or jump command can be used to move different parts of 
a lesson. You may jump to a lesson part or to a label. The 
labels are local, meaning that they are valid only between two 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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Pilot-To-Basic, continued... 

lesson part names. The labels can be from 1 to 9. The 
command J: 10 jumps to the next E: command. For example: 

• START 

T:What lesson? Vowels or Numbers? 

A: 

M:V 

JY: VOWELS 

JN:1 

1 '.NUMBERS lesson 



J:START 
•: VOWELS 

J:i 

1R: Previous statement jumps here. This label 1 can be 
used by any JUMP command after the lesson part VOWELS 

J:START 

L: is a link instruction which causes the running of another 
Basic program. 

B: is any valid Basic instruction. (B: SPEED=120) 

X: Checks whether this statement is true (Boolean algebra). 
Acts as a match instruction with more power. Sets the Y and 
N modifiers. (X:T<3). 

R: is a remark statement. It is used to place a remark or 
comment statement in the program (R:This is a remark). 

G: is a graphics command. The graphics screen is divided 
into a grid 100 units long by 100 units wide. The bottom left- 
hand corner is the starting point (0,0). 

GC: Clears the graphics screen. 

GL: Draws a line. 

GO: Turns on the graphics mode. 

GP: Plots a point. 

Program Description 

This part of the article is for those experts who know they 
can improve upon my code. For people just interested in 
using Pilot, the only advantage of reading it is to get some 
idea of the limitations of this version of Pilot. 

Each Pilot instruction is converted into its Basic equivalent 
and stored as a TEXT file on the disk. In Applesoft it is 
possible to EXEC this file straight into memory. EXECing a 
file means using a TEXT file as a series of commands as 
though you were typing the commands directly on the key- 
board. 

The translator beeps twice when it finds an error. Since a 
text file is being written to the disk, it is not possible to get a 
beep by typing PRINT CHR$(7) as this would get into the 
file. Instead, a standard Apple machine language call (CALL 
-1059) is used. 

The start of a program (•xommand) establishes a REM 
statement and a jump from the current line number to line 
number +20. The ten lines after the REM statement are used 
for GOTOs to the line number of a label. For example the 
following sequence of statements would produce the following 
Basic 



*:start 


1000 


GOTO 1020 


: REM START 


j:i 


1020 


GOTO 1001 




JtS 


1030 


GOTO 1005 




it: 


1010 


PRINT 






1001 


GOTO 1010 




e: 


in :;o 


STOP 






1005 


stop: rem 


NO LABEL 5 



The E: statement is used to tidy up and check for undefined 
labels. The next lesson start (•:) has the same effect. The very 
final E: statement of a program checks to see if any jumps to 
procedures have not been defined. For example 



■ tSl ART 


in (i n 


GOTO 1020 : kFM SFAK1 


ii : user 






t:type 


I030 


PRINT 


UtANOTHI I 






i : 


1 050 


STOP 


*:user 


3000 


GOTO 3020 


t: 


3020 


PRIN1 


f : 


3030 


RETURN 




1020 


GOSUB 30 




1010 


STOP : REM NO PROCEDURE U: 




ANOIHI R 



All errors in syntax are turned into statements starting in a 
STOP. This has the advantage that the writer can go in and 
make a modification to that statement without having to 
recompile the whole Pilot program. 

The modify commands Y and N generate rather poor code 
but it works. The match instruction sets a FLAG that is 
checked for a I or a 0. 



TYt PRINT 


1000 


IF FLAG THEN Kill) 




1010 


PRINT 




1001 


GOTO 1020 


TN SPRINT 


1020 


IF NOT FLAG THEN 1030 




1030 


PRIN1 




1021 


GOTO 1010 



The accept instruction is implemented by a subroutine 
starting at line 70 of the generated Basic program. The 
student's answer is stored in a variable ANS$. The input 
routine is user-friendly. Backspaces and line delete (control- 
x) are supported. 



a: 




111 (III PRINT BELL*:: 


GOSUB 7(1 


a: 


*N1* 


1010 PRINT BELL*}: 
NAME* ■ ANSt 


GOSUB 70 : 



The match instruction is implemented by a subroutine 
starting at line 10 in the generated Basic program. The value 
to be checked is stored in a variable called CHECKS and 
then compared to the answer stored in ANSS. 



m:a 


1000 FLAG - 








10 10 CHECK* ■ "A" 


: GOSUB 


to : 




II FLAG ■ 1 Till N 


111 .'II 




m:a,b,*ni* 


1020 FLAG ■ 








1030 CHECK* ■ "A" 


: GOSUB 


io : 




IF Fl AP, 1 HUN 


1060 






1010 CHECK* - "B" 


: GOSUB 


in : 




IF FLAG ■ I I HEN 


1060 






1050 CHECK* ■ Nl* 


: GOSUB 


io : 




IF FLAG = 1 THEN 


1060 





228 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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Pilot-To-Basic, continued... 

The Boolean check (X: instruction) is turned into a Basic 
statement that sets the FLAG 



x:t 

1001) Xh ( T 3) THEN FLAG 1 



The other commands are implemented in a straightforward 
manner. 

Subroutine Location 

20 Get a file name. 

140 Load the statements needed to initialize the Basic 
program being generated. 

170 Generate the Basic program. 

200 Clear up any undefined labels or lesson part names. 

430 Make and execute the EXEC file. 

1000 Find out which Pilot command is to be evaluated. 

1070 Check on labels and the presence of a colon. 

1 170 Check if need to use the Y and N modifiers. 

1260 Turn the Pilot command into a Basic statement. 

24040 Performs the conversion of the accept (A:) com- 
mand. 

21010 Performs the conversion of the Basic (B:) com- 
mand. Any apostrophes become quotation marks. For 
example B:PRINT PRINT THIS LINE - becomes 1000 PRINT 
"PRINT THIS LINE". This is a useful function if trying to get 
a $ printed. The presence of a $ in a type (T:) statement is 
assumed to be the start of a variable name. 

20160 Converts the end (E:) command and clears up any 
undefined labels. 

40010 Converts the graphics (G:) command. If this is the 
first graphics call then a HGR (call high res graphics) is 
performed. 

29010 Converts the jump (J:) command. If the lesson 
name has not yet been used (i.e. not defined) the name is 
stored in NEEDS(NEED.O) and the line number at which it is 
required is stored in NEEDS! NEED. 1). 

23010 Converts the link (L:) instruction. 

25010 Converts the match (M:) instruction. 

20510 Converts the remark (R:) instruction. 

35010 Converts the sound (S:) instruction. If this is the 
first sound instruction in the program, then the machine 
language subroutine needed to generate the sounds is loaded 
into the Basic program being made. 

26000 Converts the type (T:) instruction. I have found 
that on a 40-character screen, it makes easier reading if every 
line of text is separated by a blank line. This is achieved by 

T: line one 

T: 

T: line two 

You might find it more convenient to automatically supply 
a blank line after each Type instruction. To do this change 
line 26210 to 

26210 PRINT ": PRINT " 

27010 Converts the user (U:) instruction. If the procedure 
being called is not found, then its name is stored in NEEDS 
(NEED, 0) and the negative of the line number where it is 
needed is stored in NEEDS(NEED.l). By storing the negative 
of the line number, it is possible for the routine at line 200 to 
decide whether it is clearing up a jump or a user instruction. 

22010 Converts the Boolean (X:) instruction. 

30010 Converts the lesson part (•: ) instruction. This clears 
up any undefined labels if that has not already been done by a 
preceding E: instruction. Lesson part names are stored in 
NP$( J.Oi and the line numbers at which they start in NP$( J. 1 ). 

50000 This performs the loading of the match and accept 
subroutines into the Basic program being generated. 



60000 Performs the initialization and description of the 
variables used in the program. 

Suggested Extensions to Pilot 

A link and chain instruction would be useful to allow the 
passing of variables, such as a student's name or number of 
questions correct, between programs. However, the problem 
of initializing the new program must be solved. A routine 
must recognize whether a program has been chained or 
called straight into memory, and adjust the initialization 
accordingly. 

The code here for multiple matches works but could be 
made more elegant. 

At the moment the Y and N must come second in a 
command or they are not implemented. This means that the 
command TYI: is compiled correctly, but "type this line in 
inverse if last match was true," is treated the same as TI:. 

Syntax checking for the correct number of dollar signs in 
the match and type commands could be made more fool 
proof. At the moment no effort is made to see if the variable 
name is a valid one. For example, $LONG$ would generate a 
RUN-time error because of the presence of the ON in the 
middle of LONG. 

When a Pilot statement is found with syntax errors, e.g. 
missing labels, a REM statement is formed, preceded by a 
STOP. It might be convenient to put the REM statement in 
inverse print to enable it to be spotted more easily. 

Choosing a Text Editor 

The presence of the colon in the middle of each Pilot 
command creates problems. Check your editor to see if it will 
work. The Apple DOS-Toolkit recognizes the colon as a 
command and will not let you enter it into a file. Other 
editors will let you enter it into a file but the Pilot-to-Basic 
program may not read it in properly. It expects all lines in a 
file to be stored as "LINE," i.e. a line surrounded by quotes. 
This means the line can be read in by an INPUT statement, 
giving slightly faster disk access than a GET statement. 

If you find that your editor will read and reload files 
satisfactorily but Pilot-to-Basic will not read them, make the 
following modifications. 

Replace line 1030 with: 



1030 


SENT* - 


.... 










1032 


GET Alt 


: IF 


Al* 


= CHR«<13) 


THEN 


1036 


103* 


SENT* « 


SENT* + Al* ! GOTO 


1032 




1036 


IF PFLAG 


■ 


THEN 


PRINT 0*5 


"WRITE 


"ENAME* 



230 



The text editor which I will describe in a forthcoming issue 
of Creative Computing does not need this modification. In 
addition, the text editor checks each statement as it is entered 
to check that it starts with a valid Pilot command. This 
removes many simple syntax errors at a time when they are 
easy to change. In addition, it converts all quotation marks to 
apostrophes, which removes another potential problem. 

If you would like an Applesoft disk containing this program, 
a copy of the editor and a series of Pilot tutorial lessons, send 
a stamped addressed envelope, containing a 5" disk labelled 
with your name and address together with sufficient padding 
to protect the disk. Please enclose an additional $5 to cover 
my time and the wear and tear on my disk drives. To quote 
Chuck Carpenter, "If you don't send the stamped addressed 
envelope and the money, then I'll hang onto your disk until 
you do." If you live outside Canada, please enclose the 
money equivalent of the postage as the Post Office will not 
accept foreign postage. ($2.50 for a disk plus packing going 
First Class to the U.S.) □ 

October 1982 6 Creative Computing 



i.vTHi im :i<: 



Al.li:.V SHAIS.M 





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But before you enter remember you 
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Pilot-To-Basic, oontin 



3 
4 

T» 

A 

7 

111 

2(1 

30 
10 
SO 
60 



PILOT->BASIC C0NVERT0R 

M.R.SHITH NOV 19B1 

304, B6TH AVENUE SE, CALGARY 
ALBERTA, CANADA TZH 1N7 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 

CLEAR I GOTO 60020 

HOME : VTAB 10 : PRINT "PILOT -> BASIC 
TRANSLATE WHAT FILE"BELL* 

ONERR GOTO 60 

INPUT NAME*:Nr,ME* ■ LEFT* <NAME» + " 

PRINT D»J"RUN PILOT."NAME« 
X = PEEK <Z2Z)i POKE 216, 0! IF X < > 
PILOT. "NAME*" DOES NOT EXIST"BELL*BELL» 
PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE" , A*: GOTO 20 




I F'RINT 



13 THEN 
PRINT 



PRINT 



PRINT 



,14) 



INVERSE 
I NORMAL 



PRINT 
INPUT 



70 ENAME* = "TEMP" 



GOSUB 62010: IF PFLAG = 1 THEN 110 : REM 



PRINT TO SCREEN ON PFLAG 
80 ONERR GOTO 100 : PRINT D»! "UNLOCK EXEC. 
90 PRINT D»,"DELETE EXEC. "ENAME* 
100 POKE 216,0 
110 NAME* = "PILOT. 
120 PRINT D*,"0PEN 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 

210 
220 



•ENAME* 



♦ ENAME* 



+ NAME*: ENAME* » "EXEC. 

NAME* 
IF PFLAG = THEN PRINT D*!"0PEN "ENAME* 

GOSUB 50020: REM LOAD THE TITLE PAGE AND THE MATCH SUBROUTINE 
PRINT D*;"NOMON C.1,0" 

IF PFLAG = THEN PRINT D*:"MON C.1,0" 
ONERR GOTO 200 

GOTO 1010 : REM GO AWAY TILL ERROR OCCURS 
REM xilll 
POKE 216, 0: IF PFLAG ■ THEN PRINT D«i"MRITE "ENAME*: REM 

CLOSE OUT 
FOR K = 1 TO 9: REM LOCAL LABELS 

IF NL(K) = 1 THEN PRINT CPR0C + K"STOP: REM NO LABEL "K:BAD » 
BAD + i: CALL - 1059: CALL - 1059 



230 NEXT 

240 IF NL(10> 

END JUMPS 
250 PRINT LNUM" STOP' 

IF NEED - 

IF NP = 

FOR K ■ 

FOR J = 



1 THEN PRINT CPROC ♦ 10" GOTO "LNUM: REM DIRECT 



260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 



THEN 370 

THEN 360 : REM 

i to need:sent* = need*<k,o> 

1 TO NP 



NO PROCEDURES NAMED 



IF SENT* ■ NP*(J,0) THEN GOSUB 340 : GOTO 320 

NEXT J: PRINT ABS ( VAL < NEED* ( K , 1 ) ) ) " STOP: REM NO PROCEDURE 
CALLED "SENT*:BAD = BAD + II CALL - 1059: CALL - 1059 
320 NEXT K 
330 GOTO 370 

340 PRINT ABS' ( VAL (NEED*(K, 1 ) ) ) } '. IF VAL < NEED* < NEED, 1 > ) < THEN 
PRINT " GOSUB "NP*(J,1>: RETURN 



350 PRINT 
360 FOR K 

PROCEDURE CALLED 
- 1059 
370 NNAME* = 
380 IF PFLAG 



GOTO "NP*<J,1>: RETURN 

1 TO NEED: PRINT ABS ( VAL (NEED«(K , 1 > > ) " STOP:REM NO 

NEED«<K,0>: NEXT :BAD * BAD ♦ II CALL - 1059: CALL 



RIGHT* (NAME*, LEN (NAME*) - 6) 
= THEN 430 



190 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT NAME* 



40 IF BAD < > THEN PRINT 



410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 

470 



THEN PRINT 



HAD "BAD" SYNTAX ERRORS- 
HAD NO ERRORS" 



IF BAD 
STOP 

PRINT "SAVE "NNAME*: PRINT "LOCK "NNAME*: PRINT "RUN" 
PRINT D«; "CLOSE "ENAME* 
IF BAD ■ THEN 500 

HOME : VTAB 10: PRINT NAME*" HAD "BAD" SYNTAX ERRORS "! PRINT : 
PRINT "USE THE FILE ANY WAY "BELL* J INPUT A* 
IF A* ■ "" THEN PRINT BELL*BELL»: GOTO 470 



40(1 A* 



LEFT* <A»,1>: IF A* = "N" THEN STOP 



THEN GOTO 460 

: PRINT "RUN OF "NNAME*: NORMAL 



VTAB 3: POKE 



IF A* 

HOME : INVERSE 
34,2 
10 ONERR GOTO 540 

PRINT D*!"UNLOCK"NNAME* 

PRINT D*; "DELETE "NNAME* 

POKE 216,0 

PRINT D*}"EXEC "ENAME* 

STOP 

REM ****« 

PRINT D*!"READ "NAME*: INPUT SENT 

PRINT D*J"READ "NAME* 

INPUT SENT*: IF PFLAG « THEN PRINT D« J "WRITE "ENAME* 

IF PFLAG = 1 THEN INVERSE : PRINT SENT*: NORMAL 

LEN (SENT*): IF SENT* ■ "END" THEN 200! REM 



490 
500 



520 

530 

540 

550 

560 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 



CIRCLE 158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



1050 SIZE = 
FILE END 
1060 IF SIZE 



NATURAL 



< 2 THEN 1020: REM 

232 



IGNORE TOO SHORT LINES 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



K - VAL (SENT*): MSENT* = SENT*: REM THIS IS A LABEL? 
1080 IF K < 1 THEN 1130 

1090 IF K 9 THEN PRINT LNUM"STOP: REM BAD LABEL M SENT«:LNUM - 
LNUM + lOtBAD = BAD + II CALL - 1059: CALL - 1039: GOTO 1020 
1100 IF NL<K> = 2 THEN PRINT LNUM"STOP : REM DUP . LABEL " J SENT* : LNUM 

- LNUM + 10 : GOTO 1020 
1110 NL(K) » 2: PRINT CPROC * K J "GOTO " J LNUM 
1120 SIZE = SIZE - i:MSENT« - RIGHT* (MSENT* .SIZE ) 
1130 GOSUB 1140: GOTO 1020: REM INTERPRETE PILOT INSTRUCTION 



1140 K 



IF SIZE 



K THEN K = SIZE 



1150 FOR L = 1 TO K: IF MID* (MSENT*,L,1> 
1160 NEXT L: PRINT LNUM"STOP: REM NO COLON 

- 1059: CALL - 1059: LNUM 
1170 A* = MID* (MSENT*, 2,1): 



••:•• THEN 1170 

SENT*: BAD = BAD + It CALL 
- LNUM + 10 : RETURN 

IF A* "N" AND A* < > "Y" 

LEFT* (MSENT*, 1): GOTO 1220: REM HANDLE Y/N PART 
IF L < 3 THEN 1290: REM BAD SYNTAAX 

i:lnum ■ lnum + io : if a* = 



THEN A* 



'Y" THEN 



1180 

1190 print lnum::flag ■ LNUM 

PRINT "IF FLAG THEN ";LNUM 
1200 IF A* = "N" THEN PRINT "IF NOT FLAG THEN"?LNUM 
1210 SIZE = SIZE - i:MSENT* = LEFT* (MSENT*, 1) ♦ RIGHT* 

(MSENT*, SIZE - 1>U. ■ L - 1:A* = LEFT* (MSENT*, 1) 
1720 IF L < 2 THEN 1290: REM BAD SYNTAX 

IF A* ■ "T" THEN GOSUB 26010: GOTO 1300: REM 
IF A* ■ "G" THEN GOSUB 40010: GOTO 1300: REM 
1250 M« = "ABEGJLMRSTUX«" 
1260 FOR K = 1 TO 13 

IF A* ■ MID* (M«,K,1> THEN 20010: REM 
NEXT K 

PRINT LNUM" STOP: REM SYNTAX "SENT*: BAD = BAD + |l CALL - 1059 
: CALL - 1059 
130 LNUM = LNUM ♦ 10: IF FLAG < > THEN 
HANDLE ERROR OF Y/N INSTRUCTIONS 

1310 FLAG = 0: RETURN 



1230 
1240 



1270 
1280 
1290 



T COMMAND 
G COMMAND 



VALID COMMAND 



PRINT FLAG" GOTO "LNUM: REM 



20000 



20010 SIZE - 
20020 MSENT* 



REM *«**m 

SIZE - 



20030 
20040 
20050 
20060 
20070 
20080 
20090 
20100 
20110 
20120 
20130 
20140 
20150 



IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 
IF A* 



LI IF SIZE < 1 THEN MSENT* ■ ■'": GOTO 20030 
RIGHT* (SENT*, SIZE): REM GET ACTUAL COMMAND 
■A" THEN GOSUB 24040: GOTO 20160 
GOSUB 21010: GOTO 20160 
GOSUB 28010: GOTO 20160 
STOP : REM CAN'T REACH HERE 
GOSUB 29010: GOTO 20160 
GOSUB 23010: GOTO 20160 
GOSUB 25010: GOTO 20160 
GOSUB 20510: GOTO 20160 
GOSUB 35010: GOTO 20160 
STOP : REM CAN'T REACH HERE 
GOSUB 27010: GOTO 20160 
GOTO 20160 
GOTO 20160 
THEN PRINT FLAG" 



"B' 
,. E . 

"C- 

"J- 
„ L , 

"M' 
"R' 
"S 1 
,. T , 

"U 1 
"X' 



THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 



2010! 



GOTO "LNUM: 



REM R-COMMANO 



COSUB 

GOSUB 30010! 
20160 LNUM = LNUM + 10: IF FLAG < > 

REM HANDLE Y/N INSTRUCTIONS 
20170 FLAG « 0: RETURN 
20500 REM ■<■>• 

20510 PRINT LNUM"REM "MSENT*: RETURN 
21000 REM iiiii 
21010 Ml* = '"•: FOR, COUNT = 1 TO LEN (MSENT*>:M* = 

count.d: if m* = "'" then m* ■ ou* 

21020 Ml* « Ml* ♦ M*: NEXT : REM CHANGE ' TO " 

21030 PRINT LNUMJM1*: RETURN : REM B-COMMAND 

22000 REM ***** 

22010 PRINT LNUM"FLAG=0:iF("MSENT*")THEN flag=i-: RETURN 

OMMAND 
23000 REM iiiii 
23010 PRINT LNUM"PRINT D*!"QU*"RUN 

L-COKMAND 
24030 REM ■■■■■ 
24040 PRINT LNUM"PRINT BELL*;:" !! IF SIZE = THEN PRINT "GOSUB70" 

: RETURN : REM A-COMMAND 
24050 IF SIZE < 3 OR LEFT* (MSENT*, 1) "♦" THEN PRINT " STOP: 

REM SYNTAX "SENT»:BAD ■ BAD + It CALL - 1059: CALL 1059: RETURN 



MID* (MSENT*, 



REM X C 



M M 



RIGHT* (MSENT*, 1) 
IF NEEDED 



RETURN 



24060 MSENT* - RIGHT* (MSENT*, SIZE - 1>: IF 

"*" THEN MSENT* = MSENT* + "*": REM ADD ♦ 
24070 PRINT "GOSUB 70 : "MSENT«"=ANS*" : RETURN 
25000 REM ***** 
25010 IF MSENT* » "" THEN PRINT LNUM"FLA(I 1 

HATCH ALWAYS MATCHES 
25020 N = i:M*(l) - "" 

25030 FOR K » 1 TO SIZE: REM FIND HHAT NEEDS MATCH] N[; 
25040 Ml* = MID* (MSENT* ,K , 1 ) : IF Ml* = "," THIN M*(N) - l)(l* 

m*(N) + qu*:n « n + i:m*(n> = •"•: goto 25070 
25050 if ml* = "♦" then gosub 25130: goto 250/0 

25060 M*(N> ■ M»(N> ♦ Ml* 

25070 NEXT : IF Ml* "♦" THEN M»(N) ■ UU* t M«lN) < UU*:N 
N * 1 



REM EMPTY 



October 1962 c Creative Computing 



233 




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CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE C 



Pilot-To-Basic, continued... 




25080 N = H - 1! IF N = P THEN R 
25090 PRINT LNUM" FLAG=0":LNUM - LNUM + 10 
75100 JPT = LNUM ♦ N ■ 101 REM JUMP WHEN MATCHED 
FOR K = 1 TO Nl PRINT LNUM" CHECK* "M*<K> 
THEN "JPT 1 LNUM - INUM ♦ 10! NEXT 1LNUM - LNUM 
REM HANDLE VARIABLES 

K ♦ It IF K SIZE THEN RETURN 
FOR Kl ■ K TO SIZE1M1* = MID« (MSENT*, Kl , 1 ) 1 IF Ml* ■ 
■ Kl * 11 GOTO 25170 



25110 
= 1 
25120 
25130 
25110 
K 



C.OSUE: 10 : II FLAG 
10 1 RFIIUVN 



THEN 



25150 IF Ml* = "*" THEN K = Kl * 2: GOTO 25170 
25160 M*(N) = M*(N) + Ml*: NEXT IK - Kl ♦ 1 

75170 M*(N> - M*<N) + "*": IF LEN <M*<N>> = 1 THEN M* < N > - ""IHl* 
"♦": RETURN : REM PROBABLY A SYNTAX ERROR THAT IS IGNORABLE 

25181 n n ♦ i:m*<n) ■ "":mi* = "♦■•: return 

;v,nnn REM ***** 

v.nio hang ■ o:reverse = o: print lnumj: rem t instruction 

120 IF L = 7 THEN 76100 

MID* (MSENT*,2,1>: IF A* ■= "C" THEN PRINT 



■home: 



GOTO 



GOTO 26100 



VAL <MSENT*>: 



76030 A* 

26100 
76010 IF A* = "I" THEN PRINT "INVERSE: " i IREVERSE - ll 
76050 IF A* ■ "H" THEN HANG ■ II GOTO 26100 
76060 IF LEN <MSENT*> < 1 OR M "V" THEN 26090 
76070 MSENT* = RIGHT* (MSENT*, LEN (MSENT*) - 3):MSENT 

IF MSENT 1 OR MSENT > 20 THEN 26090 
76080 PRINT "VTAB "MSENT » 3: RETURN 
76090 PRINT "STOP:REM SYNTAX "SENT*:BAD = BAD 

- 1059: RTTURN 
76100 IF L = SIZE THEN PRINT "PRINT": RETURN I REM 
76110 SIZE = SIZE - L: MSENT* = RIGHT* ( MSENT* , SIZE ) 

26120 n = i:m* ■ qu*: print "print";:qu « 1: rem match the quotes 

IF LEFT* (MSENT*, 1) "*" THEN M* = QU*:QU - 1 

FOR K = 1 TO SIZEIMI* * MID* (MSENT*, K, 1 > : IF Ml* 

M« ♦ Ml*: GOTO 26170 

IF OU = 1 THEN QU ■ 01M* = M* + QU* : 



i: CALL 



1059: CALL 



BLANK LINE 



26130 

26110 

M* 

76150 



"♦" THEN 



GOTO 26170 



26160 Oil 1 
26170 NEXT 



!M* = M* + Ml* 



QU* 



26180 IF 

26200 
76190 IF 
26200 
76710 
26770 
26230 
27000 
77010 
77020 



RIGHT* (SENT*,1> 



•♦" AND QU * 1 THEN M» = M* + QU* : GOTO 



M* 



"♦" 



PRINT QU*" "QU*";": GOTO 26220 
PRINT LNUM"NORMAL" 



RIGHT* (SENT*,1> "♦" AND QU = THEN M* 
PRINT M*;: IF HANG ■ 1 THEN 
PRINT 

IF REVERSE ■ 1 THEN LNUM ■ LNUM + 10! 
RETURN 
REM ***** 

IF NP = THEN GOTO 270101 REM U-COMMAND 

FOR K = 1 TO NP1 IF NP*(K,0) - MSENT* THEN PRINT LNUM"GOSUB 
"NF»(K,1>: RETURN 
27030 NEXT K 

i:need*(need,o> = msent*:need*(need,i> ■ str* 
l rem store the not-found procedure label 



27010 NEED ■ NEED + 
( - LNUM): RETURN 
78000 REM ***** 
78010 FOR K = 1 TO 
78070 IF NL(K) 1 
= BAD + It CALL 
78030 NL(K) = 01 NEXT 
78010 IF NL(10) = 2 THEN 

DIRECT END JUMPS 
78050 REM END OF MAIN PROCEDURE? 
28060 IF INUM 30000 THEN PRINT LNUM" 

LNUM = 30000 10 1 RETURN 
28070 PRINT LNUM! "RETURN" 1LNUM = 1000 * 
- 10: RETURN 
REM xxxxx 



9: REM E-INSTRUCTION CLOSE OFF LABELS 
THEN PRINT CPROC + K J "STOP: REM NO LABEL 
- 10591 CALL - 1059 



'K1BAD 



PRINT CPROC 



10" GOTO "LNUMINLUO) » 3: REM 



PRINT D*'QU*"RUN HELLO"QU»: 
INT ((LNUM * 1000) / 1000) 



VAL (MSENT*): REM 



J INSTRUCTION 



RO 



79000 

79010 K 

79020 IF K 1 THEN 29070: REM FOUND PROCEOURE CALL 

79030 IF K 9 THEN PRINT LNUM" STOP! REM BAD LABEL "SENT*:BAD = 

BAD + 11 CALL - 10591 CALL - 10591 RETURN 
79010 PRINT LNUM" GOTO "CPROC ♦ K 

29050 IF NL(K) < > 2 THEN NL(K) = II REM SHOH THAT LABEL USEO 
29060 RETURN 
29070 IF MSENT* = "E" THEN PRINT LNUM" GOTO "CPROC ♦ lOlNLdO) ■ 2 

: RETURN : REM JUMP TO AN END 
29080 IF NP « THEN 29110: REM FIND THE PROCEDURE 
29090 FOR K = 1 TO NP : IF NP*<K,0> = MSENT* THEN PRINT LNUM" GOTO 

"np*(k,d: return 

29100 NEXT 

29110 NEED ■ NEED ♦ 1 :NEED»(NEED , ) « MSENT*:NEED*(NEED, 1 ) = STR* 

(LNUM): RETURN : REM STORE THE NOT-FOUND PROCEDURE LABEL 
29120 REM STORE NOT FOUND PROCEDURE 
30000 REM xxxxx 

30010 FOR K - 1 TO 91 REM x-COMMAND 
30020 IF NL(K> - 1 THEN PRINT CPROC ♦ EC" STOP: REM NO LABEL "K"l 

BAD~BAD+i:CALL-1059:CALL-1059 
30030 NL(K) - Ol NEXT 
30010 IF NL(10> » 1 THEN PRINT CPROC + 10" GOTO "LNUM! REM DIRECT 

END JUMP 
30050 NL(10> ■ 0:CPROC ■ LNUM 
30060 IF NP » THEN 30090 

234 October 1 982 • Creative Computing 




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CIRCLE 248 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 209 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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"Trademark of Tandy Corp. 



PI lot-To- Basic, continued... 

30070 FOR K = 1 TO NP! IF NP*(K,0) ■ MSENT* IHl N PRINT LNUM" ST0P1 



BAD + Is CALL 



10591 CALL 



10: 



REM DUP PROCEDURE "SENT*: BAD 

9! RETURN 
30080 NEXT 
30 090 NP = NP + 1 
30100 NP*(NP,0> = MSENT*:NP*(NP,1> = STR* (LNUM>! PRINT I NUh"G0T0" 

LNUM + 20" SREM PROCEDURE "MSENT* 
30110 LNUM ■ LNUM + 10 S RETURN 
31010 Y ■ LEN (MSENT*): IF Y 2 THEN 40230 
3S000 REM mil 
35010 IF SOUND - 1 THEN 35040 

IS PRINT"1949 S0UND^778!FOK K OT021 J READX SPOKI K>,X!NEX1 
35020 PRINT 1950"DATA 16? f 20 , 133,7, 173,48, 192, 136, 208,4, 198,7,240,7 

,202,208,246, 162, 23, 208, 239, 96:REM LOAD SOUND ROUTINE" 
35030 PRINT LNUM;: GOSUE: 10200: IF C)K ■ IHIN RETURN : KIM ERROR 
35040 PRINT "POKE (SOUND+18 ), "X" : POKE (SOUND+1 ) , "Y" :CALl SOUND"! RETURN 
40000 REM xxxxx 
10010 PRINT LNUM;:A« - MID* (MSENT*,?, 1 ) : II l.E N (NSENTS) 4 IHIN 

40150 
40020 SIZE = SIZE - L:MSENT* - RIGHT* ( MSENT* , HI 71 ) 

40030 if a* < > "s" then 10080 

40010 print "onerr goto "lnum ♦ 30: print i niim • z0"printchr»<1m" i iii- f 

<34>"bl0ad "msent* chr* <34>":g0t0 "i num ♦ 50) kim ii ..iii to 

i rror recover 
40050 print lnum + 30"print "qu*"picture "msen1*" nil i found "qu*"jfor 

k»ito200o:nexti:" 
40060 if lnum > 30000 then print i niim i 40"caii 7o8"j rem applesoft 

patch for error recover in subroutines 
40070 lnum - lnum + 50: print lnum"poke 216,0"! return 



40080 
10090 
10100 
10110 
10120 
10130 
10140 
40150 

ioi6g 

40170 
40180 

039: BAD 

40190 REM 
i OK = 
10210 Y = 



IF A* < > "P" AND A* < "L" THEN 40 180 
GOSUB 40200: IF OK ■ THEN RETURN : REM GF I VAIIII'. 
IF X < OR X > 100 THEN X = 
IF Y < OR Y > 100 THEN Y b 
X = X x 2.75:Y = 160 - Y x 1.55 

Mil (IT "X'V'Y! Rl 1 1 M- rJ 
HPLOT TO "X'V'Y! RETURN 
Rl TURN 



PRINT 
PRINT 



PRINT "TEXT" 
PRINT "HGR": 
PRINT "HGR 



RETURN 

HC0L0R=3:WTAB21": RETURN 
'SENT*: CALL - 1059: CALL 



INVERSE : PR 

VIAF:4:P0KE31,3: 



CIRCLE 292 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IF A* ■ "P" THEN 
IF A* b "L" THEN 
IF A* = "Q" THEN 
IT A* "C" THEN 
IF A* = "0" THEN 
PRINT "STOP: REM SYNTAX ERROR 
BAD • It RETURN 
FIND TWO NUMBERS INSIDE MSENT* SEPARATED BY BLANK OR COMMA 

i:X b VAL (MSENT*) 

LEN (MSENT*): IF Y > 1 GOTO 40230 

OK b o: PRINT "STOP : REM NEEDS TWO NUMBER "SENTStBAO BAD < 
11 CALL - 1059: CALL - 1059! RETURN 

40230 FOR J > 1 TO Y - It IF MID* (MSENT*,J,1) " " THEN 40250 

40210 NEXT Jt GOTO 10220: REM ERROR 

10250 FOR K ■ J tO Y - i:M* ■ MID* (MSENT*, K, 1 > I IF M* = " " OR M* 

b "," THEN Y b val ( RIGHT* ( MSENT*. Y - K)>» RETURN 
10260 NEXT Kl GOTO 10220 

50000 REM xxxxx • 

50010 REM CAUSE THE LOADING OF MATCH SUBROU1INI 
50020 IF PFLAG = 1 THEN RETURN 

50030 IF PFLAG = THEN PRINT D*;"WRITE "ENAME* 
50010 PRINT "NEW": PRINT "1SPEED=160: POKE31.0: HOME 
INT"OU*"LESSON " RIGHT* (NAME*, LEN (NAME*) - 6>OU* 
NORMAL:GOTO60000 m 
50050 PRINT "10 FLAG=0: LCHECK=LEN(CHECK* > !LANS=LEN( ANS* > :REM MATCH 

SUBROUTINE" 
50060 PRINT "20 IF LANS=0 OR LCHECK^O OR LANS < LCHECK THEN RETURN" 

;.0070 PRINT "30 IF ANS*=CHECK* THEN FLAG = 1 (RETURN" 

'.0080 PRINT "40 FOR Ll = l TO LANS-LCHECK + 1 : FOR L2=l TO LCHECK" 

50090 PRINT "50 IF MID*(CHECK« ,L2, 1 ><>MID*( ANS* .L1-1+L2, 1 )THEN NEXT 

Lit RETURN" 
50100 PRINT "60 NEXT L2:FLAG*1 :L1=1000 1NEXTL1 :RETURN" 
50110 PRINT "70ANS*="QU*QU* 
50170 PRINT "80GETA«:iFA*="au*QU*"THENB0" 

50125 PRINT "85 IF ((LEN(ANS*> 0) AND( A* =LIIK* ( 8 ) ) ) THEN 80" 
50130 PRINT "110 IF A*=CHR*<8) THEN PRINT"QU*" " 

OU*"CHR* ( 8 ) J : ANS*=LEF T* ( ANS* , LEN ( ANS* ) - 1 ) : GOTQ80 " 
50140 PRINT 100"IF(A*-CHR*(O)ORA*=CHR*(24) > ANDLEN( ANS* X2THEN70" 
50150 PRINT "110IFA*=CHR*(8)THENPRINTCHR*(8)"QU»" "QU*"CHR» ( 8 > 1 ANS* 

1 I I T*(ANS*,LEN(ANS*>-1) :GOT080" 

50160 PRINT "120 IF A*=CHR*( 24 >THENFORJ=l TOLEN( ANS*) : PRINTCHR* ( 8 ) "O 

ii*" "ou*"chr*(8> ; :next:goto70" 

50170 PRINT "130ANS*<=ANS* + A*:GOTO80" 

50180 PRINT "1900 GOTO 1920":LNUM b 2000 

50190 PRINT "60000 HOMEIVTAB 6 ! PRINT"QU*"LESSON " RIGHT* (NAME*, LEN 

(NAME*) 6)QU* 
50200 PRINT "60010 VTAB10 1PRINT "QU*"GENERATED USING PILOT->BASIC"Q 

US" {PRINT :PRINT"QU*"M. SMITH FEB 1982"0U* 
50210 PRINT "60020 FOR J=l TO 3000!NEXTJ" 

K b 60030 
50230 PRINT K"BELL*=CHR*( 7 ) : REM BELL CHARACTER" :K * K ♦ 10 
50740 PRINT K"D* =CHR*(4)!REM DISK CONTROL" :K = K + 10 
50250 PRINT 1920"FOR K = TO 9 5 READ X: POKE (768 + K),x:NEXTK" 



236 



October 1982 * Creative Computing 



n PRIM 1"'lu"DATA10«, 160, 10*1, 166, 223, 15*1, 72, 152, /Z.VASRFM ONERR 
PATCH" 

HOHI ! GOTO 1900": RITURN 

rop 

/.(Minn Rl m *»»»» 

AUDIO KIM NAHES AND INITIALIZATION 

-M)0?0 MNH ••" : Rl M CURRENT PILOT BENTENCI 

60030 HSENT* "": l'l M mmnill) SENTENCE 

Aiiniii sizi 01 REM i I N(;TH<nr;rNT«> 



Ann'.n I N1IM 1900: REM 



CURRENT I INI NUMCi I- 



60 060 J 01K 
60070 TOR K 
60080 CPROC 17001 
60090 A* - ""1 REM 
60100 FLAG - 1 REM 
60110 BAD - 01 Rl M 
60120 D* - CHR* (1) 



o:i h:n n:x ■ oi rim dummy wariai 

1 TO 101NI <IC) i 01 NEXT : REM LABELS I" 
Rl M CURRENT PROCI DURI 
DUMMY VARIABI I 

El AG CONTROL OF Y/N TNSTRUCIIUN 
FLAG FOR BAD SYNTAX 
1 REM CONTROL D 



• VF 



60130 Oil n: REM CHICK UN PAIR8 OI DUOTI 

60M0 OH* CHR* (34)1 RIM OUOTI 

60150 BFl I * - CHR* (7)1 REM fill 

60160 HANG ■ 01 REM CONTROL 01 CR IN T INSTRUCTION 

60170 DIM M*C10>: REM DUMMY STORAGE USED IN M INSTRUCTION 

60180 Ml* - "": REM DUMMY VARIABLI USED IN M INSTRUCTION 

60190 Nl- 01 REM NUMBER OI PROCEDURES DEFINED 

60200 DIM NP»(30,1)I REM PROCEDURI NAMES AND I. INI NUMl. 

60210 NEED - 01 REM UNDI I INIH CROC 

60220 DIM NEED*(60,1): REM UNDEITNID IRCIC AND HHERI CALLED. 

i.Al I NFEOS GOTO il I Nl I D8 GOSUB 
60230 NAME* ""I RIM PILOT. NAME* IS CURRI N I PROGRAM NAM! 
60210 ENAMF* • ""! REM IXIC.INAMI* 18 CURRI Nl OUIIIII FILE 
60250 II I AC OI RIM PRINTS TO BCREEN Aii OUIIIII WHIN SI 1 

0001 Rl M LOOP WAIT I OR I 01 
60270 SOUND 1 REM CONTROLS LOADING OF SOUND ROUTINE8 
60280 REVERSI 01 REM CONTROLS [NVER8I USI IN 1 INSTRUCTION 
61000 HOME *. VTAB 101 PRIN1 "PILOT BA8IC CONVERTER"! IR1NI : PRINT 

"M.R.SMITH FEB 1982"BELL»8ELL» 1 Fl II) IU: NEXT J 

61011 HOME ! VTAB 101 GOTO 
62000 REM **»■* 

n HOME 1 VTAB 101 IRIN1 Ill: SYNTAX ONLY "Bill*;: INI III A»! II 

LEIT* <A*,D "Y" IHIN PFLAG li FT I URN 
62020 IF LEFT* ( A* , 1 ) "N" THEN PRIN1 BELL*BELL«1 Com 62010 
10 PFI AC II ! Rl TURN 



SRA Educational 
Courseware: 
Because learning 



<.<. 



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matters 

Mirro Discovery" (Grade 4 and up) 
For your Apple*. IBM*, or Radio Shack* 
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A complete introduction to the personal 
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2 Diskettes. 20 copies of Student Work- 
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*Rr|ti»lrrrd trad?msrtt. 

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SYSTEM SAVER contains two 
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October 1982 e Creative Computing 



CIRCLE 305 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Demonstrating the Gas Laws 



David A. Holko 





4*V 



& 




Gas laws frequently present problems 
for students studying General Chemistry. 
One reason for the difficulty is the stu- 
dent's inexperience in working with gases 
in a laboratory. 

The concepts involving an ideal gas 
confined to a container where pressure 
on the gas. temperature of the gas. or 
number of moles of gas can be controlled 
remain nebulous even when examples of 
tire pumps, aerosol cans, balloons or lab 
bottles are explained. 

This program, when used as a student 
activity, attempts to demonstrate the 
relationship between volume and pressure 
for Boyle's Law. volume and temperature 
for Charles's Law. or volume and moles 
of gas for Avagadro's Law. 

Initially, the student selects the law 
which is to be demonstrated. The video 
monitor shows a simple cylinder, and 
positions the piston, which traps a volume 
of gas and is ready to respond to changes 
in temperature, pressure, or moles of gas 
confined respective of the law chosen. 

When an increase or decrease is 
entered, the piston moves, correspond- 
ingly, showing the effect on the volume 
of confined gas. The changes are cal- 
culated using the ideal gas law V = 
nRT/P where V is volume, n is the 
number of moles of gas. R the universal 
gas constant. T the temperature and P 
the pressure. 

If the student graphs the computer 
calculated values, checks the values by 



David A. Holko. M2 N. River Dr. »I02. Stuart. 
FL 33494. 



doing hand calculations, or closely ana- 
lyzes the values calculated by the com- 
puter, the relationship of molar gas 
volume at Standard Temperature and 
Pressure may become obvious. 

The advanced student, via graphing 
and analysis, can be led to determine the 
actual value of R. the Universal Gas 
constant, by using the computer simula- 
tion as an experimental apparatus. 



There is a minimum volume the cyl- 
inder will hold. This design was effected 
to allow graphic extrapolation of the data 
to determine the value of Absolute Zero 
with Charles's Law. 

The programming is simple and short, 
written to aid and reinforce the student's 
application of the gas laws and equate a 
simulated moving piston to theoretical 
values derived using the ideal gas law. □ 



1 'QAS LAWS UERSION 3.0 MR IT TEN BV C>A"IC- H. HOLH". 

F» •'»##.###": 
Pp. 1 : 

R-. 0820361 

N» 1 : 

T"=2". I5i 

N' 1 > = li 

N<2)»40i 

N<3>"1> 

'.'*■ 1 >-"6A9 PRESSURE": 

"* ' 2 ' = " GAS TEMPERATURE ■ : 

•i*<-3> = "MOLES OF GAS"« 

F- 1 >=.0l: 

F< 2^=9t 

F<3>«.825 

PRINT" 1 BOVLES LAU": 

PRINT"2 CHARLES LAW: 

PRINT "3 AUOGADRO'S LnW"t 

INPUT "CHOOSE FROM THE ABOUE LAMS"lC: 

IFC>30RC< ITHEHCLSl 

G0T03 ELSECLS 

PRINTS70, "GAS CYLINDER WITH PISTON ":: 

PftINTCHR*<92>! : 

fop::=itoi20« 

SET<X.8>i 

SET •: v.- 1 4 > : 

NEXTXl 

F0RX-9T014: 

3ET<l.X>i 

SET<2,X>: 

NEXTX 



238 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 




^^ 



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1C1029 



SKA Educational 
Courseware: 
"Because learning 
matters" 

Computer Drill and Instruction: 

Mathematics (Grades 1-6) 

For your Apple* and Atari* personal 

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An outstanding program of drill and in- 
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Each level includes Binder with Lesson 
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Diskettes. •R<-*i.lrrrd lr«lrm»it. 


Gas Laws, continued... 

6 IFC-1THENPRINT9778. "PPESSURE "M 
PPINTUSINGB*!N<C>ll 

PRINT" ATM"* 

7 PRIHT9714. "UOLUME "!i 
PRINTUSINQB*?U;i 

PRINT" LITERS"! 

8 I FC-2THENPR I NT3778, "TEMPERATURE "II 
PRINTUSINGBS!N<C>! I 

PRINT" DEGREES K"! 

9 IFC-3THENPRINT3778. "MOLES OF GAS"H 
PRIMTUSIHGB*!N<C>! « 

PRINT" MOLES"! 
19 PRINT3S00, "TVPE < I > TO INCREASE OR <D> TO DECREASE THE " 1 U* 
<C>!"."I 

11 R*<1>-"THE PRESSURE ON THE GAS IS APPLIED BV THE PISTON." 

12 R*<3>-"THE MASS OF GAS IN THE CVLINDER CAN BE CHANGED." 

13 H* < 3 >«" PRESSURE S, TEMPERATLiRE ARE HELD CONSTANT AT STF . " 

14 R*<2>-"THE TEMPERATURE OF THE CVLINDER HOLDING THE GAS CAN 
BE CHANGED. " 

15 H*<2>="ONE MOLE OF GAS fc STD. PRESSURE ARE HELD CONSTANT." 

16 H*<l»»"ONE MOLE OF GAS 8, STD. TEMPERATLIRE ARE HELD CONSTANT 

It 


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Please contact me immediately . 
1 1 Semi me literature. 


17 PRINT344S,R»-C>: : 

PRINTSS12.H»<C>i 

I F22=OTHEHGOT02 1 
IS PFINTS»930,"TVPE (R> TO RERUN PROGRAM."! 


<Uh~J 


19 w* ■• INKEV*t 
IFLEN<A*>-0! 
G0T019 

20 IFA*-"I"THEHN'r>=M'C>+F<C>ELSEIFA*« ,, D"THENN<C>-N<C>-F<C>ELS 
E I FA*= " R " THENPUNELSEGOTO 1 ?> 

21 IFC"1THENU-<N*R*T>^N< 1 > 

22 IFC-2THENU«<N*R*N- C ■ > PP 

23 IFC=3THEN'»='M-X>*P*T> -PP 

24 22- It 

IFP<2OlTHENGOT026 ELSEIFP>245THENSOT027 ELSEGOSU625 1 
00TO6 


Ailikaii 


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240 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



>" PISTON "J 
TR*PPEC> liHS 



25 PRINT9P.CHF*' 1-1 ■;: 
PRINT8P+64.CHR*<19I <:: 
PP I NT8P i C HP* < 128> > • 
PRINT9P+63»CHR*< lTr- •: : 
PRINT3P+1 CHP*( 1?& •« : 
PRINTSP+65. CHR*< irt>:: 
F'P I MT3P+ 1 • C HP * » 1 .'c. • 5 C HP * • < 

ppimt*p*i :-ti. •• H iCHR*<91 >i 
RETURN 

26 IFO30RC>2THEMPRINTa912. "THE MINIMUM VOLUME OF THIS CVLINDE 
P HftS BEEN REACHED. "II 

SOTO 19 ELSEPPINT9S12. "THE MAX I HUH PRESSURE THIS PISTON Ch 
N e::ept HAS BEEN REACHED. *ti 
S0T019 
IV PRIHT8812. "THE MmXIMUM UOLUHE FOP THT-? CVLIHDER HAS BEEN RF 
ACHED. "- l 
60T019 



## 



GAS CVLIHDER WITH PISTON 

«««] PISTON 



t TRAPPED GAS 

THE PRESSURE OH THE GAS IS APPLIED BV THE PISTON. 
ONE MOLE OF GAS 8. STD. TEMPERATURE ARE HELD COHSTANT. 



UOLUME 
PRESSURE 



22.414 LITERS 
1 . OO0 ATM 



TVPE <I> TO INCREASE OR <D> TO DECREASE THE GAS PRESSURE. 
TVPE <R> TO RERUN PROGRAM. 



BOS'LE'S LAW SCREEN 



GAS CVLIHDER WITH PISTON 



«« *•«] PISTOH 

C TRAPPED GAS 

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE CVLIHDER HOLDIHG THE GAS CAN BE CHANGED. 
ONE MOLE OF GAS & STD. PRESSURE ARE HELD CONSTANT. 



UOLUME 3.282 LITERS 

TEMPERATURE 40.000 DEGREES K 

TVPE <I> TO INCREASE OR <D> TO DECREASE THE GAS TEMPERATURE. 
TVPE <R> TO RERUN PROGRAM. 



CHARLES' LAW SCREEH 



## 



GAS CVLIHDER WITH PISTOH V 

###] PISTOH 



IIMMMMI 



t TRAPPED GAS 

THE MASS OF GAS IM THE CVLIHDER CAN BE CHANGED. 
PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE ARE HELD CONSTANT AT STP. 



UOLUME 22.414 LITERS 
MOLES OF GAS 1.000 MOLES 

TS'PE <I> TO INCREASE OR <D> TO DECREASE THE MOLES OP GAS. 
TVPE <R> TO RERUN PROGRAM. 



AUAGADRO'S LAW SCREEH 

October 1 982 e Creative Computing 



RAM 

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241 



CIRCLE 233 ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 




Animath 



Jerry Wright and Lloyd Oilman, Jr. 



The graphics potential of the Atari 
personal computer is a powerful educa- 
tional tool. It can be used to transform 
the chores of learning into the fun of 
learning. 

A growing number of companies now 
produce educational software for the 
Atari computer, but the quality of this 
software varies widely. A good children's 
educational program draws children to 
play with it, and allows learning to happen 
along with the fun. 

When you think back to your school 
days (assuming you're not still there), what 
did you find to be the worst part of the 
learning process? For us it was drill and 
practice. Here's a children's educational 
program that makes addition practice 
enjoyable using an interesting type of ani- 
mation. 

The program is called Animath, for 
animated math program, and it uses a 
modified character set to create a saunter- 
ing gorilla. Player/missile graphics are 
also used to spice up the game. 

There are several commercial programs 
which can be used to create modified 
character sets. Perhaps the best-known 
of these is Fontedit, from Iridis #2. We 
used a program similar to this to write a 
"gorilla" font to disk. The original version 
of this program called the font from disk 

Jerry WriKhi. I8«12 116 Ave. SE. Renton. WA 

9W55. 



and loaded it into memory. The Atari 
character set is a part of ROM, so the 
font must be moved to RAM, where it 
can be modified by the appropriate 
POKEs into memory. 

We knew that many Atari owners uti- 
lize cassette storage, so we wrote a little 
utility to save the font as data statements 
at the end of the program. There are 24 
modified characters, represented as 24 
data statements. Because the characters 
are set up in 8 x 8 blocks, each of the 
eight numbers in the individual data 
statements is one 8-bit word, or byte. 

After the gorilla is POKEd into RAM. 
he can be animated by the POSITION 
command. By changing the positions of 
his arms and legs, we simulate motion, 
and the gorilla is able to run down the 
screen to the first problem. 

Thanks to Basic A+ from Optimized 
Systems Software, we were able to get an 
accurate list of variables. The first list we 
generated contained several variables we 
couldn't find. After listing the program to 
disk and entering it back in the computer, 
we came up with an accurate variable 
table, without all the variables that had 
been eliminated in earlier incarnations of 
the program. It's always wise to LIST, 
then ENTER programs when they are 
finished, to clear the Atari variable table 
of all but the variables actually being 
used. 



Variable Table 

NU$— String holding answer input by 
player 

TN$— String holding randomly generated 
top number 

BN$— String holding randomly generated 
bottom number 

A$— String to hold player input to ques- 
tions 

P— Horizontal position of individual num- 
ber input by player as an answer 
START— Beginning location of character 
set in the operating system 
NOW — Variable loop pointing to next 
character in the character set 
CH— ATASCII number of character set 
O-Location of RAMTOP (PEEK ( 106)) 
I -Location of PLAYER/MISSILE Base 
Address 

T— Variable for top end of volume in 
motion sounds 

L— Number of problems completed 
X — Horizontal position variable 
WAL— Gorilla movement subroutine 
PR — Number of problems chosen 
W — Number of problems successfully 
completed 

TN— Actual top number of problem 
BN — Actual bottom number of problem 
D — Decreasing pitch used in booming 
sound 

E— Timing loop variable 
A — Vertical position of gorilla or erase 
pattern 

K — ATASCII number input from key- 
board 

N— Actual number input from keyboard 
AMT — Answer: total of answer numbers 
in the ones, tens, and hundreds columns 
J— Sum of top number (TN) and bottom 
number (BN) 



242 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



THE NORMAL EXPECTATIONS 
OF SMALL BUSINESS 



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found to assist us in managing 
our business more profitably. 
Our normal expectations dictate 
that the cost and difficulty of 
organizing and reporting such 
valuable information will pre- 
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Likewise, most general ledger 
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ACL= LEDGER, a newly in- 
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In fact, your bookkeepers' skills 
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= Has multiple techniques for 
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= Extremely efficient — One test 
"closed" one day's 3.440 
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ACU= LEDGER is so versa- 
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Animath, continued 




C— Number of times gorilla goes through 

movement routine 

B — Volume of motion sound routine 

ending in variable T. also wait routine 

F — Flag set to 0: input character set. Flag 

set to 1: jump directly to main body of 

program 

WT— Wait routine 

The Program 

Lines through 4 introduce our 
authors, and set up our new character 
set. Line 2 DIMensions the various strings 
we will need, and makes sure that the 
string to hold the answer is empty. 

In line 3 we find the top of our available 
memory by PEEKing RAMTOP. which is 
location ( 106) in memory. Then we fool 
the operating system into believing that 
the available memory is five pages smaller 
than it actually is, so we won't accidentally 
load our program on top of the changes 
we are going to make. 

We then get an even number above 
our new RAMTOP (by adding 1) and 
multiply this number by 256. This new 
value of gives us the starting location 
of our new character set. 

We use the number 256 because the 
Atari 6502 microprocessor divides mem- 
ory into 256-byte "pages." and we must 
start the new character set at the begin- 
ning of an even page mark. 

Line 4 begins the river sound and jumps 
to the introduction and instructions. 

The subroutine at 6100 prints out the 
name of the program, and the authors. 
Then there is a pause at line 6120. so the 
title can be read, followed by a jump to 
the section asking for the number of 
problems desired — line 6000. 

If this is the first time the program has 
been run. the F flag is set at and a 
message asks the player to wait while the 
character set is set up. The program then 
returns to line 5. 

The Atari character set can't actually 
be changed, because it is permanently 
embedded in ROM starting at address 
57344. So we must move it into RAM. We 
do this in line 3 by PEEKing the character 
set and then POKEing it into the space 
we have set aside above RAMTOP. 

Line 6 reads the DATA defining the 
new characters and POKEs it into our 
new locations. In line 11 we POKE the 
location of our new character set into 
location (756), just above RAMTOP in 
the Character Base Register. 

There is a stream in our graphics jungle. 
In line 8 we create this by turning on two 
Players and setting their location just 
below RAMTOP then POKEing this into 
the Player/Missile Base address 52479. 

Jumping to line 15. the horizontal 
position of Player is POKEd into 53248. 
Player 1 into 53249. POKEs (704) and 
(705) set the color, POKEs (53261) and 



REM *»ANIMATH KY LIOVD OLLMANN AND JERRY WRIGHI (C) 

1<?81 BY LJ SOFTWARE 

2 DIM NU*<5> , TN*(3> .BN*<7> , A»< 1 > :NU*=" " : P 4lPOKI '64.25: 

' FEh (106) :Q=D-5:P0KE 106,Q»Q-0* 1 :O«0«256 

4 SOUND 0.8.8, 4:GOSUB 61 

5 START-57344lFOR NOW=0 TO 1023: CH-PEEH (START+NOW) ! POKE 
L"*NOW.CH:NEXT NOW 

6 FOR NOW' 264 TO 467: READ CH:POKE 15+NUW. CHl NEX 1 NOW 

8 I-PEEI- <U>6> -B:POKE 54279,1 

11 GRAPHICS 17:POKE 756. D/256j SETCOLOR 4. 

12 T«20: SETCOLOR 2.O.' 

15 POKE 53248. 95: POKE 53249. 1 27: POH E 704, 1 17l POKE 705. 117: 
FWE 5326 1.255: POKE 53262. 255: POKE 53256. 

: ■-! : X»1:WAL --■■ 
40 POSITION K+l,2l7 #6; ■■ r ABJ " : iPCISITION X + l. 
#6; "CCDJ": iPOSITION X + l. 4:- (»6.- , 'CEI J': 

55 TN*<2.2) =STR*( INT <RND< 1 > * I 
:bN«(2.2)=S1R«(INT(RND(l)*10) ) iL-L+ll IF L-PR MEN SOTO 

56 POSITION 2,0|? #6«W: 'V'jL: 

57 TN»(1. 1>"=STR«< INT(RND(1)*I 
:HN*< 1 . 1 )=STR»( INT (RND( 1 > *10> ) 

58 TN=VAL(TN») : BN=VAL (BN*> 

60 POSITION X*J,20l? tt«S: TN»« :POSITION (,21t7 
#6; "♦■•:HN*| :POSITION K,22l ' »6| " " : 
.11 ION K,2S|? #o: " "tiGOBUB WAL 
(KIND ".B.8.4 
IF RND(1> 0.95 THEN FOR D=10 TO 5 STEP - 1 : SOUND 
l.D. 10, INT (RND( 1 ) »10) :NEXT Di SOUND 1,1 
140 GOSUB 600 

180 IF RND<1) 0.95 THEN FOR D 10 TO 5 BTEI III. 

1 ,D. lO. B: NEXT D: SOUND 1,0,0,0 

184 GOSUI' 

185 IF RND(l) O.V5 THEN FOR D IS 'III. 
I, lO0,8,DlFOR E-l TO 2O1NEXT EiNEXI Di SOUND 1,0,0,0 

.mo 120 

500 FOR A=2 TO 17 

501 GOSUE) 20.". 
535 NEXT A 



244 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



NO TURTLE DRAWS 

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The CyberLOGO TURTLE also provides these special 
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• A full-screen editor allows users to write, 
review, and change a program on the whole screen. 




• On-line "HELP", a unique CyberLOGO TURTLE fea- 
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The CyberLOGO TURTLE learning environment, 
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CIRCLE 306 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Animath, continued... 



(53262) set up the shape and POKEs 
(53256) and (53257) set up Player size. 

We keep track of the number of times 
the Gorilla finds a problem with the 
variable L. and use the variable X as the 
X coordinate of our gorilla's location. 
Atari Basic accepts names as well as line 
numbers in GOTOs and GOSUBs. so we 
give the movement subroutine a name. 
WAL. 

Line 40 sets the starting location of the 
animal by using a position statement in 
X/Y coordinate form. Line 55 then ran- 
domly selects a top number which is 
placed in TNS and a bottom number, 
placed in BN$. 

Line 56 places the number of problems 
successfully answered next to the number 
of problems tried, and line 57 gets more 
numbers for the number strings. Line 58 
gets the value of the strings and places 
them into variables TN and BN. 

Line 60 places the numbers in their 
proper positions at the bottom of the 
screen. 

In line 60 we jump to the gorilla anima- 
tion section. This time WAL=500 so in 
line 500 we find the vertical positions for 
the gorilla in a FOR/NEXT loop and jump 
to the actual movement subroutine at line 
2000. 

Lines 2000 through 2009 draw the 
gorilla and move his arms and legs, while 
making the movement sound. Then the 
subroutine jumps back to line 501 where 
it gets a new position from the variable A 
in the FOR/NEXT loop. It then goes back 
to the movement routine until it reaches 
vertical position 17 on the screen. Next 
we jump back to line 100 for a sound 
routine and then jump to line 600. 

This is the keyboard routine— where 
we PEEK location (764) to find the inter- 
nal code of the last key pressed. The 
computer runs through a series of IF/ 
THEN statements to determine which key 
has been pressed by the player, and 
compares it to a list of valid inputs. The 
first number input goes into the ones 
column, the second into the tens column, 
the third into the hundreds column, and 
the fourth into the thousands column. 

This is done by setting up a number 
holding string (NUS). The position of the 
number in the string is determined by line 
700. which starts with P=4. so the first 
number is placed in the fourth position of 
NUS, the second number in the third 
position and so on. Line 705 prints the 
NUS on the screen and then the Atari 
loops around to line 120 and back through 
the keyboard routine until Return is 
pressed at line 660. 

Line 670 allows you to recover if a 
mistake is made. All you have to do is 
press Delete/Backspace or the Space Bar, 
the NUS is cleared, and you start back at 
the ones column. You then repeat the 






54" RETURN 

600 TRAP 840s K -PEEK <764> 

61 ■■> IF k-31 THEN N-lsGOTO 

615 IF K»30 THEN N-2lGOTO 

62" IF K-26 THEN N-7-lGOTO 700 

625 IF ► -24 THEN N-4iG0Tfl 

'I I "29 THEN N=5:GOT0 700 
HEN N=6tGOT0 TOO 
64.i IF K-51 THEN N=7:GOTO 
645 li i HEN N-SsGOTO 

IF h-4B THEN N-9iGOTO 7O0 
655 IF K«30 THEN N«0:GOTO : "" 
66<> IF 1=12 THEN AMT-VAl. <NU» ) : SDK i 
670 IF K-33 THEN NU«»" "«P-4)iGOT0 
690 RETURN 

P=P-1:IF P< 1 THEN K>33:GOTO - 
7.. I Nil* <P,P>»STR«<N>: POKE 764.255 
I11SITION X..':' #6; NONRETURN 
R,,. . ,1-TN+BN 

BIO Nll»=" ":P=4|P0KE 764. 255lPOSI THIN K,23l? N6|NU« 
B?o POSITION X + I,;:-" #6:" "IMPOSITION X « 1 . ': »6| " 
"IMPOSITION X+l,4s^ #6:" "| 

ET." POSITION X*l.Bl"* #6;" "IMPOSITION X.8*l: ' » 
"IMPOSITION X.8+?i~ #6;" ": 
835 IF AMT-J THEN WAL-5O0: W-W* I I GOTO IOOO 

B40 POKE 764,255i X-8s WAL=900s GOSUB IOIOiGOTO •» 

T=30iFOR A-2 TO 17iGOSUB SOOOiNEXT Ai r/URN 
IF X=8 THEN 3 

1005 X=ltT«10:A-17iFUR C > 1 TO 20tOOSUB 2 iM 

CiT-20»FOR B-l TO 2O0INEXT BiGOSUB IOIOiGOTO 55 
1010 FOR A-17 TO 23s POSIT ION ".A:" 1 «6: " 
"XINEXT Ai RETURN 

1 POSITION X+l.A-Jl? #6i" ": 

• POSITION X+l.Al"' »6s "rNOI"; IPOSI TION K+l.A+ll ' 
»6s "rptn "; iPOSITION X*l.A*2i-" #6j"tRSl": 
- FOR B-l TO TtSOIINO 3, 200, a, Bl NEXT In 
' POSITION X + l.Ai-' #6: "ITUI"; iPOSITION X-H....1: 
»6l "IYV]" S iPOSITION X+1.A*2:^ #6;"[WXl"i 
' FOR B=l TO TiSOUND 3. 2O0. 8. Bl NEX 1 l< 
19 POSITION X + LAl"" #6; "rAUT"! iPOSITION X*-1.A<I 
#6; "CCD]"s sPOSITION X+l.A+2: - ' #6s " I EF )" « 1 SOUND 
. ■■.'.>! RETURN 

POSITION XH.A-1I" #6s" "! 



246 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



■^■1 



LEARN PASCAL WITH THE 
EXPERT. K ARELTHE ROBOT. 



"Performance ...Excellent. Documentation... 
Excellent Ease of Use. ..Excellent Error Handling. . 
Excellent" ..stated Karei the Robot's April 26. '82 
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household word, the Karel Simulator may be responsil 
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his programming concepts." 

Arthur Luehrmann. in his Creative Computing review, assured 
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both entertaining and truly instructive " 

The Karel Simulator, introduced by Cybertronics International, 
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tasks as escape mazes, run hurdle races, and collect "beepers." Two 
Course Disks provide all of the solutions to the problems in the book. 




CH 



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CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



They offer both a teacher-controlled computer 
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CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Animath, continued... 

procedure until you have what you 
the correct answer. 

Pressing Return takes you out of the 
loop at line 660 where this time the value 
of the numbers in NU$ is transferred to 
the variable AMT. We then jump to 800 
to find out if the answer is correct. 

Line 810 clears NUS and resets location 
(764) by POKEing in 255. 

Lines 820 and 830 blank out the 
standing gorilla, then 835 determines if 
the answer is right. If it is. the gorilla 
walking routine (WAL) jumps back to 
line 500, adds 1 to the amount answered 
correctly, and jumps to line 1000. 

If AMT doesn't equal J. then the gorilla 
movement subroutine is set to 900. the 
horizontal position (X) is moved over 8 
places, and the gorilla runs through the 
subroutine at line 400 which forces him 
into the river. A reverse FOR/NEXT loop 
carries him downstream in subroutine 
3000. Then the program jumps back to 
line 55 where the new value of X swims 
him upstream with the subroutine at line 
900. and gives him a new addition pro- 
blem to answer. 

If the question was answered correctly, 
the program jumps to the subroutine at 
2000 through 2009. where the gorilla 
jumps up and down with joy. The routine 
then sets the sound volume variable T to 
20 and the horizontal position variable X 
to 1 and then jumps back to the main 
program loop at line 55. 

When the number of problems chosen 
(PR) equals the number actually done 
(L), the program goes to line 7000 where 
it displays a score and offers a chance to 
play again. 

We hope this program and accompa- 
nying explanation have given you an idea 
of some of the things that can be achieved 
with the Atari Personal Computer. We 
enjoy this system thoroughly, and hope 
that many more people will soon see the 
Atari as a computer with truly incredible 
possibilities. 

Instructions 

After the program is loaded and the 
player has chosen the number of pro- 
blems, the gorilla will come on the screen 
and run down to the first problem. The 
answer should be typed in with the first 
number in the ones column, the second 
in the tens column, and the third in the 
hundreds. 

If you make a mistake, just press the 
space bar. When you have the correct 
answer, press the return key. The gorilla 
will tell you if you are right. 

In the listing that follows, several char- 
acters are in square brackets. These 
should be typed in as inverse characters. 
The Epson MX-80 prints a " ] " instead of 
a clear sign, so when you see that symbol 
type Escape, then Control and Clear 
together. □ 



I • ♦ 1 , Al »6: "NO" : I •!..,.!: .1 . 

FOR B«l TO T:S0" B 

IN K*l .A: - »■■■: " 111": : in 
•■■'• i-i "ID i, I rO.S.BiNE ■ I B 

i 1 inn 1C+I.A1 ' »6| 'AB" i:l D9I1 ION K*1.A< 
»6| n If'N 

■ 
B,A< I : »■■,: ■ ' : :IJl Kl Al D 35 

l.l l<=il Hi 10101 1 -.'■■: ■ I: 

6000 ? -;how many problems woui d you like"ii inpui pr 

IHFN 11 
6010 ' "JJUSt A MINUTE. WHILE I LET THE GORILLA 
OUT OF HIS CAGE. ":RETURN 

6100 GRAPHICS llSETCOLOR 2. 0, Ol POSITION 6.4: 
#6: 'Tan 1 math]": PHI' E 732, 1 1 A MATH PROGRAM 

6110 ? " LLOYD OLLMANN AND JERRY WRIGHT"! " CHARA 
DESIGN Milt POTTER"tP0M 

FOR ur=l ro tOOOtNEXI UT: ' " 3 " : I30SUB 6OOO1RETURN 
: , lit- r- 704, ..:Piih E 
rOtO "THIS TIME YOU GOT ":W:" OUT I "RIGHT.": 

"DO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN'' ( Y/N> ": INPUT A» 

IF A» "Y" THEN END 
• , ,, W-OiL-OiF-tsBOTO ■ 

1 10 DATA 0,0,0,0,1,3,6,52 

10010 DATA 0,0,0,0,128,192,96,44 

DATA 124,234,299, .231.199 

DATA 6?. .247.247. .227 

IOO40 DATA 71,83,119,6,6,4,2,14 

DATA 226.202.206. 96. 96. 32. 64. 112 
10,16.' DATA 255. 255. 255. 255. 23' •. 

DATA 19,19,19,19,19,19,19,19 
IOO80 DAIA 240, 240,240,240, 240,24< . 

DATA 1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 
10100 DATA 128,128.128,128.128.128.128.128 

1 01 10 DATA ■ 

DATA 192,192.192.192.192.192.19:. 

DATA 0,0,0,0,1, ".6.4 
10140 DAIA 0,0,0,0, B, 198. HO, 

DATA 28. 126. 
10160 DATA 63, 

DAIA 199,239, 126.60,24,0,0,0 
1018< 4. 1 12,48,48,60.61 
10190 DATA 0,0,0,0,1,99,118,2! 
■• ■ r.Ai a o,< 



248 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



■H 





DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 


'.■■•. •*■> 


DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 


201 1" 


DATA 




DATA 




DATA 


2O140 


DATA 




DATA 


20 J 60 


DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 


2021 


DATA 




DATA 




DATA 




DATA 



7,7,14,12,12,1 

55,199,197,199,231,119 

.".".".". 1 . '■ 
6,32,0,0,0,0, 128. 192 
9<b.44. 124', 

231,199,62,127,255.247, 
. I . 227, •• I ,83, 1 15,6,6, 4 
2, 14. . 't,,96.32 

64. 1 12.255,25! , 

15, 15. 15. 15. 15, 
15, 13, 240, 
240,240, 1.1.1.1.1.1 

l.i. 128, ira. i 

128.128. 

192. : ,0, 1,3 

6.4.' . 

1 10,63,28, 126. 255. 

. 238, 199.239. 126,60,24,0 

24.224. 112. 48.48. 6c.i 
60,0, 1.99 

1 18.252. . 128. 192 

96.32,56. 126.255.247.247.255 

192.7,7. 14. 12, 12, 124 
1 24, O, 227. 247. 62. 60. 24 . 
• '.".J52.254.255. 199. 199. 199 



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October 1982° Creative Computing 



249 



CIRCLE 267 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







A Mortgage Amortization Program 
for the Atari 



Marijane Green 

I wrote the following program for the 
Atari -+00 or 800 while learning the ins 
and outs of Basic. It uses a standard hanking 



M.miane Green. 4801 N.E. 
Lauderdale. FL .\W4. 



16 Ave.. Fl. 



formula to compute the mortage payment 
due when given the amount of the loan, 
interest rate and time period. It also 
displays the payment number, loan bal- 
ance, amount of payment applied to the 
principle and the amount of interest 
charged that month. 

In addition, the total annual interest is 



displayed for each calendar year. If only 
the annual interest payments are wanted. 
the following changes will cause the printing 
of the monthly figures to be suppressed. 
Delete lines 130 and 140 
170 X=X-I:TMI=TMI + MI 
180 '.'•IN II REST FOR YKAR ":Y: 
■|S":TMI □ 



amortization":' *(,;••• 



2 GRAPHICS 2:^ *6;" MORTGAGE" : ? *6i' 

3 ? #6;" BY MARIJANE GREEN" 
3 I UR I 1 TO 50001NEXT TtGRAPHICS 
10 REM THIS IS A MORTGAGE PROGRAM 

20 ? I? "THIS PROGRAM HILL COMPOTE THE" 

21 ? "MONTHLY PAYMENT DUE, GIVEN THE" 

22 ? "AMOUNT OF LOAN, INTEREST RATE" 

23 •> "AND THE TIM! PERIOD." 

30 ? :? "IN ADDITION A LISTING BY MONTH" 

31 ? "HILL GIVE THE LOAN BALANCE, THE" 

32 ? "AMOUNT Of PAYMENT APPLIED 10 IMF" 

33 ? "PRINCIPLE FOR THAT MONTH AND THl " 
3* ? "AMOUNT OF INTEREST PAID THAT MONTH." 

35 ? I? "THl ANNOAL INTEREST PAYMENT HILL" 

36 ? "t:t PRINTED"!? 

41) > "AMOUNT OF LOAN IS "SUNPUT A 
50 ? "RATE OF INTEREST IS " J 1 INPUT I 
60 ? "LENGTH OF TIMt IN MONTHS IS " 
65 DIM F»(3>:DIM M0«<3) 
/0 ? "MONTH FIRST PAYMENT IS DUE IS 
80 ? "YEAR FIRST PAYMENT IS DUE IS 
90 FOR X=l TO 12tREAD HO* : IF MO*=F* 
100 NEXT Xt? "CHECK SPELLING '" :GOTO 

no r=izi20o:v=<r+i >*m:p <r*v*a>/<v-i> 

li'O P-IHT<P«1«»+«.S)/U0:? I? "MONTHLY PAYMINF IS "if 

130 ? "MONTH", "BALANCE ","AHOONl APP11EDTO" 

MO ? " ", "DUE", "PRINC", "INTEREST" 

LSI i OR I t to m:mi A»R 

160 mi ini (mi«ioo+o.s>/ioo:s=p-mi:b=a-s:a=b 

170 ? t,b,s,mi:x-x-i:tmi=tmi*mi 

172 if x-'o then 180 

17* NEXT I 

176 ? I? "INTEREST FOR YEAR "|VJ".I8 "ITMIiENO 

180 ? t? I? "PAYMENT IS "1PI? "INTERE81 FOR YEAR "JVJ" IS "ITHII? 

iyo x=12:y-y*i:tmi=o:goto \.t\ 

200 DATA DEC, NOV, OCT, SEP, AUG, JUL, JUN, MAY, APR, MAR, FEB, JAN 



T hese instructions display a title on the screen. 



The instructions on lines 211 to .V> merely tell the user what the program will do. 



;: INI 111 M 
"JtlNPUl I* 

•; : input y 

THEN 110 
70 



Enter loan amount in dollars 
Enter interest rate in V i.e- 10.12. 
Enter number o( months 

Set up to accept a threeHetler abbreviation (or first month- 
DAT A (or spelling 
Enter year as l°*x. or 20is. 
X -number of months loan held in first year. 
Abbreviation for month not correct 
See note at end. 

Round payment to nearest cent and print. 
Set headings. 

Sun loop. Get monthly interest 'Ml I. 
Round interest lo nearest cent. Adjust values for display. 
Display table AdjuM X Get ti>tal interest lo date lor this year 
Time to print yearly interest 



Print interest for last year. 
Reset. 



NOTE: In line 1 10 the formula for computing (he payment was taken from "flow to Profit from Your 
Personal Computer" by T.G. Lewis, patse 72. Payment = liVAI/< V-l rwhere i = monthly interest rale in 
fraction form; A : amount of loan: M — length of l»san in months: V = amouni ol interesi on $1 when 
compounded by addinii interest fees: V=ii= I )M. 



250 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 




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NAME DESCRIPTION 

1 RULE7B Intern) Apportionment by Rule of the 78s 

2 ANNU 1 Annuity computation program 

3 DATE Time between dates 

4 DA WEAR Day of year a particular date falls on 

5 LEASEINT Interest rate on lease 

6 BREAKEVM Breakeven analysis 

7 DEPRSL Su-aightline depreciation 

8 DEPRSY Sum of the digits depreciation 

9 DEPRDB Declining balance depreciation 

10 DEPRDDB Double declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash flow vs depreciation tables 

1 2 CHECK2 Prints NEBS checks along with dairy register 

13 CHECK BK I Checkbook maintenance program 

14 MORTGAGE A Mortgage amortuation table 

1 5 MULTMON Computes time needed for money to double, tnple. 

16 SALVAGE Determines salvage value of an investment 

1 7 RRVARJN Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

1 8 RRCONST Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

19 EFFECT Effective interest rate of a loan 

20 FVAL Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

21 PVAL Present value of a future amount 

22 LOANPAY Amount of payment on a loan 

23 REGWTTH Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

24 SIMPDISK Simple discount analysis 

25 DATEVAL Equivalent 6 nonequivalent dated values for oblig 

26 ANNUDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 MARKUP * Markup analysis for items 

28 SINKFUND Sinking fund amortuation program 

29 BONDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scholes options analysis 

32 STOCVAL I Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

33 WARVAL Value of a warrant 

34 BONDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

36 BETAALPH Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

37 SHARPE I Portfolio selection model i e what stocks to hold 

38 OPTWRtTE Option writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a right 

40 EXPVA1 Expected value analysis 

41 BAYES Bayesian decisions 

42 VALPRINF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADINF Value of additional information 

44 UTILITY Derives utility function 

45 SIMPLEX Linear programming solution by simplex method 
4b TRANS Transportation method lor linear programming 

47 EOQ Economic order quantity inventory model 

48 QUEUE! Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

49 CVP Cost volume-prof* analysis 

50 CONDPROF Conditional profit tables 

51 OPTLOSS Opportunity loss tables 

52 FQUOQ Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortages permitted 

54 FQEOQPB As above but with quantity pnee breaks 

55 QUtUtCB Cost benefit waiting line analysis 

56 NCFANAL Net rash flow analysis (or simple investment 
,57 PROF1ND Profitability index of a project 

*58 CAPI Cap Asset Pr Model analysis of project 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on loan with compensating bal required 

61 DISCBAL True rate on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 F1NRAT Financial ratios for a firm 

64 NPV Net present value of project 

65 PRINDLAS Laspeyres price index 

66 PRINDPA Paasche price index 

67 SEAS1ND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 TIMETR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 TIMEMOV Time senes analysis moving average trend 

70 FUPRINF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system links with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABEL 1 Shipping, label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 BUSBUD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 nMECLCK Computes weeks total hours from ttmeckxk info 

78 ACCTPAY In memory accounts payable system storage permitted 

79 INVOICE Generate invoice on screen and pnnt on pnnter 

80 INVENT2 In memory inventory control system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 T1MUSAN Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign 

84 ACCTREC hi memory accounts receivable system storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitrage computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund deprecation 

90 UPSZONE F.nds UPS rones from tip code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope including return address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 INSF1LE Insurance policy file 

94 PAYROLL2 In memory payroll system 

95 DILANAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase pnee for rental property 

98 SALELEAS Sale leaseback analysis 

99 RRCONVBD Investor s rate of return on convertable bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage valuation program 



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CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



aaaaa 




Emily G. Johnston 



Game programs are Tine, but playing 
games with a computer wears a little thin 
after a while. How about a program that 
helps you create a game — a crossword 
puzzle, to be precise? 

Hirst, let me describe the puzzle. Most 
of you are familiar with a standard 
American crossword puzzle, in which 
words are inserted in a matrix diagram so 
that every letter is "keyed" - i.e.. each 
letter is contained in two words. (English 
puzzles allow unkeycd letters, which 
makes them much harder.) 

The kind of puzzle I am interested in is 
quite different - it's called a "double- 
crosstic" (D-C. for short). In these, the 
diagram is linear. Each square is numbered 
consecutively and words are formed along 
the line, not up and down. Each square has 
a letter code, which refers to a list of 
'words.' and each 'word' has a definition. 
The puzzle-solver guesses the 'words' from 
their definitions and fills them into a set of 
dashes provided. Under each dash is a 
number which tells you where in the 
diagram the letter belongs. 

When the puzzle is finished, the 
diagram will contain a quotation, and the 
initial letters of each 'word' will spell out 
the author's name and title of the work 
from which the quotation was taken. 

For an example, look in the Sunday 
Ne w York Times Magazine or in the back 
of any issue of Saturday Review. Many 
Sunday newspapers have them in their 
magazine supplements, also. 

For some reason, these puzzles are 
rather addictive. 1 have been working them 
for years and have become rather expert at 
solving them (although not as expert as my 
father, who does them in ink!). Finally. 1 
got the idea to try to make up some of my 
own. 

To understand the creation of a D-C, 
we consider the problem in reverse. 

Emily Johnston. Director. Computer Center. Western 
Maryland College. Westminster. Mil 21157 



Choose a quotation. Write down the 
author's name and title of the source in a 
vertical list. Anagram the entire quote into 
a set of words beginning with those letters. 
Assign the cross-correspondence between 
letters in the words and letters in the 
quotation. Draw up the diagram and put 
all the numbers and code letters in. Think 
up some definitions for your words, and 
you are all done. 

It's as much fun to make them up as to 
work them, but there are quite a few 



These puzzles are 

rather addictive. I have 

been working them for 

years and have become 

rather expert at 

solving them. 



complications. It is very easy to miscount 
the letters. Generating the cross-corres- 
pondence is time-consuming and in- 
credibly boring. Another problem is what I 
call the "end-game" — you get the whole 
thing almost done only to discover that 
you are left with two Q's. one R. three I's. 
and a Z. So, you return six or eight words 
to the letter pile and do it over. And over, 
and over. Finally, if you persevere, you will 
get a collection of decent words. 

Professional puzzle-makers use 
Scrabble tiles to make up these puzzles. 
They get five or six sets, and put them into 
a box with 26 pigeonholes. (Go to a 
hardware store and try to find a box with 
26 compartments in it.) Then they 
construct the quotation using the tiles and 
lay it out on the dining room table. The 



source letter box is put away and another 
box with 26 pigeonholes is used to collect 
the letters from the quote. Take out the 
letters for author-title and put them on the 
table. Start making up words, forming 
them with the tiles and putting them on the 
table. 

About the time you are halfway 
through, the cat jumps on the table and 
scatters the tiles all over the room! The tiles 
solve the problem of miscounting or over- 
looking letters, but that's about all. 

After making up a half-dozen or so, I 
decided that a computer program was 
definitely in order here. Besides eliminat- 
ing the cat problem, it can keep a running 
count on all the letters, tell you when you 
have used a letter you do not have, 
compute the average number of letters per 
word required at any time, and — AND — 
do the cross-correspondence when you are 
finished. 

There are probably all of four 
professional D-C puzzlemakers in the 
whole United States. They get maybe $50 
per published puzzle, and have cornered 
what market there already is for them. 
Obviously, none of us are going to get rich 
off either the puzzles or the program. I 
wrote to the puzzlemakers I know of 
asking if there was an interest in such a 
program. I only got one reply, and he 
didn't know what the devil I was talking 
about. 

Undaunted, I wrote the program 
anyway. It's called "DBI.X." and it's so 
neat I have to share it with somebody. The 
puzzlemakers are too set in their ways to 
try our stuff, so here is a tool for you to try 
theirs. 

DBLX is written in DEC PDP-11 
Basic-Plus and is heavily dependent on the 
string manipulation features of that 
language. The code runs about 4S0 printed 
lines. The current version contains most of 
the bells and whistles, but there are a 
couple of limitations yet to be removed. 



252 



October 1982 6 Creative Computing 



The most severe limitation is that the 
input quotation can contain a maximum of 
2S6 characters. This is due to the input 
buffering characteristics of Basic-Plus 
(and perhaps other Basics, too). This is not 
really long enough; although most quo- 
tations contain about that number of 
letters, the spaces between words and the 
punctuation need to be retained for read- 
ability, and for the cross-correspondence. 
There are a number of ways around this 
restriction, but none of them are attractive 
to a novice computer user. 

Some improvements are also neces- 
sary. There is no mechanism yet for 
changing a word in the quotation in order 
to obtain one of the letters present in the 
author's name or title of the work. While 
this practice is not strictly kosher, it is 
sometimes done in order to use an 
interesting quote. 

The cross-correspondence algorithm 
is not very smart either. One of the tacit 
rules of D-C's is that no two letters from 
the same 'word' should end up in the same 
word of the quote. One puzzle-maker to 
whom I showed the program pointed out 
that he likes to skip at least three words in 
the quotation between assignments and 
counts as words for this purpose things like 
standard phrases and hyphenated words. 
Although my algorithm makes a token 
effort to satisfy this, there are a number of 
violations. 



Ultimately. I would like to add a 
graphics section which will produce the 
diagram and the list of blanks for the 
'words.' That would eliminate the last piece 
of drudgery in what is otherwise a very 
entertaining pastime. 

In the following scenario, the quota- 
tion has been entered from a Hie. It is 



The puzzlemakers are 

too set in their ways to 

try our stuff, so here is a 

tool for you to try theirs. 



possible to enter a complete word list via 
file also, so that the program essentially 
gets used just for creating the cross- 
correspondence. The program that gener- 
ated this was run on a PDP-I I 60 under 
RSTS, E. I have added a list of my 
definitions for the 'words' at the end. just 
for the fun of it. The example is from a 
puzzle I made up using tiles some time ago. 
If you would like to have a copy of the 
program, please send me a self-addressed. 



stamped envelope (large), and I will send 
you a listing. Or. if you have access to it, 
send a mag-tape (not cassette), format 
instructions, and enough postage for me to 
mail it back to you. 

My definitions were: 

Should you do these on bended knee? 

(2 words) 

Proper compensation, some say. 

(4 words) 

I his is an odd number (comp.) 

Bubbly. 

Do this to your cat and you're in for 

big trouble. (4 words) 

Traveling singing group, popular with 

country folk. (3 words) 

NASA's newest bird. (2 words) 

Penn's woods. (3 words) 

Philippine city. 

But it sounds like the opposite of 

straight-legged. (2 words) 

Site of a college with the same name. 

(word & abbr.) 

Looks OK. but you really can't tell. 

Sounds from trains indicate they may 

use this to control the gears. (2 words) 

Bubbly (again). 

Something for nothing (colloq.. 

2 words) 

No-good genuine shoe part. (2 words) 

You must ask this before taking any 

steps. (3 words) 

Concurrently, (poetic: contr. & word) 

D 



A. 

B. 

C. 
D. 
E. 



G. 
H. 
I. 
J. 



L. 

\1 

N. 
O. 

P. 
Q 

R. 





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microcomputer in the industry - the LNW80. The LNW SEMI-KITS are affordable modules. You 
can start with a modest cassette system and expand to a full 4Mhz TRS-80 compatible system with 
5 or 8 inch double density disks and color at any time 

A. LNW80 CPU - Made of high quality FR4 glass epoxy double sided circuit material, with plated- 
through holes and gold edge connector. It is fully solder-masked and silk screened. Here are just 
some of the outstanding features you will have when your LLNW80 CPU board is fully assembled: 
• 1 6K RAM • Color and black and white video • 480 x 1 92 high resolution graphics • 64 and 80 
column video • 4 Mhz Z80A CPU • Upper and lower case display • 500 and f 000 baud cassette 
I/O -(89.85 

B. SVSTEMEXPANSION-Expandthe LNW80 computer board. TRS-80 and PMC-80 computer 
with the following features: • 32K memory • Serial RS232C and 20Ma port • Real time clock • 
Parallel printer port • 5 inch single density disk controller • Expansion bus (screen printer port) • 
Onboard power supply • Solder- masked and silk screened legend - (69. 95 (tin plated contacts) - 
(84.95 (gold plated contacts) 

C. KEVBOARD- 74 key expanded professional keyboard- includes 1 2 key numeric keypad. Fully 
assembled and tested. - (99.95 

D. COMPUTER CASE - This stylish instrument-quality solid steel case and hardware kit gives your 
LNW80 that professional factory-built appearance. - (84.95 Add (f 2 00 for shipping. 

E. SYSTEM EXPANSION CASE - This stylish instrument-quality solid steel case and hardware kit 
gives your SYSTEM EXPANSION interface-that professional factory-built appearance. - (59.95 
Add (10.00 for shipping. 

F. LNW80 CPU - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT - (82.00 . 
G LNW80 VIDEO - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT - (31 .00 

H. SYSTEM EXPANSION - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT - (27.50 
I. LEVEL II ROM set. (6 chip set) - (1 20.00 

VISA and MasterCard accepted Add (3 00 for shipping plus (1.00 for each additional item. All 
shipments via UPS surface. Add (2.00 for US Mail. Shipments outside continental U.S.: funds must 
be U.S. dollars. Sufficient shipping costs must be included with payment. 

ORDERS ft. INFORMATION - (714) 544-5744 
SERVICE - (714) 841-8850 



LNW Research Corp. 

2620 WALNUT Tustin, CA. 92680 



October 1982° Creative Computing 



CIRCLE 195 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Double Cross, continued.. 




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254 








October 1982 e 


Creative Computing 



THE VOICE OF THE FUTURE 



HEAR TODAY 



Echo Speech Synthesizers 



Now your computer can talk with an ECHO " speech synthesizer from Street Electronics! 
Our SPEAKEASY" phoneme system provides unlimited vocabulary while using a minimum of memory. The 
TEXTALKER '" text-to-speech firmware allows you to simply type in a word or phrase and let the computer do the 
rest. With nearly 400 grammatical rules contained in the system, your computer can properly pronounce most 
correctly spelled words. Simple commands allow you to select from: 

■ Entire words pronounced or spelled letter by letter • 63 different pitch levels 

Different volumes • Words spoken monotonically or with intonation 

1 Spoken punctuation if desired • Fast or slow speech output 

The applications of the ECHO speech synthesizer are virtually unlimited, ranging from business and education 
to games to aiding the handicapped. The ECHO ][ which plugs into the Apple ][ is priced at $199.95. The 
ECHO-GP is a complete stand alone unit which is compatible with most any computer; it sells for $369.95. 




Street Electronics Corporation 

11 40 Mark 

Carpinteria, California 93013 

(805)684-4593 



CIRCLE 282 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Introducing the Third Generation 
of Investors' Software for the Apple: 

The Investors Toolkit ™ 



Mure complete than am other 
Easier to w than am other And you 
pay only for the systems w>u need >ou 
can later "upgrade" am program 
package for lust the price difference 

PROGRAM PACKAGES 



(consisting of the programs as 
numbered betou) 
Chart Trader 

(contains # I. *) $149.00 

Market Anahst 

(contains #1. 4. IS. 16) 249.00 

Financial Trader 

(contains #1 . 4. 5. 6. 9. 

IS. 16. 1*. 18) 499.00 

Professional Trader 

(contains #1.3.4.5. 6. 8. 

9. 12. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18). . . 699.00 

Chan Trader and Market Analyst also 
availahlc with (Iraphic Charting with 
Analysis || i#sp for SsIMHI additional 
Packages listed above nu\ he upgraded 
for price difference onl> 



DATA MANIPULATION 

1. Data File Management .$ 99. 9S 

2. V-f'omni 99.95 

TECHNICAL ANALYSIS TOOLS 

3. Advanced Graphics One $199.95 

4. Graphic Charting 

with Anahsis 99.95 

v Graphic Charting 

with Analysis II 149.94 

6. Gann Square ol Nine .. 49.95 
". Swing Have Day Counter 49.95 

8. Fibonacci Projection . . 59.95 

TRADING SYSTEMS 
WITH OPTIMIZATION 

9. Moving Average 

Crossover $149.95 

It). Engineers System 199.95 

11. Parabolic System 99.95 

12. Directional Movement 

System 99.95 

IV Swing Index System . . . 99.95 
1 4. Relative Strength 

Index System 99.95 



TRADING SYSTEMS 

15. Wilder* 6 Systems $129.95 

16. Relative Strength Index 
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Double Cross, 

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256 












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258 










October 1982 e Creative Computing 



You've invested a lot of time and money into your computer . . 

It's time that investment paid off! 




THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT 




The Programmer's Institute introduces THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT, the only complete personal financial package 
specifically designed for the Atari 400/800 and the TRS-80 COLOR computers. This unique package includes: 

1. Complete Checkbook Maintenance 5. Payments /Appointments Calendar 8. Home Budget Analysis 

2. Chart of Accounts Maintenance 6. Color Graph Design Package 9. Schedule 1040 (Long Form) 

3. Income /Expense Accounts (graphs any files) 10. Decision Maker 

4. Net Worth Statement 7. Slock Market Analysis 11. Mailing List 

After the initial setup, THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT requires less 
than an hour of data input each month. 

The checkbook maintenance program is the key to the entire 
package. Once your checkbook is balanced, the checkbook summary file 
will automatically update the home budget analysis, net worth, and in- 
come/expense statements. You can then graph any file, record bills and 
appointments, make decisions, print a mailing list, analyze various 
accounts or stocks, and even calculate taxes. 

All programs arc menu-driven and allow add/change/deletc. Each 
file and statement can be listed to screen or printer, and saved to cassette 
or diskette. 

THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT also comes with 40 pages of 
documentation that leads you step-by-stcp through the entire package. 
This package requires I6K for the TRS-80 COLOR Ext. Basic. The Atari 
400/800 requires 24K for cassette and 32K for diskette. 

(S75 cassette. $80 diskette). 



FREE OFFER! 

Order before Sept. 30, 1982 and you will receive 
ABSOLUTELY FREE Itemized Deductions 
(Schedule A) and Income Averaging (Schedule G). 



PROGRAMMER'S INSTITUTE 

a division of IUTUREHOUSE 
P.O. Box 3191, DEPT. I-A 
CHAPEL HILL, NC 27514 
MasterCard /Visa Welcome 
10 AM - 9 PM. Mon - Sat 

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Add $2 fMMUKf and handling to all oni,rs 




CIRCLE 246 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



STONEWARE'S AMAZING NEW 
GRAPHICS PROCESSING SYSTEM 



Professional quality 

graphics for the 

Apple II Plus. 

After two years of develop- 
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System is the ultimate in fast, 
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programs. Graphics Processing 
System creates and edits images 
in the same manner word pro- 
cessors work with text. 

Graphics Processing System 
features: Grid Maker for work- 
ing with scale and proportion ■ 
Colors can be mixed and used 
to color lines, objects and back- 
grounds ■ Two Zoom powers 
for greater detail resolution ■ 2-D Rotation to full 360° 

■ Duplication on screen, to disk, and from disk 

■ Text Capabilities in upper case 
A-Z, 0-9, and all characters on 
the Apple keyboard ■ Modify or Erase 
a portion of an image without having to 



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■ Enlarge or Reduce images 

■ Change Proportions verti- 
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■ Print Overlays separately 
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■ Accesses 16K RAM card 
■ Compatible with other 
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Apple compatible game paddles 
and joystick ■ Speaks directly 
: to the Apple Silentype printer 
and accommodates graphic 
dump programs for other 
( ^5 printers ■ Professional Ver- 
sion is also compatible with 
Apple Graphics Tablet, Symtec 
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HiPlot DMP 3, 4. 6 and 7, HP7470A Plotter, Strobe 100 
Plotter. IDS 460 and 560 Graphics Printers, Epson MX80 
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Only $179. 
and $69. 



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CIRCLE 279 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Valley Bomber 77m Basham 



In this game you arc the pilot of a 

bomber. Your mission is to destroy the 
valley, hut not the mountain. The mountain 
is depicted with x's and the valley with 
while spaces. 



1 1111 H.ish.mi. MMOJuiH-i. Taylor. Ml IhINO 



Press the space bar to release the bomb. 
Points are given for hitting the valley. II 

you hit part of the mountain, the points 
are doubled and subtracted from your 
score. 

The game ends when a bomb misses 
completely. Press Enter al the end of the 
game to play again. □ 



1" K-2S6iCL8iONERRORQ< 

ft*"" "+CHR«( 143) t-CHR»<140> ♦CHR*U40>+CHR*l 188>+CHR»< 140>+CHR*( 140) +CHR* ( 14"i 
: 6»=CHR* ( 1 40 1 

»-CHR«< 191) 

I in PRINT8S76, "XXXXXX";!PPINT3633. "XXXXX"; :PRINTdo40, "XXXXXXXX"; IPRINT9695, "XX XX 
XXX"; : PRINTS >U4." XX XXX XXXX/»"; : PR INTi)75f.. " X X X XX X X > I 

120 PRINTi7<>8, "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"; IPRINT961S, " XXX X X X X XXXXXX X X " ; :PR1NT.J832. "XXXXXXX 
■ X"; :PRINT*876, "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"j IPRINT3896. "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX/" ■■ ■ ■ 
: : I KINTJ)935, ,, XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX";:PRINT.}960, "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX>' 
PRINTii996, "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"| 
URN*582T0632lPRINT*N.i *; |M ■ 1 : FORN-648 r0694: PR INT *N. (.♦; : NE XT : F0RN-713T0734I 
PRINT.J1N.C*; : NE XT : F(DRN=783T0814:PRINTilN. C»; : NEXT: F0RN-B50T0875I PR t NT-iN. C«| tNEX'TtF 
ORN=919r0934:PRINT.ilN.C*; : NEXT ! F0RN=98*>T0995: F K INT i>N. C* ; I NEXT 
149 IFU-1THEN 

"*=IN>EY««IFQ*-" " \Hlt. 

. X+67:F0RN=AT01022STEP65 
IR1NT3N,B«; 

I I 1 0NERR0RG0T05' 

515 7-PEEI- ( 15T60+N + 6S) -. IFZ=240RZ=88THENJ=1 : G0T0400 

IFPEEI ' 13360+N+65) V. AND) lit) < 15360+N+63) ( 58THFN400 
OlPRINTSN," "; :NEXT:G0T0 
400 PRINT9N," " ; : PRINT.iN<64. " " ; : N=N+64: IFN 576THENP-5 
410 IFN -&40THENP-25 

[FN 704THENP-50 

I EN 768THENP-75 
44ii IFN B32THENP-100 

I96THENF •- 
4611 IFN>960THENP"! 

500 lFJ=MTHENP=p*2iS=S-P«PRINT.iO. "". "THIS BOMB" ." TOTAL SCORE" ;: PR1NT964 . 
»J=0sG0Tii 

>>6+PlPRlNT90 f "" . "THIS BOMB 
I ■•:::;■ ! ■ .THENPRINT3X, " 
PRINTiX.A*; 
RETURN 

RTHENR-Sl PR I NT .u4. (7 . " " ; 
PRINT9384, "SCORE TO BEAT 



""."THIS BOMB". "TOTAL SCORE" ;: PRINT364, " 

"TOTAL SCORE";: PR INT 364. " " .p. S; i G0T02OO 
"; : X=256 



LNPm"WHAT IS YOUR NAME ." ; X*! PRINTi)384, CHR* ■ 
:: : GAME OVER' : : : ";«l:" "|R| 

i. •*• ; :MI KTlIFIM EY«=*CHR* < 13) THENI 
N-310T0448STEP 1 iPRINTSN, "»"|lNEXTl IF IN) E Y«=CHR* < 1 3) THENU=0: RESllMt 1" 
5040 Fl r0382lPRINT3N, " " ; : NF X T : F0RN^510T0448STEP- 1 I PRINTiN. " " | iNEXTt IFINI 

IF- •♦ ( 1 Z i THE NU" i -. RESUME 1 

i INT.}*," VALLEY BOI-IBFR "•►««;: NEXT 
bOtO iRRINTaX,A*|iNEXTiPRINTSS4, ,< ": 

'I IHE OAMF IS TCI ROMP AWA < 1 Hf VI < NOI 

"iPRINT"THE MOUNTAIN."! PR I NT "EACH LAYER MAS DIFFERENT POINTS (GIVEN BELOW. 
NT"THE I...ME ENDS WHEN VOL) MISS COMPLETELY (THROUGH THE BOTTOMi." 

RINT|PRINT|PRINT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE. GOOD LUCt ; 

." 3 "||PRINT94 "llPRINTS "| IPRINT379B, " 75 "| 

L00"|lPRINT99 "| iPRINT9990, " 5O0"| 

It INI E\ *- " - 'HI N6< 



260 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 




tippkz 



PRO FOOTDALL FANSI 
INTRODUCING 

THE GOLD EDITION 

THE MOST SOPHISTICATED SYSTEM EVER DESIGNED 
FOR THE PREDICTION OF PRO FOOTBALL POINTSPREADS 



TRS-80 I & III 

IBM 



After four years of research, development, and testing. SDL is proud to present "The Gold Edition" A system that predicts pro football point 
spreads with a degree of accuracy that has never been obtainable until now. From weeks 6- 16 during the 198(1 and '81 seasons The Gold Edition 
has been a proven winner in all categories over the Las Vegas line: 



SEASON 



FAVORITES 



UPSETS 



TOTAL 



1981 SEASON: 
1980 SEASON: 
TWO YEAR AVG: 



HOME 

57% 
53% 

55% 



AWAY 

80% 
67% 

73% 



HOME 

63% 

70% 

66% 



AWAY 
70% 
66% 

68% 



HOME 

59% 

61% 

60% 



AWAY 

71% 
66% 

68% 



TOTAL GAMES 



154 
154 

308 



THE GOLD EDITION ALSO FEATURES. 

• Completely Menu Driven Screens 

• Easy to Use Commands 

• Accesses One or Two Disk Drives 

• Requires Only 10 15 Minutes to Update 

• Includes Two Seasons of Data 

• Can be Used Year After Year 

• Predicts Real or Hypothetical Games 

• Predicts Accurate Pointspreads 

• Predicts Accurate Over Under Scores 



Can Generate 20-35 Pages of Analysis Weekly 
Hardcopy Reports Include 

• Full Season Schedule 

• Team Performance Detail Analysis 

• Team Performance Summary Analysis 

• YTD Divisional Standings 

• Computer Prediction Analysis 

• Pointspread Differential Graphing 

• Over/Under Differential Graphing 



The Gold Edition provides the highest quality of information necessary to beat the Las Vegas Line — Prove it to yourself — Order Now 
Retail price includes The Gold Edition System Diskette. Data Diskette with two years of data, and over 50 pages of comprehensive documentation 
with padded leather binding $199 50 



See All Systems Design Lab Software at your local dealer or order from 




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CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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• PAYROLL A very flexible system that adapts to a 
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• DATA MANAGER A powerful generalized data 
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CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Only one thing really puzzles me about 
the new Basis computer. That is: when 
the German firm took the normal Apple 
II and added a Z-80 and CP/M and an 80- 
column display, and an RS-232 and a 
parallel I/O port and DOS 3.3 in ROM all 
for around $2000, why didn't they put it 
in a portable case like the Osborne? 

That paragraph represented a brave 
attempt to pretend that Sinclair's ZX 
Spectrum is not the biggest news in 
Europe since Clive launched the ZX81 
last year. It is. 

What the Spectrum is not, however, is 
the greatest machine Sinclair could have 
been expected to launch, even though he 
has promised the $100 floppy disk with it. 

The machine itself probably looks more 
impressive to an Englishman than to an 
American because of the context. Here, 
the British Broadcasting Corporation 
sponsored microcomputer has been get- 
ting all the attention. First because of its 
very attractive spec, and second, because 
of all the foul-ups in getting it into pro- 
duction and distribution. 

Sinclair feels that his ZX81 was the 
ideal micro for anybody who was planning 
a TV series on understanding computers. 
He felt that with a few tweaks and adjust- 
ments, that machine could have been 
turned into a colour display machine with 
nicer features, and for a lot less money, 
than the design the BBC picked. 

And he thinks that he's done it. 

For someone accustomed to machines 
like the Atari 400 and aware of 
Commodore's new Ultimax game 
machine, the Spectrum might seem al- 
most ordinary. In Europe, however, the 
Atari 400 has been priced at unreasonably 
high levels by distributors, even given the 
now honourable tradition of overpricing 
imported micros. And the Ultimax is not 
yet available. 

So Sinclair's claim that his £125 16K 
machine provides more colour display, 
better Basic and costs less than half the 
BBC micro's £300 plus, makes it attractive 
to many buyers. 



Guy Kewney 



It has its own faults. It is not quite the 
slowest machine on the market; there are 
few slower. Its colour display may be high 
resolution, but it isn't high definition— a 
good colour television is wasted on it. 
and a monitor would only be needed to 
eliminate what is known as "dot crawl" 
on the PAL encoding system used in much 
of Europe for colour TV broadcasting. 

As a games machine, it needs a paddle 
socket, and doesn't have one. Sinclair 
expects this to be simple enough to do, 
since he has provided two commands (IN 
and OUT) in the operating software to do 
the equivalent of PEEK and POKE to the 
external port. But simple or not, it isn't 
there, and will cost extra. 

Apparently, it has a BEEP command 
giving good sound and tone generation 
ability, but unless the machine is tested in 
total silence, few can hear it. And while 
its ability to store programs and data on 
audio tape may be worlds better than 
Sinclair's previous machine, the ZX81, 
all that really proves is how ropey the 
ZX81 was (is) at tape handling. 

No, as the thing stands, it is a threat to 
the Commodore VIC and apart from that, 
only to the ZX81. When it starts getting 
really interesting will be when Sinclair 
launches his Microdrive. 

(Editor's note: See the Fall 1982 
Creative Computing Buyer's Guide to 
Personal Computers, Peripherals and 
Electronic Games for a review of the 
Spectrum.) 

The Microdrive 

The Microdrive is still a matter for 
speculation only. Sinclair says it is a 100K 
diskette with true random access, on 
which it would be possible to run CP/M. 
That, however, doesn't prove a thing. It 
could be a tape loop. 

Sinclair is known to have been talking 
to the Hungarian firm which has 



announced a three-inch cartridge disk- 
ette, selling for around £60 in Britain. 

According to the distributors of the 
Hungarian drive, it was developed in 1974, 
and the Japanese microfloppy is based on 
that design. "The reason the Japanese 
design hasn't appeared in Europe, and 
the reason it has been held up so long, is 
that the Japanese have been trying to find 
a way around our patents." claimed the 
distributor. 

Sinclair's deal with the Hungarian firm 
fell through when they offered to supply 
a simplified version of the product for 
£20, say sources. Sinclair apparently 
wanted a £12 cost, and so went off to 
design his own. 

These sources say that the Sinclair 
Microdrive is not a diskette in the con- 
ventional sense. Instead, it uses a spiral 
tracking arm, which takes either 3.5 or 
seven seconds to traverse the diskette 
surface from start to finish, and reads 
serial data. 

A cursory look at the bit rate, capacity 
and other known parameters of the drive 
would appear to bear this theory out. 
Until Sinclair files his patents and launch- 
es the device, theory is all we have to go 
on, because he isn't saying. 

More Atomic Particles 

Back at Sinclair's successful rival, the 
company that actually did design the BBC 
micro, the Spectrum is to be emulated. 
Acorn has named all its machines after 
atomic particles: the first was the Atom, 
then the Proton (became the BBC micro) 
and now the Electron and the Gluon are 
on the way. 

Games players will be interested in the 
Gluon. It is a cut-down version of the 
classy BBC micro, in a cheap little box 
like Sinclair's Spectrum, and without a 
few of the more expensive BBC features. 
It will run most software that is sold for 
its big brothers, and will sell for the same 
price as the Spectrum. 

One thing it will have, however, is a 
fully "soft" keyboard with every key 



262 



October 1982 e Creative Computing 



programmable to generate whatever char- 
acter (or in some cases, string of charac- 
ters) the user desires. 

Whether this is all good news remains 
to be seen. I've had enormous fun playing 
with Chuck Peddle's machine, the Sirius/ 
Victor, where every key and every dis- 
played character is soft. One careless 
character sent to screen or keyboard 
configuration sections of memory, and 
the most entertaining screw-ups can be 
arranged — and you don't even need 
machine code programming experience 
to succeed! Try using the TYPE com- 
mand on a few files... 

The main thing about the BBC micro, 
however, is not the fact that the Spectrum 
and the Electron can be made to mimic 
its features at half the price, but the fact 
that it can be turned into the world's first 
32-bit microcomputer. 

Well, not yet. But sooner than you 
probably think. National Semiconductor 
has gone out and told the world that it 
has a family of new microprocessor chips 
called the 16000. and that the 16032 has 
now been selected by a handful of cus- 
tomers for their next generation 
machinery. 

From the perspective ofo anybody who 
doesn't know the BBC microcomputer, 
the concept is probably a yawn. For those 
who have seen the Tube on the BBC 
machine, it sounds like tomorrow's world 
today. 

The BBC micro has the ability to turn 
itself into a "slave" processor, handling 
disk, keyboard and display operations plus 
networking and anything else of that 
nature. Most of these facilities are already 
arranged in the operating software of the 
standard machine. 



The Torch Tube 

At the moment, the Tube is used by a 
company called Torch, which has plugged 
a Z-80 processor in as the master. Users 
speak of this as a very elegant and effi- 
cient design, since the BBC micro has a 
bewilderingly large choice of display 
modes plus very efficient disk and net- 
work handling abilities. 

With the National Semiconductor chip, 
however, the Tube allows the user of a 
32-bit microprocessor with a very sophis- 
ticated instruction set and a range of 
languages and operating software due out 
within 12 months, to start running pro- 
grams today, using the BBC display and 
disk routines. 

Acorn is so delighted with the success 
of this notion, that it has decided to 
extend it to Apple. Commodore and 
Radio Shack users. They, poor things, 
cannot use the ultra-high speed Tube for 
data and control operations; instead they 



use an ordinary RS-232 link. 

"But we are looking at ways of imple- 
menting the Tube on those micros. And 
if we can do it. we can offer American 
users a S3500 upgrade to their systems 
with Unix, 32-bit file structures. 256K of 
standard memory, and a hard disk." said 
Chris Curry, marketing boss of Acorn, 
recently. 

It may not wipe out anybody else, but 
it should get Acorn into the US within a 
year. 

One little irony to end on: the Osborne 
microcomputer may be heading for some- 
thing of a price scandal. It is still selling 
• quite well) at £1500 including local 



taxation. The difference between this and 
the American $1800 price hasn't really 
struck home yet. because people still don't 
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£1500. 

But bulk-buy deals are starting to be 
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the bigger orders (for 1500 Osborne I 
machines) make the standard retail price 
look rather different. And it is only three 
years since Adam Osborne himself stood 
up at a hobbyist conference in London. 
and told delegates they were fools to be 
conned by US exporters into paying 
inflated "import" costs on top of the US 
price. I agree with Adam. D 



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October 1982 e Creative Computing 



263 



The Graph Paper 



Part Four: End of The Beginning 



David Lubar 



Last month, we covered basic anima- 
tion and a bit of page flipping. Rounding 
out the topic this month, I will discuss 
collision detection and paddle control and 
other areas related to animation from 
Basic. Then we will take a look at some 
ways to alter the whole hi-res screen from 
Applesoft. 

This will be the last portion of the series 
to use Basic. Starting next month, we will 
consider machine language exclusively. 
It really isn't any harder— just different. 
Meanwhile, let's get on to those collisions. 

Crash, Pow 

In almost any game, objects interact, 
and the program must be able to deter- 
mine when and where these interactions 
occur. There are two methods with which 
I am familiar: coordinate checking and 
bit checking. 

Coordinate checking is rather straight- 
forward. You know the size of each object 
in your program, and you know its loca- 
tion. To see if one object hits another, 
you merely check whether their edges 
are within striking range. A simple 
example of this occurred in the animation 
program from last month. Each time the 
square was plotted, its X and Y locations 
were checked to see if it had "collided" 
with the border. 

For two moving objects, just subtract 
the X coordinate of one from the X 
coordinate of the other and take the 
absolute value. If this is less than half the 
total width of the two objects, they are 
sharing an X location. The same check is 
made for the Y coordinates. If two objects 
are sharing some portion of both X and 
Y. they are touching. 

Assume that one object has a width of 



10 and another has a width of N. If the 
difference between their X coordinates is 
less than 9 (one half the total width), then 
they overlap along the X axis. Unfor- 
tunately, while this method works well 
enough for squares, it fails to fully handle 
objects with irregular shapes. In this case, 
a bit check is required. 

When an object is plotted, you must 
check whether one of its pixels has been 
placed on a spot where there is already a 
set pixel. If so. it has collided with some- 
thing. If there is more than one possible 
object with which to collide, the program 
must make a coordinate check, but at 
least the existence of a collision has been 
verified by the bit check. 

While Applesoft has no specific com- 
mand for this, the ROM routines do 
contain a collision counter. This routine 
checks each pixel placed on the screen 
and increments a counter if there has 
been a collision. The counter is at location 
SEA (234 decimal), and it is updated after 
every DRAW or XDRAW. 

Any shape drawn at a fixed scale, color, 
and rotation will always return the same 
value when placed on a black back- 
ground. If the number changes, the shape 
has interacted with something. 

The collision counts for DRAW and 
XDRAW work, in slightly different man- 
ners, but each will be constant until there 
is a collision. 

For DRAW, the value is until there is 
a collision. For XDRAW, the value is 
equal to the number of pixels in the shape 
when it is drawn on a black background. 
Since the collision counter is changed 
whenever a shape is drawn, its value is 
only valid for the most recent DRAW or 
XDRAW. 

264 



If you have several objects to plot, the 
collision count should be checked, or 
saved for later checking, after each shape 
is drawn. When we start doing machine 
language animation, we will develop 
routines that perform collision checks. 

Under Control 

All games require player input, usually 
through the keyboard or with paddles. 
For paddle control, we will look at the 
general case of a ship moving at the 
bottom of the screen. The paddle returns 
a value between and 255 (though Apple 
paddles are notorious for dropping out 
below the high range). Your program can 
use this number to move objects in three 
ways: directional indication, absolute 
positioning, and delayed absolute posi- 
tioning. In each case, the value of the 
paddle determines what happens to the X 
coordinate of the player's ship. 

Directional indication breaks the 
paddle into three divisions. If the paddle 
is left (counterclockwise) of center, the 
ship moves to the left. If it is right of 
center, the ship moves right, and if it is in 
the central area, the ship stops. A subrou- 
tine for this method is shown in Listing I. 
It simply uses the paddle value to deter- 
mine the sign of DX. 

Absolute positioning is the simplest 
method. Here, the X location of the 
object is based directly on the paddle 
value. 

There are two limitations with this 
method. First, since the paddle range is 
only 0-255, the range of X locations is 
limited to 256 positions. This is no prob- 
lem if you put a border around the playing 
field. The other problem is that, in Basic, 
where the paddle isn't read that frequently 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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Graph Paper, continued... 

the object will appear to jump when the 
paddle position is changed by a large 
amount. 

This brings us to the third method. In 
delayed absolute positioning, the object 
moves toward the absolute position indi- 
cated by the paddle, but the movement is 
in small, fixed increments. For instance, 
suppose that the X location of the ship is 
45. If the next paddle reading is 100. the 
absolute method would place the ship 
there. The delayed method would place 
it at 46, then 47. and so on until it reached 
100. Many games use this method, which 
gives the player a good deal of control. 
See Listing 2 for an example. 

The delayed and directional methods 
can be modified by adding acceleration. 
In this case, the object moves slowly at 
first, then moves in greater steps as it 
continues in any direction. Accelerating 
control is good for games where a player 
might have to make fine adjustments in 
his position, but might also want to get 
across the screen quickly. 

A joystick is just two paddles. If you 
want to move an object in both horizontal 
and vertical directions, use a joystick and 
treat the X and Y coordinates separately. 

The keyboard is used in the directional 
manner. Press one key to move left, 
another to move right, and a third to 
stop. An alternative is to make each 
keypress produce a small movement. This 
requires repeated presses on the part of 
the player, but also gives a feeling of 
control. The method used depends on 
the nature of the game. 

The best way to read the keyboard is 
by directly PEEKing location -16384. If 
the value there is greater than 127, a key 
has been pressed. The value returned by 
the PEEK is the ASCII value of the letter. 
The quickest way to find the ASCII value 
of a letter is to ask the Apple with PRINT 
ASC ("X"), where X stands for the letter 
in question. This is much faster than using 
a chart. 



Listing 2. 



Listing 



to P ■ PDL 

15 REM CONVERT PADDLE VALUE TO 

RANGE FROM - 1 1 ! 

16 REM WHOLE FUNCTION CAN BE DO 

Mr ON ONE LINE BY REPLACING 
P WIIH PDL(O) IN LINE 20 
20 DX = DX ♦ INI <F; / 86) - 1 



Once the keyboard has been read and 
a value greater than 127 found, the key- 
board should be cleared with a POKE 
-16368,0. While the choice of which keys 
to use is up to you, most games use either 
I. J. K, and M or A, Z, left arrow and 
right arrow for movement, with the space- 
bar being used for stopping motion. Most 
high quality games also allow the user to 
redefine these keys. 

Gun Control 

Many readers wanted to know how to 
program a missile being shot from an 
object. This month's winning question 
comes from Michael P. Mariotti, who 
asks, "How do you fire from one or more 
points on an object that you are control- 
ling, using as your weapons dots, lines, 
etc., and hit an object that is also 
moving?" 

There are two parts to doing this: 
getting the missile started at the proper 
location, and making it move in the right 
direction. The starting point of the missile 
is based on the location of the ship firing 
the missile and the size of the ship. One 
way to simplify matters is to define the 
ship with the nose as the starting point. 
That way, the coordinates used to DRAW 
or XDRAW the ship will be the same as 
those used for the starting point of the 
missile. If this is not done, you will have 
to determine how much to add or subtract 
from the coordinates of the ship to find 
the starting point of the missile. 




..can you call back'.'.. .he juM dropped out... 



266 



1 REM X IS DBJI ION, DX 

EN DX 1 

IHLN DX 1 



Just count the distance from the start 
of the shape to the firing point, and add 
the proper offset to each variable. For 
instance, if a ship has been defined start- 
ing in the upper left corner, and the nose 
of the ship is four pixels to the left and 
two down from the corner, the X location 
of the missile would be four greater than 
that of the ship, and the Y location would 
be two greater. 

A missile is moved just like anything 
else. It needs a change in X and a change 
in Y. Using standard Apple screen coor- 
dinates if DX is and DY is -1. the 
missile will move diagonally toward the 
lower right corner. To speed up the 
missile, use values greater than 1. 

To create a line rather than a dot. you 
can use HPLOT to start the line, then 
move it by adding a dot to the front while 
taking one away from the end. (This is an 
important concept. If you are moving 
something that is homogeneous, such as a 
line, there is no need to move the whole 
thing. Just lop off one end and add to the 
other.) 

The one problem with using integers 
for DX and DY is that it gives a very 
limited number of angles at which the 
bullet can travel. That brings us to the 
topic of fractional values. 

While you can't plot an X location of 
23.5, you can add .5 to an X value. This 
will produce a change of 1 every second 
time the missile is moved. A simple 
program to demonstrate fractional values 
for DX and DY is given in Listing 3. This 
concept is used extensively in machine 
language animation. 

A quick way to use fractional values in 
a Basic program is to put them in an 
array. Then use the rotation of the ship as 
an index into the array. For example, if 
the ROT of the ship is 16. you would use 
DX=DX<16). the value of which has to 
be calculated by you (tedious but neces- 
sary). 

Speaking of rotation, many people 
wanted to know whether there is any way 
to prevent the gross distortion produced 
by rotating a shape. The only way is to 
use several shapes, defining one shape for 
each rotational view of the object. Shapes 
can be reused when the rotation is 180 
degrees, but even a 90 degree rotation 
will produce a slight distortion since the 
width of a pixel is approximately 1.5 times 
its height. 

All this talk of shapes has brought about 
the urge to preach. Bear with me for a 
moment. Shape tables are great for play- 
ing around and for doing light-weight 

October 1982 e Creative Computing 



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Graph Paper, continued. 

Listing 3. 

OF 



" 



1 REM DEMONSTRATION 

AL DX AND DY 

2 REM TRY DIFFERENT VALUES SUCH 

AS . 1, -2.5. ETC. 

3 REM ONCE AGAIN, THIS IS JUST 

A FRAMEWORK. FEATURES SUCH A 
S ERROR TRAPPING HAVE BEEN L 
EFT OUT. 

lO HGR 

20 HCOLOR- 3 

30 X - 140t Y = 80 

40 HPLOT X.Y 

50 HOME : VTAB 21 

60 INPUT "ENTER DX VALUE " ! A* 

70 DX = VAL (A*) 

SO INPUT "ENTER DY VALUE " : A» 

90 DY -- VAL (A*) 

IOO HCOLOR- O 

REM TO SEE A FULL LINE INST 
EAD OF A MOVING DOT. TAKE OU 
T LINE 110 



110 

120 

140 
ISO 
155 



210 



HPLOT 

X =• X < 

IF X < 

OR Y 



X.Y 
DX: Y 
O OR 

> 159 



= Y + DY 
K 279 OR 
THEN 200 



Y < O 



HCOLDI- 
HPLOT X.Y 

FOR I ■ 1 TO 20s NEXT I: 
DELAY TO LEAVE DOT ON 
EN BETWEEN ERASURES 
GOTO 100 
PRINT "AGAIN ": 
GET A* 
IF A* * "Y" THEN 



REM 
SCRE 



graphics. The topic is" worth covering, 
and we will see a -bit more of it next 
month when delving into Applesoft ROM 
routines. But Applesoft shape tables are 
nearly useless when it comes to doing 
games with fast animation. They are very 
slow and very limited. They belong to the 
past. We will be leaving them behind soon 
and seeing how to make the Apple do 
things your way. We will be creating our 
own graphics subroutines. And once you 
get a taste of that, there is no turning 
back. You will be hooked, 1 promise. 

Screening Room 

Besides using standard graphics com- 
mands, you can manipulate the screen 
with POKEs. Listing 4 changes the hi bits 
of all the bytes in the hi-res screen. It is a 
bit slow, but it should give you an idea of 
what can be done. Remember, each byte 
on the screen consists of seven bits that 
are used for plotting, and one that deter- 
mines color. 

Another interesting trick is to turn all 
on bits off and vice versa. One way to do 
this is shown in Listing 5. There is 



Listing 5. 



20 
30 
40 
50 

55 



IF 
D 



OLD 



D THEN OLD « OLD - 



60 D 



D / 2« IF D > "1 THEN 50 



70 
BO 



POKE I, GNU 
NEXT I 



Listing 4. 



10 


POKE 49232,0: POKE 49236,0: POKE 




49239,0: REM TURN ON HI-RES 




SCREEN 


20 


FOR I * B192 TO 163B3 


30 


BYTE = PEEK <I> 


40 


IF BYTE < 128 THEN POKE I . BY 




TE ♦ 128 


SO 


IF BYTE > 127 THEN POKE I . BY 




TE - 128 


60 


NEXT I 



undoubtedly a faster algorithm. See if you 
can find one. This type of manipulation 
can't help being slow, but it does serve as 
good introduction to techniques that will 
be used later in machine language. 

Later on, we will redo programs 4 and 
5 in machine language as an exercise in 
translation. For now, see what other 
effects you can accomplish by POKEing 
to the hi-res screen. 

Odds and Ends 

The sine wave program mentioned a 
few months ago is beginning to haunt me. 
I promised a version with moving rungs, 
and will produce it this month, but I must 
explain the down side of this whole affair. 

As I mentioned, the programs were 
produced during an evening of hacking 
with a fellow programmer, and the results 
were interesting. Unfortunately, the disk 
containing the programs has eluded dis- 
covery for the last month or so (suspicion 
runs high that is was left in a cabin in 
Lake Tahoe by the aforementioned fellow 
programmer). Anyhow, I re-created one 
of the programs, but re-creations just 
don't ever seem to equal the original. 

Listing 6 is a program that does move 
the rungs of the sine wave. The program 
was made faster than the one listed 
several months ago by doing most of the 
calculation beforehand. While this pro- 
duces a wait before the first image 
appears, it reduces the time required from 
then on. If the. disk turns up, I will list 
some of the niftier variations in a future 
article. The lesson is obvious; either make 
backups of everything or don't let your 
hacking partner go to Tahoe. 

Well, that's a wrapup for this month. 
Next time, well dive into ROM routines 
and begin the trek away from Basic. □ 

Listing 6. 



POKE 49232,0: POKE 49236,Oj POKE 
49239.0: REM TURN ON HI-RES 
SCREEN 
FOR I - 8192 TO 16383 
D - 128: GNU - O 
OLD = PEEK (I) 
IF OLD < D THEN GNU - GNU + D 



10 
15 
20 
30 

3S 
36 
37 
46 



SO 
60 



65 



HGR 

DIM Y - /. (20O) 
FOR I - - 10 TO 10 
YXUOO + (I t 10) ) = 
20 
NEXT I 
Q - 5:T - 1 
FOR I - T TO 190 
HCOLOR- O: HPLOT 
1) ♦ 100 TO I + 
♦ 100: HCOLOR= 
■/. <I> + 100 TO I 
IOO 



STEP 
SIN 



. 1 

(I) 



STEP 5 
I - 1,YX(I - 
19.Y7. (I - 1) 
3: HPLOT I,Y 
+ 20, Y% (I) ♦ 



NEXT 
O - Q 

5 
T - T 



I 



U IF O 



♦ 1: IF T 



lO THEN Q 



6 THEN T 



70 GOTO 37 



268 



October 1982 6 Creative Computing 






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imsges...ibm images... ibm m 



1 was fortunate enough to attend the 
National Computer Conference (NCC) 
this year in Houston, as I did last \ear in 
Chicago. Last year I was stunned at the 
number of Z80- or 8085-based. CP M 
compatible computer systems displayed. 
It just seemed as though everybody had 
one. 

This year was different. This year, every- 
body seemed to have a 16-bit machine of 
some description. What really surprised 
me was that most of these systems were 
built around the 8088 or 8086 CPU. the 
same one used in the IBM Personal Com- 
puter. Not only that, but of those that did 
have the 8088 8086. most offered 
MS-DOS (read IBM DOS) as the operat- 
ing environment. It looks like the IBM PC 
has really paved the way. 

There were three machines that I found 
particularly interesting. One is special, and 
deserves a special mention. It is the Com- 
pass Computer, from Grid Systems. It is a 
9-pound portable computer that folds into 
a very small package. A primary si/c 
advantage comes from the flat screen 
which displays a full screen of text or 
graphics with a 240 x 320 resolution. None- 
theless, it packs a full-size keyboard. 2S6K 
of main memory. 256K of bubble memory, 
integral modems and other communica- 
tions adapters, the 8086 processor, and 
the 8087 numerics processor. There were 
some spectacular (for their speed) graphics 
demonstration programs running on the 
machine. 

The Compass does not have any mass 
storage other than the bubble, as it is 
intended as a remote terminal and pro- 



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Photo I. The Wang Professional Computer. 



cessor device which connects with central 
processing systems. All this for only $8 1 SO. 
I covet one. Just think. I could talk to my 
IBM Personal from remote locations .... 

The other two systems that impressed 
me were the Digital Equipment Corpora- 
tion (DEC) Personal Computers and the 
Wang Professional Computer. The Wang 
really caught my eye. 

What Wang announced is a small system 
based on the 8086 with a socket for the 
8087. The basic system includes 128K of 
memory, a monochrome display, and one 
320K floppy disk drive. The price of this 
system is $3395. A second floppy is $400. 
The 8086 runs faster than the 8088 in the 
IBM PC— 8MH/ vs. 5. In addition. Wang 
announced a 5 megabyte. 5-14" Win- 
chester hard disk for $2000! 

The system comes with MS-DOS and a 
user-friendly "shell" which Wang 
designed. (A shell is a program that "sur- 
rounds" the operating system and provides 



an interface to it. Wang's is menu-driven.) 
So. what we have here is a system which 
is largely compatible with the I BM PC. but 
about $400 lower in price, and faster to 
boot. It is also (and I hate to admit this as 
I stare directly into my machine) very 
attractively styled more so than the 

IBM. The price for the hard disk is incred- 
ibly aggressive, and is sure to set the pace 
for hard disk pricing from the big com- 
panies. 

Wang is providing two software pack- 
ages initially. The first is word processing 
(what a surprise) which is compatible with 
other Wang WP systems. The second is the 
Multiplan spreadsheet program from 
Microsoft. Both packages are priced at 
$500. 

The DEC systems simply cannot be 
ignored because of the company, although 
my reaction to them is somewhat mixed. 
DEC actually offered three systems, and 
not just models, but different families of 



270 



October 1982 * Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IBM Images, continued. 




I'hoio 2. The DEC Rainbow loo Personal Computer. (The 
system anil h not visible, t 



systems. I he Professional MM scries is 
based on the 1*1)1'- 1 1 instruction set. and I 
think it is. therefore, most interesting to 
DEC users as a machine at the low end 

I he Dec Mate II is primarily a word 
processing system, and is based on the 
PDP-8 instruction set. (Incredible. DEC 
Hist seems to keep selling PDP-8V) The 
Rainbow KM) is the "personal" computer 
offering, and is very interesting. 

I he Rainbow KM) comes with two pro- 
cessors, the X0X5 and the XOXX. A special 
attraction of the machine is the operating 
system, dubbed CI' M-80 86. which is 
simply CI' M-XO and CP M-86 rolled 
into one. DEC has put the system together 
so that the sol I ware can tell which CPU to 
use with a feature they call "soltscnse." 
which detects which CPU the program 
requires. Quietly, in the line print. DIC 
mentions that MS-DOS is supported. The 
price of the Rainbow KM) is S.U95. (For an 
in-depth evaluation ol the Rainbow KM). 
see the November 19X2 issue ol Creative 
Computing.) 

DIC produced a book called Guide In 
Personal Computing and handed out 
copies at the NCC. Ol course, it's really a 
guide to DEC personal computing, but it 
is very well done. I he book includes a 
section that explains how things like 
printers and graphics displays work 
topics that are especially helpful lor the 
no\ ice. 

I here were some interesting announce- 
ments at Comdex Spring in Atlantic City 
which I learned about just in time for the 
column. I he first was that Multi-Plan, a 
powerlul spreadsheet program and the 
first ol the "Multi- 1 ool" series from 
Microsoft, is now available to end-users. 
Previously the package had only been sold 
to OEMs. However, while a host ol com- 
puter systems are supported, there is no 
indication that the tool is available to 



owners of the IBM Personal Computer! 

Multi-Plan is available lor computers 
based on the XOXX X0X6 and running 
MS-DOS. but not the PC? Well, here's 
what I think this means. Whenever IBM 
enters into negotiations with a firm about 
anything, the firm must agree not to dis- 
cuss the discussions with anybody else I 
consider it very likely that IBM will 
announce (he produce soon (it not by the 
time you read this). I asked IBM directly, 
and got the standard, but polite, refusal 
to speculate. 

Interesting Comdex announcement ~*2 is 
the Hyperion Portable computer from 
Dynalogic, a Canadian company. I he 
standard system, weighing 20 pounds and 
including a full keyboard, two .120K 
diskette drives, a 7" CRT. the XOXX pro- 
cessor, and 256K of RAM costs $4995. 
What is really interesting about this 
machine is the company's claim ol lull 
IBM PI' software compatibility. 

I he operating system is MS-DOS. the 
Basic is Microsoft Basic, the processor 
runs at 4.77 MM/ (same as the PC), the 
keyboard layout includes all the same keys 
in a slightly different layout: in short, a 
tiny IBM PC. Die price is even competitive 
with the IBM. if you factor in reasonably 
priced memory and communications 
adapters. I his machine will be very 
interesting to owners ol multiple IBM 
units, such as Fortune l(M)() companies, 
who have a need lor portable computers 
as well. 

Why have I spent so much time in an 
IBM column talking about other com- 
puters'.' Because I'm about to indulge, once 
again, in 

Some Speculation 

Here we sit. a little less than a year after 
the introduction of the IBM PC(that is. at 
the time of writing), with a market Hooded 



with competition lor the IBM. I he Wang 
in particular. I think, is in a very good 
position. By many comparisons, the IBM 
has dulled. 

The Wang is aggressively priced. HI ( 
oilers the dual-processor as a standard 
feature. And a host ol other companies, 
including Commodore. Vector Graphic, 
North Star. Zenith (Heath). Sony, and 
others less well-known, have introduced 
systems based on the XOXX or X0X6 pro- 
cessor and supporting MS-DOS. lome.it 
all means just one thing: it is time lor 
IBM to strike. 

First prediction: an IBM hard disk. 5 
megabytes, in the last quarter ol this year. 
I his will probablv be the point at which 
IBM DOS (MS-DOS) Version 2.0 will he 
announced, and that alone represents an 
important step forward. (More on 
MS-DOS 2.0 in subsequent columns, but 
rumor has it that Microsoft has already 
delivered Version 2.0 to IBM.) 

I hope (and expect) that the disk will be 
aggressively priced. I would like to see 
some kind ol innovation from IBM here. 
like a big bubble memory or large 
quantities ol RAM at disk prices, but I 
guess it will just be a Winchester 

Second prediction: an IBM letter- 
quality printer before the end ol the year 
I his is certainly an easy task for IBM: the) 
simply have to give up the notion that the 
DisplayW riter and the Data Master can be 
protected. What I would also like to see. 
but don't think will happen, is a dual-mode 
matrix printer, one capable ol higher 
speeds (2(M) cps) for normal printing but 
very high quality printing at slower speeds 
(40 cps). 

I hud prediction: Multi-Plan from IBM 
before the end ol the year. 

Fourth prediction: .1270 and 27X0 .'7X0 
emulation hardware and software from 
IBM. by late this year or early next. I just 
don't sec how IBM can go on lor long with- 
out having this stuff, because at least hall 
the Personal Computers sold are going 
into IBM National Accounts, those 
serviced by the Data Processing Division 
(or whatever it is currently called). 

With that many systems going into com- 
panies with installed mainframes, third 
parties will provide this product il IBM 
docs not. and I don't think IBM wants to 
appear foolish by not supporting its own 
big systems, especially when these func- 
tions can be touted as "Office Automation" 
capabilities. 

Final prediction: another model ol the 
PC. I he two possibilities are a system 
selling for under SI000 (maybe even $500!) 
and oriented to the consumer market, or a 
repackaged version, styled and configured 
to compete more effective!) with the likes 
ol Wang and DIC in the $4000* market 
segment. Since IBM has slated their inten- 
tion to address the business market first 



272 



October 1982 c Creative Computing 



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BBI 



IBM Images, continued... 

and the consumer market last, I think the 
repackaged system is likely by early in 
1983. Somewhere in this scenario, 1 predict 
that the 8087 Numerics Processor and the 
big brother of the 8088, the 8086 CPU, will 
get plugged in. 

Well, I went pretty far off the deep end 
that time. Please, don't keep score! 

A Graphics Dump Program 

I know what you are thinking. You are 
saying "Sure. Will. Just like you've been 
promising since who knows when." Yeah. 
But I finally delivered. 

Listing I is my program to dump a 
medium resolution graphics image to the 
IBM 80 cps printer with Graftrax-80 or 
Graftrax-Plus installed, or a similarly 
equipped Epson MX-80 or MX- 1 00. The 
program produces a horizontal image on 
the paper and will produce a printed image 
of either black and white or color displays. 

The technique used by the program is 
simple. After creating a graphic display, 
the program uses the Basic function 
POINT to read the setting of each of the 
64.000 dots that make up the medium 
resolution image. These settings are saved 
in the array LINES for later printing. They 
must be saved because the printer prints 
eight rows of dots at a time, and my pro- 
gram collects information one row at a 
time. I could have written the program to 
collect eight points at a time and send that 
value to the printer, but the technique of 
saving the data is more conducive to other 
orientations of the picture, which I will dis- 
cuss in a minute. 

The LINES array is organized as 25 lines 
of 320 elements. When the collection of 
data is complete, each element of the array 
contains the setting of eight dots taken 
from the eight vertical positions present in 
each column of each row. This data repre- 
sentation also happens to be just what the 
printer needs to produce the horizontal 
picture. It is, thus, a simple matter to place 
the printer